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A CENTURY AND A HALF . . . 1 752-1902 

From the Original German and English Manuscripts and Records 
in the Wachovia Archives^ Salem^ North Carolina 





Copyright, 1902, 


PtfBLisHED March, 1902. 

NortoDoU 3|res9 

J. S. Gushing & Co. — Berwick & Smith 

Norwood Masa. U.S.A. 


0lice aHolle Cleiuell 





This history is based chiefly on the original manuscripts 
and records of the Wachovia Archives, deposited in the 
building of the Historical Society, Salem, North Carolina. 
The manuscripts from 1752 to 1854 were written in the 
German language, and from 1855 to the present time in 
the English language. There is an unbroken file from 
the first year, and the value of these documents as a part 
of the general history of North Carolina and the special 
history of the Moravian Church in Wachovia cannot be 

The chapters which follow do not attempt to give a full 
resume of the contents of these valuable papers. The 
future student of the history of Wachovia will find matter 
to fill a number of volumes ; biography, religion, educa- 
tion, adventure, finances, industries, are all treated in the 
Archive records, and we trust that this book may act as 
an influence to stimulate further research into the story 
of Wachovia, which is so rich in historical lore, but 
which has thus far not been given its proper place in the 
literature of the State and Church. 

The task of examining these records was beset with 
many difficulties. In fact, the writer could not have 
accomphshed the work of translation had it not been for 
the interested, able, and tireless assistance of Mrs. Jose- 



phine Wurreschke, who has during the past four or five 
years given much time and effort to deciphering the 
papers, yellow with age and often in broken fragments. 
Mrs. Wurreschke's labour was not only that of a scholar 
and expert, but she was also influenced by the motive 
which comes from the good which she felt she was doing 
for the church. 

Additional sources of information are the following : — 

"Moravians in North Carolina." Reichel. 1857. 

" Forsyth County." Fries. 1898. 

" History of the Moravian Church." Hamilton. 1900. 

From Mr. James T. Leinback, Treasurer of the Wach- 
ovia Land Office, were received various documents and 
maps. Articles and tables have been furnished by Bishop 
Rondthaler, Miss Emma Lehman, Miss Adelaide Fries, 
Miss L. C. Shaffner, Mr. C. B. Pfohl. Valuable assist- 
ance in connection with the preparation and publication 
of the work has been given by Mr. H. E. Fries, Dr. H. T. 
Bahnson, Mr. W. S. Pfohl, Dr. J. F. Shaffner, Sr., Mr. J. 
W. Fries, Mr. Walter H. Page, and other friends, and 
their interest is thankfully acknowledged. 

This book has been written with the hope that church 
and community may be benefited by a study of our early 
and more recent history, and that it may in an humble 
way be instrumental in promoting the cause of Christ. 

J. H. C. 

Winston-Salem, N.C, 1902. 




Causes which led to the Founding of the Moravian 

Church in North Carolina i 

Spangenberg's Exploration and Surveying Tour . . 4 


Journey of the First Inhabitants of Wachovia from 

Pennsylvania to North Carolina 13 

The First Year in Wachovia 20 


Indian Troubles threaten Wachovia, and the Bethabara 

Fort erected 32 

Wachovia during the French and Indian War . . 44 

The Founding of Bethania and a Time of Sorrow . . 53 

Between the Indian War and the American Revolution 72 




Salem founded 84 


Tryon, the Royal Governor, makes Two Memorable 

Visits to Wachovia 95 

Wachovia during the Revolution 121 

Friend and Foe 125 

With the Legislature . . • 133 

"In the very Theatre of the Waji" 161 

Provincial Affairs 172 

The Close of the Century 176 

Salem Church built 186 

Salem Female Academy 191 

Half a Century iq8 




Mission Work among the Cherokee Indians . . . 200 

Home Mission Work 204 

Winston founded 209 

Transition Period 216 

Salem Female Academy after Fifty Years . . . 220 

The Time of the Civil War 235 

The Decade following the Civil War .... 256 

A New Era 259 

History of the Water Supply and Fire Protection . 262 

Growth of the Twin City 274 




Sunday-school Activity 278 

Enlarged Church Work 283 

Two Centennials 290 

The Moravian Church in Wachovia as it is To-day . 296 


The Doctrinal Position of the Moravian Church . . 301 

Historical Sketch of the Moravian Church . . . 308 

Biographical Sketch of the Principals of the Salem 

Female Academy 317 

Lists and Statistics 336 


Salem Church Frontispiece 


Augustus Gottlieb Spangenberg .... Facing 4 

Map of Wachovia 11 

The First Buildings in Wachovia 19 

HoRTUs Medicus 22 

Map of Bethabara and Plan of Fort .... 39 

Frederick William de Marshall . . . Facing 86 

Congregation House, Salem, 1771 . . . Facing 90 

Proposed Plan for Salem 94 

Salem Graveyard Facing 120 

Cedar Avenue, Salem Facing 158 

Bethabara Church, 1788 Facing 180 

First Building of Salem Female Academy, 1805 Facing 196 

Evolution of Winston and Salem Corporations. Map . 210 

First Forsyth County Court-house, Winston . . .212 

Second Forsyth County Court-house, Winston Facing 214 

In the Park, Salem Academy and College . Facing 218 

Main Hall 221 

The Dell 223 

A Favourite Retreat 225 

The Spring 227 

On the Hillside 229 

A Peaceful Spot 230 




A Graduate .... 
A Corner in Salem Square . 
George Frederick Bahnson . 
Robert William de Schweinitz 
Emil Adolphus de Schweinitz 
Edward Rondthaler 
Salem Academy and College 


• 234 

Facing 238 

Facing 250 

Facing 260 

Facitig 284 

Facing 294 




When the Moravians came to America they were in- 
fluenced by two motives. The one was to preach the 
gospel to the inhabitants of Pennsylvania and other 
colonies, somewhat in the same manner that the Diaspora 
work was and is now carried on in Europe. The Diaspora 
work is spiritual work done within the State Church, but 
without causing a separation from the State Church. 
Tens of thousands of members of the Lutheran Church 
in Germany are ministered to in this way by Moravian 
pastors. A century and a half ago, when the Moravians 
came to America, the condition of affairs was pitiful. The 
various little sects were without pastoral oversight, and 
what was worse, were engaged in bitter struggles with 
each other. The first object of the Moravians was to 
preach the pure gospel of love to these neglected and con- 
tentious inhabitants, and if possible to introduce friendship 
and harmony into their midst. 

The second object was missionary work among the 

Neither of these objects was fully realized, but the 

^ For a brief historical sketch of the Unitas Fratrum or Moravian Church, 
and also its doctrine, see Part II. 


second, viz. mission work among the Indians, was actively 
prosecuted both during and after the Indian War. 

A secondary result of the work in the northern portion 
of the American colonies was the founding of a number 
of towns, such as Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Lititz, in 
Pennsylvania, as distinctive Moravian towns, and these 
grew and flourished, becoming centres in the further 
history of the Moravian Church in America. 

In the meantime certain causes were at work in the 
Moravian Church in Europe, which tended to bring about 
the purchase of the large tract of land in North Carolina, 
later known as "Wachovia." The foreign mission work 
was growing in importance and called for an outlay of 
money far beyond the ability of the church to provide, 
without the aid of friends. Some of their undertakings 
were not successful, and this occasioned great loss. Then, 
too, as a result of persecution, misfortune fell to their lot, 
and notwithstanding liberal gifts on the part of members 
and friends, the financial troubles about the middle of the 
eighteenth century were very great. 

A business enterprise which is temporarily embarrassed 
is sometimes rescued by placing into the business more 
capital. So it was deemed advisable to make an effort 
to enter upon new and enlarged work in the mission 
fields, and begin a settlement in some section, later to be 
selected, which by its size and magnitude would strengthen 
the church, and restore full confidence in the Moravians. 

This was at a time when noblemen had been given 
large grants of land in America. These noblemen desired 
worthy settlers for their possessions. It was hoped that 
mines would be discovered, the land cultivated, and towns 
and cities built. The Moravians were well known for 
their thrift and industry, and Lord Granville made them 


a liberal offer in connection with his North Carolina 
estates. This offer was carefully considered and later 

The general plan of the authorities was to secure a tract 
of land sufficient in size to permit the building of a cen- 
tral town in which to locate the administration offices, 
where trades and industries could be established, educa- 
tional institutions founded, and which would be a centre 
for conducting missionary work. Furthermore, it was the 
original plan of the church authorities, long before the 
selection of the Wachovia tract, to sell the land round 
about the central town to members of the church for 
farming purposes. Thus the new colony would differ 
from other Moravian settlements, because they would not 
only control the town, but also the surrounding neighbour- 
hood for a distance of five to ten miles. 

Another cause which led to the founding of the Mora- 
vian Church in North Carolina was the desire for reli- 
gious liberty. This feature of the pilgrims to Carolina 
has not been emphasized in the same manner as in the 
case of the pilgrims to New England. A careful study 
of the situation in Europe shows that during the pre- 
ceding twenty-five years Bohemia and Moravia had wit- 
nessed persecutions in the church even unto the death. 
In Germany bitter and hostile decisions were made by 
narrow-minded officials, and a good and noble man like 
Count Zinzendorf was heartlessly banished from his home 
and estates. Leases and contracts were cancelled on 
some technicality and caused heavy financial losses. 
From all these things the Moravians turned and said in 
effect, " Let us seek an estate where we can worship God 
without restraint, and where we will be able to use our 
lives and our means to promote his glory." 

spangenberg's exploration and surveying tour 

Receiving the grant of land from Lord Granville did 
not remove all the difficulties in connection with the 
founding of the proposed Moravian settlement. Little 
was known of North Carolina by the average inhabitant 
of Europe. The very terms of the boundary description 
impress us with the vague idea they had of their posses- 
sions in America. After seven of the eight Proprietors 
who owned the American soil from the Virginia line to a 
point in Florida had relinquished to the crown their 
rights, Edward, Earl of Clarendon (Lord Granville), re- 
tained his portion. This territory of Lord Granville 
extended from the Virginia line to a point about seventy 
miles south, and according to the terms of the deed, from 
the Atlantic Ocean on the east to the Pacific Ocean on 
the west, or, as the Spangenberg papers describe it, " to the 
South sea." Thus, when the Moravian explorers began 
their journey, they had a strip of land seventy miles wide 
and three thousand miles long from which to select their 

A conference was held November 29, 175 1, in Lindsay 
House, London, the seat of the government of the Moravian 
Church at that time, and it was decided to accept Lord 
Granville's offer. So much depended upon the choice of 
the proper location that the very best men were sent to 
North Carolina to survey the one hundred thousand acres 
of land. Among them was Bishop Spangenberg, a learned 


Augustus Gottlieb Spa.ngenberg 


man, and possessed of an unusual degree of practical 
knowledge. He, with his companions, made the journey, 
and he described it in what are commonly known as " The 
Spangenberg Papers." These are in the possession of the 
Wachovia Land Office, and have been in part translated 
from the German and published in the '* Colonial Records of 
North Carohna," Vol. V, pp. i to 14. The first twelve papers 
describe the journey from place to place, and from camp 
to camp in western Carolina, till at last Wachovia itself 
is discovered and surveyed. Papers 13 to 23, inclusive, 
contained the maps, but these have unfortunately been 
lost. Possibly they were sent to Edenton, and not re- 
turned, or possibly they are in some archive house in 
some other portion of the Unity. Papers 24 to 35, 
inclusive, give information in regard to the people, the 
climate, the rivers, soil, and fruits. There is also a care- 
fully written paper describing the political status, how 
taxes are collected, laws made, and officials elected. The 
Spangenberg papers are valuable documents. The jour- 
ney from Edenton to the far western portion was difficult. 
It is not possible to definitely locate their various camps, 
but it is possible to follow them with sufficient certainty to 
make the general route clear. 

Having left Edenton in the northeastern section of the 
colony, the surveying party made its way in a south- 
westerly direction to the Catawba River. The survey 
began in the general neighbourhood of Hickory or Mor- 
ganton. Thence westward for some distance they jour- 
neyed. Next they proceeded northward and travelled 
over mountains and through untrodden wilderness. They 
then changed their course and with great difficulty made 
their way in a southeasterly direction till they came to 
Moravian Falls, near the present site of Wilkesboro. 


Following the course of the river, they were later informed 
of a very desirable tract of land on Muddy Creek, several 
miles from the river, and this they visited, surveyed, and 
later purchased. 

The journey was fraught with so much that was thrill- 
ing and hazardous that it would well form the basis of a 
story of adventure and travel. 

On the 25th of August, 1752, a party of five men left 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, on their way to North CaroUna. 
The following day one more joined them, and on August 
29 they left Philadelphia. The names were Bishop Spang- 
enberg, Timothy Horsefield, Joseph Miller, Herman 
Loesch, John Merk, and Henry Antes. The journey 
from Philadelphia to North Carolina occupied thirteen 
days and was made in part by land and in part by water. 
September 10 they arrived at Edenton, where they were 
hospitably entertained by the Hon. Francis Corbin, the 
agent of Lord Granville. They remained in Edenton a 
week or more, and better would it have been for them if 
they had made the time less. Their systems were filled 
with malarial poisons, which prostrated all but two of 
their party of six. Horsefield's condition caused Miller 
to insist on the necessity of his remaining at the home of 
one Captain Sennet, until he could regain sufficient 
strength to join the party. Spangenberg was so ill with 
continuous fever that he fainted while on his horse, and 
often on account of weakness had to be assisted to mount 
and dismount. When urged by his brethren to remain till 
he was really able to go forward, he replied, " The Lord 
will give me the necessary health and strength. I will 
have to pass through much weakness, you will have to 
exercise much patience, but the Lord will help me 
through." With this spirit Spangenberg, Antes, Loesch, 


and Merk continued their westward journey, while Horse- 
field and Miller remained. These two did not again join 
the others, but later returned to Pennsylvania. 

When the party arrived at the Catawba River it con- 
sisted of the four already named, together with Mr. 
Churton, the surveyer, and two men who were acquainted 
with life in the forest, and who could act in the double 
capacity of carrying the surveyor's chain and supplying 
the party with game. As we have already stated, they 
began surveying in the general neighbourhood of Hickory 
and Morganton. The first tract consisted of one thousand 
acres, to which it was proposed to give the name "Gruenau," 
(green meadow) because of the fine pasture land. The 
second tract, two miles distant, was two hundred acres 
in extent, and was called " Merkfield," in honour of one 
of the party. Later one thousand acres were selected. 
This valley on the Catawba was called " Schoenthal " 
(beautiful valley). Fifty miles from their first camp six 
thousand acres were surveyed, and because of the beautiful 
mountains this land was given the name " Reichmont " 
(rich in mountains). Thus in succession they surveyed 
and named " Loesch Creek," " Montfort," " Oli " (the 
kettle, because of its shape), " Freydeck " (secluded 
corner), " Forkland," " New Hope," and last of all 
" Wachau " or " Wachovia." 

They passed over the first seventy miles of the wilder- 
ness with no great inconvenience, though obliged to make 
their way over Indian trails and along paths made by 
buffalo to and from the streams. At times they were 
followed by the Indians and watched with suspicious 
eye. When they came to the most western point of 
their journey, their real sorrows began. They were 
in a wilderness unfrequented by even a wandering hunter 


or Indian. The mountain peaks spread out on all sides 
like the waves of the ocean. It was the beginning of 
December. A hunter who was acting as their guide 
missed his way, and they were lost in the wilds of western 
Carolina. They found it necessary to scale a steep 
mountain, with precipices all about them. The baggage 
was removed from the horses to prevent them from being 
hurled backward. The poor beasts trembled with fear. 
At last, having braved a multitude of difficulties and 
dangers, the top was gained. Here the party rested and 
partook of a morsel from their scant stock of provisions. 
Their faithful horses had nothing except the dry leaves. 
The descent was not quite so precipitous, but night came 
on and there was neither water nor pasture land, and the 
condition of man and beast was pitiful. At night they 
were not able to erect a tent because of a wind storm. 

The second day they found pasturage for their horses, 
and killed two stags, so that all were somewhat refreshed ; 
but as they were in the midst of the beaver dams they 
had to cut their way through the obstructions, and the 
exertions greatly weakened them. 

Continuing their wanderings, they came on the third 
day to a rocky stream, which they could not cross. On 
both sides precipices arose, impossible to scale. Food 
for the horses could not be found. One of the hunters 
was sent forward to examine the character of the land. 
He returned and stated that from the top of the ravine 
he could see a large valley with pasturage for the horses, 
and a camping ground for the party. With renewed 
hope they pressed forward, cutting away the undergrowth 
as they advanced. At last the mountain was crossed 
and the valley reached, but their troubles were not yet 
at an end. Before the tents could be erected a terrible 


blizzard swept down and then it was that hope forsook 
them. A hundred miles from civilization, lost in the 
mountains, no food for the horses, and Httle for the 
human beings, the weather at zero, and the ground cov- 
ered with a deep snow, — we do not wonder that they 
exclaimed in despair, " What shall we do ? Our horses 
will perish and we with them ! " 

The night passed, and Bishop Spangenberg writes that 
he could not remember ever to have felt so cold a wind as 
that in the December blizzard in the mountains of North 
Carolina. A bright sunshine greeted them the next day, 
and though the nights were terribly cold all were merci- 
fully spared. 

Later they travelled by the aid of the compass directly 
to the southeast, climbed boldly over all obstacles, and 
at last reached the Yadkin Valley, after having been lost 
in the mountains nearly two weeks, and during which 
time they had suffered great hardships and dangers. 
Antes was enduring intense pain from an accident, when 
they providentially came to the home of Mr. Owens, where 
he received tender care. 

December 27 they reached the site of Wachovia, on 
Muddy Creek. Fourteen sections were surveyed, a total 
of seventy-three thousand acres, ten miles wide and eleven 
miles long. More land was later added, increasing the 
amount to nearly one hundred thousand acres. The record 
describes it as being one-half good, one-fourth medium, 
and one-fourth bad. Well watered, springs perennial, 
good timber, and good fishing and hunting. 

Bishop Spangenberg examined the fine meadows, which 
called to mind the home of the Zinzendorfs in Austria. 
He remembered the rich and well-watered ancestral 
estates had been given the name '* Wachau," from "wach," 


a stream, and " aue," a meadow. Hence, he said, let us 

give a fitting name to our new possessions and renew the 

old title; and on January 25, 1753, Spangenberg named 

the tract which has through a century and a half retained 

the title 


In addition to the information which served as a basis 
for the foregoing account of the search for and the dis- 
covery of Wachovia, Spangenberg comments on the con- 
dition of affairs in North Carolina one hundred and fifty 
years ago. He speaks of politics, describing the troubles 
which arose between the old and the new counties in the 
way of legislative representation. He draws a comparison 
between the government of North Carolina and that of 
South CaroHna and Pennsylvania, and suggests possible 
remedies for existing evils. What he says of the inhabit- 
ants throws light on the persecutions which Wachovia 
endured twenty years later. His thirty-third paper says : 
" Some of the people are native, and these are lazy. 
They cannot be compared with those who live in sec- 
tions farther north. Others are from foreign parts, too 
poor to buy land in New York and Pennsylvania, hence 
they have come here, where land is cheap. These are 
harmless people. There are men here who have run away 
on account of debt, or have deserted their families and 
are fleeing from justice. Whole bands of horse thieves 
are exercising their art. For these reasons North Caro- 
lina has received a bad name. On the other hand, many 
fine families are coming from the northern colonies to 
western Carolina, and they will raise the standard." The 
three nations most largely represented in western North 
Carolina at that time were the English, German, and Irish. 

The Spangenberg papers tell us of the condition of the 


Indians, also of the negroes. They give a list of the 
counties, and they tell of the taxes, and tax gathering, and 
suggest that "it is well to keep tax receipts." 

In concluding this chapter we add the following facts : — 
August 17 of the same year, 1753, the survey was 
approved by Lord Granville and nineteen deeds were 
made to James Hutton, of London, the agent of the Mo- 
ravian Church. The first payment was ;^500 ($2^00). 
The exact amount of land was 98,985 acres. In addition 
to this first payment a yearly rental of three shillings 
(seventy-five cents) formed a ground rent. This ground 
rent amounted to nearly §750. 

We have already called attention to the stringency of 
money matters in the Moravian Church at large. Hence 
to secure funds for the purchase of the land, payment of 
the rent, transportation of colonists, and their support 
during the first five years, a land company was formed, 
in which friends in Holland were particularly interested. 
December 18, 1753, Bishop Spangenberg and Cornelius 
Van Laer were appointed directors of this company. They 
experienced some difficulty in securing all the money that 
was required, but in the end their efforts were crowned 
with success. 



In the archives of the Bethlehem congregation is a 
paper written in quaint EngHsh, containing an account 
of the journey of the little colony which left that town 
early in the autumn of 1753 to begin the settlement of 
Wachovia, North Carolina. The original document is in 
German, and it was for many years lost, but is now in the 
archives of the Salem congregation. The paper shows 
how difficult was travel in those early days ; it gives 
information in regard to Virginia, through which they 
passed ; it makes clear the perfect consecration of the 
men who began the settlement of Wachovia. As the 
reader follows the party over the six weeks of their trip 
of five hundred miles, and then recalls how comfortable 
and pleasant is this same journey in our day, the contrast 
is indeed striking. 

All the negotiations between Lord Granville and the 
church authorities had been completed. Wachovia had 
been purchased and plans made in 1753 to begin the 
settlement. The further details were carefully arranged, 
and it was decided in the beginning to send a small colony 
of carefully chosen single men. The new settlement was 
to have a minister to care for the spiritual needs, a physi- 
cian for their bodily health, a business man of ability to 
guard the temporal affairs, and to these were added men 
who represented several trades, and two farmers. They 



were to live as one household, and thus would be so situ- 
ated as best to endure hardships, brave dangers, and 
overcome difficulties. 

The following is the list of those who located in Wacho- 
via, and founded the village of Bethabara : — 

1. Rev. Bernhard Adam Grube, a German by birth, 
age 37 years, the first minister. 

2. Jacob Loesch (Lash), born in New York, age 31 
years, the warden. 

3. Dr. Hans Martin Kalberlahn, born in Norway, age 
31 years, the physician. 

4. Hans Peterson, born in Danish Holstein, age 28 
years, a tailor. 

5. Christopher Merkly, born in Germany, age 39 years, 
a baker. 

6. Herman Loesch (Lash), born in Pennsylvania, age 
27 years, a farmer. 

7. Erich Ingebretsen, born in Norway, age 31 years, 
a carpenter. 

8. Henrich Feldhausen, born in Holstein, age 38 years, 
a carpenter. 

9. Johannes Lisher, a farmer. 

10. Jacob Lung, born in Germany, age 40 years, a 

11. Friedrich Jacob Pfeil, born in Germany, age 42 
years, a shoemaker and tanner. 

12. Jacob Beroth, born in Germany, age 28 years, a 

With these twelve came the brethren, Gottlob Koenigs- 
derfer, Nathaniel Seidel, and Joseph Haberland. After a 
brief visit these three returned to Bethlehem. 

The little colony left Bethlehem, October 8th, 1753, with 
their goods stored in a large wagon. The route was 


almost in a direct line to Wachovia. The night before 
arriving at the Susquehanna they sojourned at the house 
of Mr. Loesch, the father of Jacob and Herman. Here 
they were hospitably entertained, the mother filling their 
boxes with provisions, and the father placing a part of the 
load in his own wagon till the river had been forded. The 
width of the Susquehanna was a surprise to them. Con- 
tinuing southward, they crossed the border line between 
Pennsylvania and Maryland, and arrived at Frederick 
October i8th. Frederick was then a village of sixty 
houses. Entering the famous Shenandoah Valley, they 
continued southward by the present town of Staunton, 
then called Augusta Court-house. They crossed in suc- 
cession the Potomac, the James, and the Roanoke rivers, 
and probably passed near the present site of the cities of 
Lexington and Roanoke. In due time the Pilot Mountain, 
so well known to all the inhabitants of northwestern North 
Carolina, came in sight. The Mayo River was reached 
and followed till they arrived at the junction of the Mayo 
and Dan rivers, where are situated the present Mayodan 
village and mills. A short journey and they reached the 
general section of the present town of Walnut Cove, and 
soon thereafter they crossed the borders of Wachovia. 

Great difficulties confronted them at every stage of their 
journey. Their heavily loaded wagon was too much for 
the poorly built bridges, and in one instance the bridge 
gave way just as the horses and the fore part of the wagon 
were safely over. With a great effort they climbed the 
steep hills, at times being compelled to carry the load to 
the top, as the empty wagon was all the three pair of 
horses could draw. Nor were their troubles ended when 
the top was reached, for the steep descent was very dan- 
gerous. Having cut down a tree and fastened it to the 


rear of the wagon, and having locked the wheels, it was 
even then with difficulty that the descent was made. Dur- 
ing the early part of the journey the heat was at times 
quite oppressive, and before North Carolina was reached 
the snow lay upon the ground. Heavy rains caused high 
waters which detained them days, and even when this 
trouble did not exist, the steep banks had often to be dug 
down before they could enter and leave the stream, while 
it was not uncommon to be obliged to clear a road of 
trees and undergrowth before they could proceed. The 
search for food was no small item, and the accidents to the 
wagon, as well as the sickness of the horses, often caused 
the deepest anxiety. We will devote space to but two 
incidents, to convey the impression of what was almost a 
daily occurrence. 

The party arrived in the neighbourhood of the Roanoke 
River about the end of October. It was cold, wet, and 
had been snowing. Hill after hill had been climbed, and 
the night was coming on apace. Before them was a long 
and very steep ascent up the mountain side. A man 
approached and was asked whether it was possible to cross 
the hill before night. He answered in the affirmative. 
He added that at the top of the hill was a house at which 
they could spend the night. As the hill was too steep to 
allow the horses to draw the wagon and the load, the 
horses were taken from the wagon and the goods placed 
upon their backs. Then a part of the company journeyed 
on and a part remained with the wagon. Before the ascent 
was half made they were surrounded by storm and dark- 
ness, and when the top was reached they found that they 
had been deceived by the traveller. No house was on the 
top of the hill nor on the other side of the mountain, and 
as they pressed forward in the rain and darkness, they at 


last discovered that the distance between them and their 
companions was too great for them to rejoin those who 
had remained with the wagon. It was a dismal experience, 
and with great thankfulness they met again on the mor- 
row by the aid of daylight and sunshine. 

The second instance took place two weeks later. They 
had crossed the border line between Virginia and North 
Carolina. They determined if possible to reach the Dan 
River that day. The journey was begun at three o'clock 
in the morning, but storms and bad weather detained them. 
They missed the right road, and by nightfall found that 
they were still about seven miles from their destination. 
They were obliged to stop till the storm abated. At mid- 
night the rain ceased, the horses were attached to the 
wagon, and with lighted torches to guide the driver, the 
journey was continued to Dan River. What a picture 
is presented by these sturdy Christian men as in the mid- 
night hour, with flaring torches, they made their way 
through the mountain wilds, happy and cheerful, remind- 
ing themselves that the day was November 13, a great 
festival day of the church. As the traveller now passes 
over this same ground he can easily imagine this midnight 
scene as he looks upon the rugged hillsides, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Mayodan and Avalon, two places where Mora- 
vian churches have recently been erected. 

The paper to which reference was made earlier in the 
chapter speaks of the inhabitants of Virginia, in the sec- 
tion through which they passed. They met travellers, they 
conversed with farmers and merchants, they came in con- 
tact with many nationalities, they saw some who were 
worthless and "lived like beasts," but others showed deep 
piety in their words and actions. 

Whatever else the paper sets forth, the one picture which 



stands in the clearest light is the great piety of this com- 
pany, and their perfect devotion to Jesus Christ and his 
service. Night and morning they rejoiced in the spiritual 
food afforded by the songs, the prayers, the Scripture, and 
the words of admonition spoken by the ministers who ac- 
companied them. Wherever they tarried, day or night, all 
men recognized that they were a company of Christians. 
Believers confided to them their faith in Jesus Christ, 
invited them to preach, and wished them Godspeed when 
they departed. Not only did their zeal and piety cause 
these devoted men to seek the souls of those who came in 
contact with them, but this spirit of devotion knit them 
together in the bonds of love and affection. Neither hard- 
ships nor perils, toils nor sufferings, could separate them. 
In this little company travelling from Pennsylvania to 
North Carolina we have a picture of the power of Chris- 
tian fellowship which is delightful to contemplate. 

After a delay of several days at the Dan River because 
of the high water, the crossing was finally made, and the 
last section of the journey was begun. Several members 
of the party had gone over in a canoe and had made a 
tour of inspection. Returning, they met the party with 
the wagon. The previous night had been very cold. A 
dull, leaden, November sky threatened snow. The progress 
was slow. They paused for a noonday lunch, after which, 
continuing their journey, the travel-worn company crossed 
the border line of Wachovia a little after noon, Novem- 
ber 17, 1753. 




When the little company of fifteen persons crossed the 
borders of Wachovia at noon, November 17, 1753, they 
were still six miles from the cabin which was to shelter 
them. Half this distance they had to cut a new road, but 
wiUing hands and happy hearts made the labour light, and 
ere long they reached the deserted hut. It was an hum- 
ble abode, without floor, and with a roof that did not pro- 
tect them from the weather. Yet it offered comforts and 
pleasures compared with the experiences of the preceding 
weeks. Their joy knew no bounds, and so happy were 
they that they were more like little children in the exuber- 
ance of their spirits, than like the travel-worn pioneers on 
their earnest errand. Turning to the text for November 
17, they found that it was indeed suited to their case, 
"I know where thou dwellest." (Rev. 2:13.) 

As the early Christians were accustomed to celebrate all 
special occasions with "agapse" or "love-feasts," in like 
manner these weary travellers made their first meal a love- 
feast, thus consecrating it to their Lord and Master, and 
making it an emblem of the strong bond of brotherly love 
which held them together. This happy duty performed, 
they felt that they had arrived at a place which they 
could call home, and how blessed was the beginning of 
this new home with Jesus speaking to them in the text of 
the day, " I know where thou dwellest," and they respond- 
ing by making their first meal a solemn but happy love- 




Herba Mentha. Curly Mint. 


Levisticum. Lovage, 


Herba Mentha. Curly Mint. 


Angelica Hortensis. Angelica. 


Semen Anisi. Anise Seed. 


Rumex Acetosa. Sorrel. 




Fumaria. Fumitory. 


Semen Foeniculi. Fennel Seed. 


Chamomilla Rub. Red Chamomile, 



Lilium Album. White Lily. 


Semen Carui. Caraway Seed. 


Lilium Album. White Lily. 


Semen Carui. Caraway Seed. 


Rosa Rub. et Alb. Red and White 


;. Artemisia. Mugwort. 



. Violex. Knot Grass. 


I. Semen Citri. Seed of Citron, 


. Semen Carvi. 


'. Vicus Hispanio. 


Floras Lavenduli. Lavender. 


Rosa Rubra. Red Rose. 


Semen Anethi. Dill. 


Lilium Album. White Lily. 


Centaurea Minor. Centaury. 


Chamomilla. Chamomile. Semen 


Salvia. Sage. 

Coriander. Coriander Seed. 


Salvia. Sage. 


Plantago Minor. Small Plantain. 


Artemisia, Mugwort. 

Marrubium. Hoarhound. 


Artemisia. Mugwort. 




Rumex Acet. Sorrel. 


Lavendula. Lavender. Hormium 


Rumex Acet. Sorrel. 



Rumex Acet. Sorrel. 


Nigellum. Fennel. 


Millifolium. Yarrow. 


Scurvy Grass and Lavender, 




White Poppy, 


" Mundrosen." 




Petroselinum. Parsley. 




Calcatrippa. Larkspur. 


Flor. Belidor Min. 




Chamomile and Hyssop. 


Abrotan. A Small Cypress. 




Abrotan. A Small Cypress. 




Abrotan. A Small Cypress. 


Cardui Benedict. 


Basilicon. Sweet Basil. Marjorana. 


Scurvy Grass. 

Sweet Marjoram. 




Basilicon. Sweet Basil. Marjorana. 



Sweet Marjoram. 


Herb. Absynth. Wormwood. 


Abrotan. Small Cypress. 


Herb. Ruth. Garden Rue. 


Abrotan. Small Cypress. 




Abrotan. Small Cypress. 


Wandering Poppy. 






Calcatrippa. Larkspur. 








Flor. Papaver Alb. White Poppy. 












Aquilegia. Columbine. Papaver 


Althea. Marsh Mallow. 

Rubra. Red Poppy. 


Althea. Marsh Mallow. 


Semen Papaver Rubra. Seed Red 


Althea. Marsh Mallow, 





Semen Papaver Rubra. Seed Red 


Marsh Mallow. 



Sweet Clover. 


Angelica Hortensis. Angelica. 


Black Comfirey. (Black Bryony.) 


Millefolium. Yarrow. 




Safflore. Wild Saffron. 



46 a 

. Carduus Marise. Mary Thistle. 




. Fumaria. Fumitory. 




Levisticum. Lovage. 











-- 1 


;'S. II 79. \ 

eo" II 87 1 


J u 


fE6. -fSc 


Scocle^-^d' JE?i^ZijhJeei. 



feast What mattered it that the space on the ground 
was cramped and small ! What mattered it that the cold 
found its way through roof and wall ! What mattered it 
that the howhng of the wolves and the cry of the panthers 
greeted them as they entered their new abode ! Religion 
came with them, love came with them, and on these two 
foundation stones they began a work on that dark and 
cheerless November day, which was destined to outlive 
many generations, a work which is still felt after the lapse 
of a century and a half. 

The next day was Sunday. It was a real day of rest. 
They took great interest in examining their surroundings. 
Looking northward, they saw a forest-covered lowland, 
which in imagination", they could picture cleared and cul- 
tivated, or covered with luxuriant grass. Through this 
flowed a clear, strong stream which was destined to turn 
the wheel of the busy mill. This lowland was bordered 
by low hills, while in the distance could be seen the 
mountains, robed in their mantle of blue. Turning to the 
east and south, they saw a rolling country, suited for farm 
land. West of their cabin home, and overshadowing it, 
was a great bluff or hill, at the base of which flowed a riv- 
ulet of the clearest water. Could the newcomers have 
lifted the veil of the future, they would have beheld, on 
this same hillside, the most luxuriant ferns and rare wild 
flowers in profuse abundance. And on the top of this 
beautiful hill, with its covering of giant pines, chestnuts, 
and oaks, they would have beheld the graveyard, or, as 
they termed it, " God's Acre," in which one and another 
would find a peaceful home when life's duties were done. 
These were the surroundings which appeared to the twelve 
settlers as they arose and greeted the first Sabbath day in 
their new home in North Carolina. 


A somewhat detailed account of the life of this little 
colony during the first year in Wachovia will serve as a 
description of the life in Wachovia for a generation and 
more, and will also bring before the mind of the reader 
the experiences in the several congregations which were 
founded after Bethabara. It is true that never were the 
struggles so difficult as during this first year, at the same 
time they were so brave and hopeful, that the picture is 
really a pleasant one to study. 

Refreshed by the day of rest, the brethren arose Mon- 
day morning, ready for the task of making a home in the 
wilderness. We are impressed with the businesslike man- 
ner in which they began the work. With the implements 
brought with them, they commenced clearing a tract of 
land to sow with winter wheat, and within three weeks 
from the date of their arrival, six acres had been cleared 
and planted. During the first year not less than fifty 
acres of land had been prepared for farming purposes. 
They recognized that, in this sparsely settled section, it 
would be difficult to secure provisions, hence at the very 
outset they began to raise cattle and to plant a variety of 
grain for their future use and comfort. In the first sum- 
mer, they gathered wheat, corn, flax, millet, barley, oats, 
buckwheat, turnips, cotton, and tobacco, in addition to the 
garden vegetables. Fruit trees were planted, and various 
kinds of medicinal herbs. A most interesting map of a 
"medical garden" (see page 22) is in the Wachovia 
Land Office. This map shows the garden divided into 
squares and sections, and each square named. It is of 
great interest to the medical profession as indicating what 
medicines were produced in western Carolina, a hundred 
and fifty years ago. 

Diversity of industries is said to be the real test of the 


prosperity of a place. In 1754, with the great strain of 
clearing land and building houses, we find the record of 
trade commenced with their neighbours, and the notes 
indicate that they had in operation the following: — 

Carpenter shop. Shoe shop. 

Tailor establishment. Tannery. 

Pottery. Cooper shop. 
Blacksmith shop. 

Under the head of prices, we note the value of a pair of 
shoes. A stranger passing through Wachovia desired to 
purchase a pair of shoes. He evidently had no money. 
To overcome this difficulty and secure them, he was will- 
ing to cut down and trim one hundred forest trees as a 

The company of twelve men were very busy during the 
first year. They had roads to cut, journeys to make, farm- 
ing work to attend to, and houses to erect. But their 
greatest undertaking was the building of the mill, though 
this was not entirely finished in 1754. The magnitude of 
the undertaking will be understood, when we recall the 
fact that all the needed articles had to be made by the 
members of the little company. The site for the mill was 
selected a mile or more down the stream. The dam was 
built, and the race constructed. The foundation stones 
were large, as is indicated by the one used as a step 
before the door; this is now in the possession of the 
Wachovia Historical Society. Timber they had in abun- 
dance, but old persons who remember the mill express 
surprise at the great size of the beams and timbers used 
in its construction. Then the wheel had to be built ; forg- 
ing metal bearings for the wheel was no small task ; suit- 
able millstones had to be found, quarried, shaped, and 


dressed. They were discovered on Muddy Creek, in the 
general neighbourhood of Friedberg. Before the second 
year of their stay in Wachovia had passed, the mill was 
completed and was busily grinding. It was a great 
blessing to this entire section, and the maps of those days 
show roads leading from the mill to all points, north, 
south, east, and west, and the records indicate that not 
only from a commercial standpoint was the mill impor- 
tant, but in the Indian War, and in the days of the 
American Revolution citizens and refugees were fed, 
and the soldiers of both armies made demands upon it 
from time to time. Hence, at this early day, the mill 
was of importance to the entire western section of the 

The live-stock industry shows sixty-nine head of cattle 
and pigs. 

It was apparent to the company the first night of their 
arrival that larger accommodations would have to be pro- 
vided. The Hans Wagner hut, which they found upon 
their arrival, a picture of which is given in this volume, was 
not large enough to allow sleeping room, and a second story 
was improvised by stretching hammocks from wall to wall. 
Strangers often came, and it was not an uncommon thing 
to give the law of hospitality the precedence, and this sent 
a number of the company to sleep beneath the stars, 
a thing which was not pleasant in January in North 

As soon as it became known that there was an able physi- 
cian and a skilled surgeon in Wachovia, many persons came 
for medical treatment. As the original cabin was too small 
for their own comfort, they resolved to build a " stranger's 
house," that is, a modest hotel, the first one in Wachovia. 
It was indeed an humble strangers' house, not much larger 


than the first hut. February 9 this second building was 
finished, and four days later a man arrived from his home 
fifty miles away, with his invalid wife. These were the 
first to use the new house. 

As soon as the little house for strangers was completed, 
work on the dormitory was begun, and though crudely con- 
structed, it afforded sufficient room, being thirteen feet wide 
and fifty feet long. With the addition of some small 
shelters for the grain, etc., the above-mentioned buildings 
were all that were completed within twelve months after 
their arrival, though the work on the mill was being actively 
pushed, and the foundations for a large dwelling house had 
been laid. 

The many duties left little time for social enjoyments, 
yet the narrative pictures a carefully arranged plan by 
means of which they did enjoy the home life. The table 
fare was simple but varied, and when the work was unusu- 
ally hard the kind and supply of the food was adapted to 
the needs of the body. Not only when the days were 
marked by inclement weather do we find them in the house, 
but on other occasions they gathered together to plan the 
work, to read letters or hear church news from other parts 
of the world, and to hold sessions of what they called their 

They were not fond of hunting. They did not like it as 
a sport, and they concluded that it was not profitable as a 
business pursuit. When it was necessary to kill a bear or 
scatter a pack of wolves or hunt down a panther in order 
to protect their own animals, they entered energetically 
into the duty and did their work well. 

The life of the first settlers in Wachovia was by no 
means a quiet and retired one. The Moravian brethren 
were busy travellers. Their first journeys were to inspect 


their possessions. They journeyed to the Black Walnut 
Bottom, where later Bethania was located. They went 
down to Muddy Creek, where lived Adam Spach, later the 
well-known member of the Friedberg congregation. They 
made so many trips to the well-watered and productive 
Yadkin River Valley that a road was cut through to the 
river. The diary gives a condensed list of the visits of 
Lash, the business manager, and Kalberlahn, the physician. 
The former went hither and thither to buy and to sell. 
The latter was called to go twenty, fifty, even one hundred 
miles through the forests to minister to the sick and those 
who were suffering from accidents. Several trips were 
made to Fayetteville and Wilmington to consider the 
arrangements for their later commercial interests, and to 
interview the authorities on legal points. Then, too, we 
find accounts of the arrivals from and the departures to 
Bethlehem. It is a tender and beautiful picture to see how 
with tears and prayers they bade farewell to the brethren, 
Koenigsderfer, Seidel, and Haberland, as they began the 
return journey to Pennsylvania. This is in strong contrast 
to the note of joy with which they welcomed the brethren, 
Fries and Lisher, on the 1 5th of April. The former arrived 
as minister, and it is to his interesting and clearly written 
record that we are indebted for the facts which have come 
down to us in connection with 1754 and 1755. In Septem- 
ber the famous Peter Boehler visited them. In a love-feast 
held soon after his arrival, the bishop announced that the 
name which Spangenberg had selected last year had been 
indorsed by the authorities, and our land would in future 
be officially known as "Wachovia." 

In addition to the visitors from Bethlehem and the visits 
made by the brethren themselves, many strangers came on 
matters of business or for professional advice. In 1754, 


within three months they had 103 guests, and in 1755 not 
less than 426 persons visited Bethabara. All this shows 
that while the Moravians carried out their idea of retaining 
Wachovia for themselves, they also came into close contact 
with the outside world. 

Their relations to others were pleasant and satisfac- 
tory. They paid their taxes promptly and without pro- 
test. They refused to take an oath, and declined to 
perform military duty, but socially they were on the 
best terms with all their neighbours near and far. The 
many presents sent to them showed the kindly feelings 
which existed. 

The first year in Wachovia was not entirely free from 
sufferings. It is true that there was no death and no 
alarming illness, but two accidents threatened serious 
results. On New Year's Day the roof of their little home, 
their only shelter at this time, was discovered to be in 
flames. In the struggle to save the building from destruc- 
tion, Kalberlahn was severely burned. While he was suf- 
fering from his wound, some members of the company 
were cutting timber. As one giant of the forest came 
crashing to the ground, f eterson was struck by a limb, and 
when his companions rushed to his aid, it appeared to them 
that he was fatally hurt. With heavy hearts they bore 
him home. An examination was not possible that day, 
but the following day. Dr. Kalberlahn discovered that the 
skull had not been broken ; and though the wound was 
both serious and painful, he recovered, as did also the vic- 
tim of the fire on New Year's Day. 

To the student of the weather bureau, it is interesting to 
note that the same general conditions prevailed then as 
now. It is sometimes claimed that climatic conditions 
have changed in a century and a half. Such is not the 


case, as the sketch of each month's weather given in the 
diary will show. 

The love for music appeared at the very outset. Sing- 
ing formed a large part of their worship, and liturgical ser- 
vices with hymns specially composed for the occasion were 
not infrequent. The first mention of instrumental music is 
found under date of February 23, 1754, when it is said that 
the evening singing was accompanied by the playing of a 
trumpet, which would compare favourably with the excellent 
instruments used in the Bethlehem congregation. A year 
later the music is mentioned as having been very good. 
On this occasion the singing was accompanied with flutes 
and trumpets. 

We close this account of the first year by referring to 
their religious life. We have already spoken of their deep 
piety and perfect consecration. Their worship formed a 
regular part of the programme of each day. They fre- 
quently had the meal in common, as a religious obser- 
vance. With joy they mentioned the fact that in late 
summer a love-feast was provided with buns from the flour 
made of the first fruits of their wheat fields. Saturday 
afternoon was observed as a preparation time for the 
approaching Sunday. Only on a few occasions, when 
special conditions made it necessary, did they labour on 
Saturday afternoon. Sunday was observed in about the 
same manner as we observe it at the present day, though 
modified to suit their circumstances. At Easter they 
celebrated all the occasions of that festival, greeting 
each other on the resurrection morning with the happy 

A touching and beautiful sketch might be written of the 
first Christmas, when they related the ever sweet and ten- 
der story of the Christ Child, as they gathered in the 


Christmas vigils. These are the words of the journal, 
" We had a little love-feast ; then near the Christ Child we 
had our first Christmas Eve in North Carolina, and rested 
in peace in this hope and faith ; " and a later writer says, 
"All this while the wolves and panthers howled and 
screamed in the forests near by." 



The war between France and England, including the . 
period of which we are now writing, dates its origin to the 
time of Washington's campaign in 1754. The time of 
the treaty between England and France in 1763 is con- 
sidered the conclusion of the war. The progress of hos- 
tilities was not as rapid as in our day of steam, telegraph, 
and telephone, hence not till the summer of 1755 did dis- 
quieting influences reach the Indians of North Carolina. 
Alarming rumours then began to fill the air, and during the 
following four years the situation became increasingly 
worse, though actual war did not break out till 1759. The 
delay of open hostilities was due to the fact that the cen- 
tre was far north of the Carolinas, in the neighbourhood of 
the Great Lakes, in New York, and in Pennsylvania. The 
Moravians in Pennsylvania experienced the horrors of the 
struggle several years before bloodshed began in North 
Carolina. Another reason for the delay was that the 
Cherokees, Creeks, and Catawbas were friendly to the 
whites. In time they were won over by their red breth- 
ren. First secretly and then openly, they espoused the 
cause of the hostile Indians against the white men, and 
from 1759 we may consider Wachovia as in the midst of 
a bloody Indian war. Toward the end of 1761 the troops 
conducted a campaign of destruction against the Indians 
of western Carolina, and at the same time a similar cam- 



paign was carried on in the western portion of Virginia. 
This really brought the war to a close in these sections, 
though it was two years later before the peace negotia- 
tions were concluded between England and France. The 
present chapter will deal with the period of four years of 
unrest which gradually led up to open warfare. 

As a sudden storm will rise without previous warning 
and in an hour cover everything with dark and threatening 
* clouds, so, in 1755, the prosperous and thrifty little settle- 
ment in Wachovia within a day found its peace had de- 
parted. On July 22, a Dunkard with his family arrived 
from New River. He had travelled seventy miles in a 
circuitous route, and reported the beginning of Indian out- 
rages in his section, relating many instances of cruelty and 
bloodshed. One of his more distant friends had been 
attacked, his family murdered, and he himself carried to 
the torture. The night before the Dunkard fled, his near- 
est neighbour's family had been slain. Twenty-eight per- 
sons were known to have been captured or killed. 

A little later in the evening a man came to Bethabara to 
seek for his strayed horses. The man's name was Benner. 
After a time he departed. About four o'clock in the morn- 
ing they were awakened by cries of distress. Upon investi- 
gation they found that it was the same man Benner who 
had been searching for his horses the evening before. He 
told them that he had returned to his home only to find it 
robbed and his family gone. They could do nothing to 
comfort him in his great distress. A little later the breth- 
ren engaged in their morning devotions, using the trumpet 
with the singing. This was not usually done, but it was 
thought the trumpet might attract the attention of any 
friend who happened to be in the forest, or to warn the 
foe that the inmates of the house were not sleeping. When 


they had concluded their devotional exercises, one of the 
party went into the yard and fired a gun to warn enemies 
or attract friends. Blowing the trumpet and firing the 
gun was continued, and after a time they heard a call. 
Hastening to the spot, they found the wife of the dis- 
tressed man with her four children. The smallest child 
was a babe in the arms of the mother. The joy at this 
unexpected meeting was touching and pathetic. After 
the needs of the woman had been attended to and she had 
somewhat recovered, she related her experiences. Night 
had come on, and she was awaiting her husband's return. 
Suddenly the dogs rushed barking into the woods, but 
returned howling with fear. As she went to the door sev- 
eral stones whizzed by her head. She closed the door and 
fled from the house, her children with her. As she en- 
tered the shelter of the forest, she turned once more toward 
the house, and by the light within the room saw three men 
spring in. Continuing her flight, she wandered all night 
hither and thither, and was providentially guided to Beth- 
abara, where the blowing of the trumpet and the reports 
of the gun reassured her, and she called for help which 
was right willingly given. 

This incident illustrates the condition of things in the 
entire section. The most alarming intelligence continued 
to reach them, Haltem and Owens came from the section 
north of Wachovia, and said that all the families in that 
neighbourhood were leaving their homes, A man arrived 
from the Yadkin Valley, and reported that the neighbours 
up and down the river were gathering together for mutual 
protection against either wandering bands of savages, or 
an organized attack. Even from Haw River came an 
appeal for help. 

With the same thoroughness that characterized all their 


actions, the men of Wachovia made their plans. They 
reasoned among themselves as follows : If the Indians 
who are causing all the trouble are only in scattered bands, 
watchfulness and ready rifles will be sufficient. Therefore 
a watch was established, and their work was so arranged 
that they remained close to each other. If an alarm had 
to be given, they could readily assemble. They were not 
panic-stricken, but continued to run the mill and pushed 
forward the work on the large building which they were 
erecting. They further argued that if a large body of 
Indians was moving against the western part of North 
Carolina, the only hope would be instant flight. But they 
determined in the conference which was held that all 
things should be done wisely. Accordingly the following 
plan in regard to their property was approved by all. 
This plan was to be carried out in the event of the 
approach of a large body of Indians. 

1. All the iron was to be hid in the creek, as iron was a 
precious metal in those days. 

2. All the wooden materials were to be buried in the 

3. The house was to be fortified so that resistance could 
be made in case of a sudden attack by a large company of 

4. A stock of provisions was stored in the house, espe- 
cially flour. The miller could not remain at the mill, still 
the mill was left open for the use of customers who might 
wish to grind their grain. 

These plans and precautions having all been made, they 
continued with their usual work, and during the following 
weeks the excitement subsided and many of the refugees 
left Bethabara to return to their own homes. Some moved 
away from the section altogether, and the Bethabara 


warden purchased their cattle and grain from time to 
time, as it was his policy to provide for the future as well 
as the present. This policy of providing for the future 
was a great blessing to many in the later experiences of 
the war. 

Six months passed. In January, 1756, rumours again 
began to fill them with alarm. This time the reports 
related to the Moravian congregations in Pennsylvania. 
Again and again the stories were told, sometimes in one 
form and sometimes in another, but always the one fact of 
a massacre was incorporated. Finally they heard the true 
statement, and though the calamity was not as widespread 
as they had at first been led to fear, still it was terrible, 
and might well fill them with forebodings as to their 
possible fate. Hamilton in his history of the Moravian 
Church describes the massacre in the colony of Pennsyl- 
vania to which the rumours and later reports referred. He 
says : — 

" On November 24 the worst fears were realized at the 
Gnadenhuetten station on the Mahoni. As the evening 
shadows lengthened, and the occupants of the Mission 
House were gathered for their evening meal, the dreaded 
war-whoops suddenly rang out, and the reports of firearms 
reechoed among the hills. When the startled men and 
women darted from the lower story to the room above, 
and barricaded the entrance, fire was applied to the house. 
Those who fled from the flames by leaping from the win- 
dows were pierced by bullets or slashed by tomahawks. 
Out of fifteen only four persons escaped to tell the manner 
of their companions' martyrdom. The raiders soon left 
only ashes and charred fragments to tell where once 
church and school and dwelhngs had stood." 

The inhabitants of Bethlehem and other Moravian towns 


escaped, though all these places were threatened at the 
time of which we write, and Bethlehem had been sur- 
rounded by a stockade fort, and two swivel guns had been 

Reference is several times made to a certain body of 
men whom the diary calls " outlaws." This company had 
organized and erected a fortification. The colonial authori- 
ties sent troops who attacked their stronghold. The men 
fled, leaving the women and children. One of the outlaws 
requested the Moravians to adopt his two boys. Just 
what influence brought these people together is not made 
clear by the Bethabara journal, nor can we assume with 
certainty that they were desperadoes. Owens was one of 
them, and in earlier days he frequently visited Bethabara, 
and nothing is said against him in the diary. In those 
days even good men were often styled outlaws by the 
colonial authorities if perchance they did not belong to the 
king's party. 

The spring of 1756 approached, and the rumours of Ind- 
ian atrocities continued to reach them. Fearing that be- 
cause of some neglect disaster might overwhelm the little 
colony, it was decided to appoint additional watchmen as a 
precaution against a possible surprise. 

In May there were several experiences which indicated 
the increasing tension between the Indians and white 
people. Lash was making a trip to some point in the 
neighbourhood for the purpose of buying oil. He had with 
him a small keg in which to carry it. Suddenly he was 
confronted by eleven Indians accompanied by a white 
woman. The Indians began to revile and abuse him, and 
ordered him to dismount. Lash refused, knowing that to 
do so was to surrender to them his horse. Then they 
pointed to the keg and demanded " fire-water." He told 


them that he had none, and tapped the head of the little 
keg to show them that it was empty. Then they became 
still more excited, and feeling that at any moment they 
might resort to personal violence, and recalling the many 
murders in more distant sections, he made an attempt to 
divert their minds. He told them that he lived twelve 
miles away, and that he had a good meal awaiting them if 
they would visit him. This pleased the savages; but the 
white woman turned in surprise to Lash, told him that he 
was a fool, and assured him that this band would visit him 
and steal all that he owned. The savages agreed to come, 
and the record says that Lash rode away with " great speed." 

As soon as Lash arrived at Bethabara, a conference was 
held and a messenger was sent to the house of Hughes and 
Banner. The latter gathered men quickly, and when the 
Indians arrived they found that the number of the white 
men exceeded their own numbers, and therefore they be- 
haved well. Some distance farther on they continued their 
depredations, were captured, and taken to Salisbury. 

Two weeks later Indians suddenly appeared at Bethab- 
ara. No special notice was taken of them. The people 
acted as though they took it as a matter of course that 
they should come. The diary says that they pursued their 
usual duties, but that they were careful to so dispose them- 
selves that the Indians could recognize their strength. 
Lash went to them, showed them the mill, furnished them 
with a good meal, and presented them with pipes and 
tobacco. This greatly pleased them. While eating the 
meal they talked with each other in signs, and in this way 
informed Lash that eight more Indians were on their way 
to Bethabara. That night they slept in the woods. The 
next morning they returned, were given a good breakfast, 
and then proceeded on their journey. 


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still jLcc'n.clcizff..cetJthis'xiioite. v.Fioite'Fi/. 

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The repeated visits of these increasingly hostile bands 
of Cherokees made them feel that more decided measures 
should be taken to protect the colony, especially the women 
and children, for Wachovia now had a number of families 
in the village. 

One year from the time that the first alarm reached 
them, that is in July, 1756, an important conference was 
held. Rauch, the pastor, explained to them that now he 
had certain knowledge of the hostility of the Cherokees, 
as they had secretly espoused the cause of the French. 
He furthermore called attention to the fact that Wachovia 
was on the frontier, and Bethabara would be one of the 
first points attacked by the cruel redmen. Two letters 
were read describing what Bethlehem had done in the 
midst of troubles similar to their own. These letters told 
how the town had been surrounded by a stockade, this 
converting it into a fort, affording protection to life and 
property. Rauch continued his earnest address, and opened 
his heart to his congregation. He said that for himself he 
had no fear ; he felt that his life was in the hands of his 
Saviour ; at the same time precaution was wisdom worthy 
of the people of God, and any neglect which endangered 
the lives of the helpless ones committed to their care would 
be a great wrong. The decision was deferred to the next 

A parenthetical clause in the diary says that although 
the question of the fortification was deferred till the next 
afternoon, early in the morning Peterson was sent for more 
powder and lead. 

The afternoon of the following day a second conference 
was called, and at this meeting it was decided to erect the 
stockade fortification which became the well-known " Fort," 
and played a prominent part in the Indian War, being a 


place of refuge for many unfortunate people, and affording 
protection for themselves and their families. 

All other work was temporarily suspended. One 
detachment of men went to the forest to cut down and 
prepare timber ; another party transported it to the village ; 
while still another company dug the trenches and placed 
the timbers in an upright position. Gates were arranged, 
and when these were secured the inmates were reasonably 
safe. A good map exists, giving the plan of the fort 
drawn to scale. Fortunately we are able to locate the 
foundation of one house which formed a part of the line of 
the stockade, and with this as a starting-point we can 
easily trace the outhnes. (See ^on map, p. 39.) 

If the visitor of to-day will enter the grounds just above 
the " garden," that is about one hundred feet north of the 
Bethabara church building, and will walk westward toward 
the graveyard a hundred and fifty feet, where the ground 
descends to the level of the meadow, he will find himself at 
the location of the house that formed a part of the stockade 
line. From this point the line of the fort ran southeast to 
the site of the present church. Thence north to the brick 
residence of Mr. Calvin Hauser, about three hundred feet. 
Thence toward the graveyard hill, to a point near the 
little bridge. The stockade enclosed all the space from the 
little bridge southeast to the church, and northeast to Mr. 
Hauser's house, the eastern boundary extending along the 
main road. The shape of the fort was triangular, each of 
the sides being three hundred feet or more. Within the 
enclosure were the main buildings, that is, the home of 
the single men, the large congregation house in which the 
married people lived, as well as a number of other build- 
ings, including the various workshops. The first cabin 
was not within the stockade. 


The further history of the fort will appear as the events 
of the*war develop, but we will add that a spot so rich in 
historical associations ought to be carefully measured, by 
means of the map, and the location made plain to all visi- 
tors by stone pillars. 

The actual work was begun on the 13th of July, 1756, 
and within ten days the enclosure was finished, except the 
gates, these having been added a few days later. The 
news that there was a place of refuge in Wachovia spread 
rapidly, and from that time forth so great was the com- 
pany of refugees that special provisions had to be made 
for them. A village grew up at the mill, which was also 
surrounded by a stockade. When the record mentions 
" the people at the mill," reference is made to this second 
portion of the village of Bethabara. 

The following two years brought with them a continua- 
tion of the experiences we have just described. The 
Indians were nominally friendly, but were becoming more 
and more restless. Bands passed and repassed. Some- 
times as many as a hundred warriors would make their 
appearance at one time, and the number of Indians who 
visited Bethabara in 1757-1758 was very large. The com- 
pany of fugitives became larger and larger. The com- 
mittee endeavoured to dissuade people from moving to 
Bethabara, unless in case of dire distress, but even this did 
not prevent them from coming. Every house and every 
place of temporary abode was filled with the terrified 
refugees. The behaviour of the Indians was one thing at 
a strongly guarded fort, but it was quite another thing at 
a lonely farmhouse in the wilderness. 

A petition asking the governor to provide a company of 
troops to guard this section was one day presented with a 
request that they sign it. They declined to do so. They 


argued that if they were not willing to take part in mili- 
tary affairs, they could not logically ask for military aid. 
They were willing to be assessed to pay money for the 
support of the soldiers, but the question of sending troops 
must rest with the governor. 

The preparation for the impending struggle was pushed 
forward from week to week, and every precaution taken. 
By this time every one felt convinced that the struggle 
must come. Weil it was that they had this time of prep- 
aration, and well it was that they used it to complete their 
defences. Otherwise it might readily have been with them 
as it was with the martyrs in Pennsylvania and Ohio, and 
with scores of families in North Carolina, a quick death in 
the light of their burning houses, or the slower and more 
terrible death by torture. As it was, by the blessing of 
the Lord upon their precautionary measures and upon 
their watchfulness and bravery, all escaped, though mur- 
der and bloodshed were all about them during the years 
that followed. 



Nowhere does the wisdom of our forefathers call for 
our admiration more than during the years from 1755 to 
1763. So long as it was possible to maintain peaceful 
relations with the Indians, this was done. When this was 
no longer possible they made a sudden change of base, 
and presented a front to the enemy which completely out- 
witted the utmost cunning of the wily savage. The first 
statement is proved by the fact that when men and women 
were being driven in terror from their homes in the neigh- 
bourhood of Wachovia, the Indians who caused the trouble 
came peacefully to Bethabara, enjoyed the fine meals 
which were prepared for them, rejoiced in the gifts of 
pipes and tobacco, and far and wide among the redmen 
spread the fame of Bethabara, a place " where there are 
good people and much bread." This policy was supple- 
mented by every precaution and every provision for de- 
fence. Then there came a sudden turn in affairs, when 
peace was no longer possible ; in a day " the good people 
and much bread " principle had disappeared, and thence- 
forth no Indians were allowed to approach. We admire 
the sagacity which preserved peace as long as peace was 
possible, as well as the wisdom which carried the com- 
munity safely through the treacherous and tortuous wind- 
ings of a cruel war. 

When we speak of the Indian War, we must recall the 



fact that the Indians always employed a method of war- 
fare different from that of civihzed nations. We must not 
think of planned battles nor of large bodies of moving 
soldiers. The picture shows us the stealthy warrior de- 
stroying the isolated home, or waylaying the unsuspecting 
traveller. At times they gathered in sufficient numbers 
to attack a wagon train or even resist a body of troops, 
but this was not the rule. It will not be our object to give 
a full list of the sickening atrocities which took place in 
and around Wachovia, but we will describe a sufficient 
number to impress the fact that Bethabara was really in 
the midst of the terrors of this war which swept over the 
American colonies. 

Allusion has already been made to the fact that open 
hostilities in North Carolina began later than elsewhere, 
because the Indians in this colony were friendly toward 
the whites. This friendship became weaker and then dis- 
appeared. For a time the semblance of a neutral posi- 
tion was maintained. But the actions of the Indian bands 
proclaimed a spirit of growing hostility. Finally, when 
their true position could no longer be concealed by arti- 
fice, the Cherokees and Creeks declared war, and the news 
was announced to the Bethabara settlement in October, 
1759. From that time on there was no further attempt 
on either side to maintain even the semblance of friend- 
ship. It is true that we find, recorded in the diary, the 
statement that they did not seek the destruction of their 
enemies as in the Old Testament days, but at the same 
time we see no further personal contact with the redmen. 
The " good people with plenty of bread " entertained no 
more bands of Indians, nor was the pipe of peace, nor 
any other pipe, presented to the passing savages. When 
the tribes declared war, the Bethabara settlers accepted 


the situation, and thenceforward even the wary spies were 
detected and promptly fired upon. 

After the news of the declaration of war reached them, 
they carefully cleared all the undergrowth from the forest 
around the towns (for Bethania had been begun three 
miles northwest of Bethabara), and made the road wider 
between these two places, to prevent ambuscade. The 
high hill west of Bethabara became a watch tower, and in 
time of special peril the watchman scanned the horizon 
for miles around to detect the first sign of the approach 
of the enemy. The visitor of to-day should always pause 
as he ascends the steep hill leading to the Bethabara 
graveyard, and admire the broad expanse of hill and val- 
ley spread out before him, and as he admires the beauties 
of nature, he should recall the perilous task of the solitary 
watchman of 1759. 

The first duty was to rescue their good friend and 
neighbour. Justice Hughes. He sent a messenger to the 
village asking for assistance, as the Indians were sur- 
rounding him and would soon attack his home. Help 
was sent, and when they saw the relief approaching they 

From Salisbury came the most alarming reports. Men 
bore testimony to the dreadful atrocities which they them- 
selves had witnessed. The authorities considered the 
question of drafting every third man for service, but this 
was not done, as there were enough volunteers. Fort 
Dobbs, about forty miles west of Wachovia, had within it 
a number of friendly Indians. Hostile redmen tried to 
entice them from the fort, but were unsuccessful. Fight- 
ing occurred at and around the fort. It was at this time 
that the authorities began to press the campaign against 
the Indians. Some of the Cherokees still maintained the 


semblance of friendship, and they gave a score or more 
hostages for the murders which had occurred. 

Bethabara now made its final plan in case of an attack, 
as everything indicated that the savages were all about 
them and drawing nearer and nearer. They received one 
hundred pounds of powder from the fort as an additional 
supply. Spies approached, and they were promptly 
driven away from the mill, from the fort, and from 
Bethania. At the latter place they were fired upon by 
the guards and quickly disappeared in the forest. The 
volley from the guns of the sentinels was replied to by the 
war-whoop of the Indians concealed in the woods, and the 
diary says it sounded like the " howling of a hundred 
wolves." The scouts sent out from the settlement dis- 
covered tracks of Indians in all this section, a large com- 
pany having encamped for six weeks a short distance 
from Bethabara. 

Much has been written of the New England Pilgrim 
attending to his religious duty with his gun on his 
shoulder as he trudged along over the snow. Should the 
artist of the future depict these godly men in the forests 
of North CaroHna, he will show how, with equal piety, 
they did not neglect their religious duty. With his Bible 
in his hand, and with his trusty rifle on his shoulder, with 
the most pressing dangers about him, the inhabitant of 
Wachovia went to his usual place of worship. Or again, 
the picture may be drawn, showing the congregation de- 
voutly singing and praying in the church, while in front 
are stacked the guns, the sentinel pacing up and down to 
guard against sudden attacks. 

The month of March was a month of terror. On the 
9th of the month a man arrived at Bethabara, who had 
fallen into the hands of the murderous bands. He had 


escaped and fled to Bethabara. There were among the 
refugees at the latter place a Mr. Fish and his son, who 
had been driven from home on the Yadkin River. The 
father and son asked this man to whom we have referred 
to accompany them, to see whether their house had es- 
caped the torch of the redman. Before they reached the 
Fish homestead they entered an ambush from which the 
arrows flew thick and fast. Father and son fell dead. 
The stranger was wounded in two places, one arrow pass- 
ing through his body and protruding from his back. He 
fled from his enemies and escaped by fording the Yadkin 
River. He did not draw out the arrows, knowing that 
without medical aid he would bleed to death. In fact, he 
felt that he could not survive the effects of his wounds, 
and he wished to receive spiritual advice before he died. 
Accordingly he turned toward Bethabara. In his 
wounded and suffering condition he suddenly saw a com- 
pany of savages approaching. Plunging into the river, 
he again crossed and eluded the Indians. By this time 
night was approaching and it began to rain. How pitiful 
the condition of this wounded man, as all night long, in 
the rain and darkness, he wandered in pain and dread of 
meeting another company of murderers ! At the end of 
twenty-four hours he arrived at Bethabara, and the arrows 
were extracted by a skilful physician. Dr. Bonn. 

A detachment of soldiers were near, and with Lash 
and others as guides they determined to march to the 
scene of the murder and give the bodies Christian burial. 
Before reaching their destination a new trouble met 
them. A farmer had been besieged in his home, and 
with his trusty rifle was defending himself and his family. 
The savages had succeeded in setting fire to the house, 
and the experience on the Mahoni was about to be 



repeated. The flames were taking hold of the building, 
and in a few moments more the atrocious work of the 
pitiless band would be completed. Suddenly the sharp 
report of the guns of the soldiers were heard, one savage 
fell dead, and the remainder saved themselves by flight. 
The soldiers did not feel that they dared pursue the 
Indians, nor did they continue their march to the scene 
of the Fish murder, as they discovered how large was 
the number of the enemy. They were satisfied to have 
rescued the farmer and his family, all of whom they took 
to Bethabara for protection. This occurred March 11. 

The next day an appeal for help came from the neigh- 
bourhood of what is now Walnut Cove, the inhabitants 
stajting that they were surrounded by the enemy. A com- 
pany made up of soldiers and others hurried to the relief 
of the besieged. They returned and brought with them 
those who still survived, but help came too late for two 
families, Robinson and Leslie. One case is particularly 
pitiful. This man had surrounded his humble home with 
an outer defence, a small palisade. When the enemy 
approached, he took shelter behind his improvised fortifica- 
tion. He was driven from his yard into his log house. 
But still he resisted. Only when his last load of powder 
had been used did his enemies overcome him ; he and 
his family fell victims to the tomahawk, and in a brief 
space only a few ashes remained where was before a 
happy home — truly an experience as thriUing as any 
related in the Leather Stocking Tales. 

One week after the rescue of the people of Town Fork 
neighbourhood, three ministers were journeying south to 
where Salem was later founded. One was a Baptist 
minister by name Thomas. They were attacked by the 
Indians, Thomas was slain, and later his body was found. 


The second minister escaped, but of the third nothing 
was ever heard. He was doubtless captured and reserved 
for the torture. 

Does the reader ask how fared Bethabara itself ? 
Indians were all about them. Two refugees residing at 
the mill, by name Makefy and Woodman, went into the 
forest. Having ventured too far from the protection of 
the company residing there, Makefy was shot and left 
by the Indians, who thought him dead. A passing stran- 
ger brought him to us. Woodman was captured by the 
enemy, and of him nothing more was heard. 

Even those within the fort were not secure. Two 
women were milking the cows near the stockade, quite 
unconscious of impending danger. Looking up, they saw 
two Indians peering over the fortifications, with their 
faces disfigured with war-paint. A scream of terror 
sounded through the enclosure. The Indians fled, but 
this incident, coupled with the murder at the mill, illus- 
trates their danger. 

Not until some time later did the Bethabara people 
know their peril at this time. A large body of Cherokees, 
having lost a distinguished chief, determined to take 
revenge. This was doubtless the party who committed 
the murders we have described. They had planned on 
a number of occasions to attack and destroy the village. 
When approaching the fortifications, they heard the ring- 
ing of the bell, and by this they understood that they had 
been discovered. They then withdrew. The bell was only 
intended to call the congregation to their evening service. 
Again the redmen planned an attack, and when stealthily 
surrounding the fort they heard a trumpet sound out in 
the stillness of the night, and thinking that their plan had 
been discovered, they hastily retreated. The trumpet 


was really that of the night watchman, who was only 
announcing that another hour had passed. Little he 
knew that he was wielding a protection which was as 
potent as would have been the rifles of the soldiers. 
Thus a number of weeks passed, and a kind Providence 
held his protecting hand over his people till the hostile 
Cherokees moved to another section. 

The information in regard to the action of the band of 
Cherokees around Bethabara, and who were repeatedly 
prevented from attacking the fort, was received from 
two interpreters, by name William Priest and Aaron 
Rice, and they received the information from the well- 
known chief, " Little Carpenter." 

It became evident that this state of affairs would have 
to be brought to an end, and toward the close of 1760, 
and especially in 1761, larger bodies of troops began to 
move here and there, with the determination to check 
the heartless murders of harmless settlers and helpless 
women and children. In place of the continued tales 
of woe and suffering which had reached Bethabara the 
past two years, came the news of the successes of the 
militia. One of the murdering bands had been discovered 
on the Catawba, and before they could escape twenty of 
their number had been killed. The Indians did not 
always submit to the soldiers, but in some cases were very 
bold. A wagon train, with an escort of five hundred 
soldiers, was attacked near the South Carolina line, 
and a desperate battle followed. There were one 
thousand Indians in the attacking party. 

This new phase of the war changed the situation of 
things, and brought about its peculiar experiences. 
Farming had been greatly neglected in many sections 
during this time, and yet the soldiers had to be fed. The 


demands upon Wachovia were great, and well it was 
that they sowed and reaped and bought grain. They 
complied with all the demands of the increasing number 
of soldiers. Even with the arrival of the troops their expe- 
riences were not always pleasant. As a Virginia regiment 
passed through Bethabara, discontent was abroad among 
the soldiers. When they neared Bethania it culminated 
in a mutiny. Lash recognized the situation, and per- 
suaded them to camp on the creek, away from the 
village. That night a court martial was held, and the 
record says "a dreadful execution took place." 

The last important event in the war occurred in June, 
1 76 1. Colonel Bird sent a messenger to Wachovia, in- 
forming them that an invasion had been made into 
the middle section of the Cherokees. The most severe 
measures were necessary. Accordingly the soldiers 
burned fifteen villages, in which there were eight hun- 
dred houses, and they also destroyed eighteen hundred 
acres of corn. A similar campaign was entered upon 
in Virginia, and these two efforts broke the power of 
the Indians. 

It was some time before the usual quiet was restored. 
Many desperate characters were passing hither and thither. 
Murders still occurred in various sections. The people at 
the mill were not always upright, still, in a time of danger 
they could not be ordered off. Famine, too, was abroad 
in the land, but they rose to the needs of the times, and 
the writer of the Bethabara diary says, " This year we 
became a storehouse (bread room) for the entire western 
portion of North Carolina." 



Before leaving the period of the Indian War, we will 
study the internal history of Wachovia. It might well be 
supposed that with all the difficulties there could be little 
progress, yet the contrary is true. All their trades and 
industries increased because of the needs of the times. 
Their farming operations were on a larger scale than 
usual. Their wagons were going hither and thither, and 
their store and mill were centres of activity. 

After the arrival of the first twelve settlers, others jour- 
neyed from Pennsylvania from time to time. Some of 
these came to direct and plan, and to establish the proper 
relationship between Wachovia and the central church 
government in Germany. Among these were Spangen- 
berg, Nitschman, Boehler, Zeisberger, Hehl, and others. 
Some came as leaders and directors of the communities, 
and remained several years. Still others came to make 
North Carolina their permanent home. Single men 
arrived in larger or smaller companies. A band of boys 
walked the entire distance from Bethlehem, and entered 
the various trades to " grow up with the country." 

The advent of the first married couples was a marked 
event. Two years had passed since the first twelve men 
had entered the little hut built by Hans Wagner. These 
years had been busy years, but no doubt there was often 
the desire for the pleasures of home life. These unmar- 



ried men had erected a large house which they now occu- 
pied, and when they heard that the first married couples 
were on their way to Wachovia, they began to prepare 
with great zeal for the erection of what was termed a 
"Congregation House." In this building the married 
people would reside, and in the same house would be 
located the new meeting hall or chapel. As the days and 
weeks went by, the interest in the approaching company 
increased, and when it was finally announced that on the 
morrow they would reach Bethabara, we can well imagine 
the hurry and bustle which attended the final preparation. 
Toward evening, November 4, 1755, the long-expected 
company arrived. A formal reception was tendered them 
that evening. There were twenty-nine in the party, four- 
teen of whom were married people. Including all who 
came since the beginning, we find that there were sixty 
members in the congregation at the end of the second year. 

On the evening of November 9, Fries writes : " This 
closes the diary of the single brethren. What shall I say 
who have served a year and a half in this field .-* Praise 
the Lord for all his blessings ! " 

Heretofore they lived in one house, sat down to one 
table, and conferred as " a committee of the whole," on 
all subjects relating to the work of the community, and 
the record says " nothing was decided without the advice 
of all having been given." It was a happy collegiate life 
in which they were joined very closely together. It was 
said that Fries, who was their devoted spiritual adviser 
during this time, and who later served the church faith- 
fully elsewhere, always spoke in the warmest terms of the 
happiness of those days, when they made the beginning 
of the new work in North Carolina. 

At this time we find a note in regard to what is termed 


the smaller conference, " Enge Conferenz." As their num- 
ber had now increased so as to make it impossible to gather 
together the entire community for the consideration of 
each and every question, and as the company was now 
made up of men, women, and children, the smaller con- 
ference was begun, and was no doubt composed of the 
ministers and the heads of the several divisions of the 
congregation. It was the beginning of the government 
by elected or ex-officio boards. 

More space might be given to the visitors of note, either 
Moravians or others. We might speak of Bishop Spang- 
enberg, who is so well known because of his writings, 
and is beloved because of his godly life and his genial dis- 
position, as well as his scholarly attainments. We could 
expand on the visit of Bishop Boehler, so well known to 
all Methodists, the friend and spiritual adviser of John 
Wesley when he was being prepared for his great work 
by the spirit of God. We might mention more at length 
the great Indian missionary, David Zeisberger, who spent 
sixty years in missionary labours, and whose body is buried 
on the banks of the beautiful Tuscarawas River, in Ohio. 
To these could be added the names of Hehl and Nitsch- 
man, and others, who, by their successful labours and de- 
voted lives, have come down in history as great men in the 
cause of Jesus Christ. 

In like manner we could relate how the village was 
visited by the chief justice on more than one occasion, 
how they welcomed Colonel Bird and Colonel Frohok, 
and other well-known military men of their day, nor 
would it be right to forget the Philadelphia botanist who 
spent some time in Wachovia, and declared that the hill- 
side west of Bethabara was a " treasure-house for the bot- 
anist." We might tell of the cultured and refined Swiss 



lady who came many miles to make purchases of goods, 
and who left greatly pleased by the visit, but who met 
with an untimely end on her return journey, probably 
drowned while crossing one of the streams. The entire 
subject of the arrivals and the departures we will include 
in the following list of all who came and went from 1753 
to 1762. In the later years the numbers were so great 
that this list will be the only one which can include the 
entire membership. 

Grube, Rev. Bernhard Adam. 

Lash, Jacob. 

Kalbeflahn, Dr. Hans Martin. 

Peterson, Hans. 

Merkly, Christoph. 

Lash, Herman. 

Ingebretsen, Erich. 

Feldhausen, H enrich. 

Lischer, John. 

Lung, Jacob. 

Pfeil, Friedrich Jacob. 

Beroth, Jacob. 

Koenigsderfer, Rev. Gottlob. 

Seidel, Rev. Nathaniel. 

Haberland, Rev. Joseph. 

April 15, 1754. 
Fries, Rev. Jacob. 

Sept. 10, 1754. 
Boehler, Bishop Peter. 
Hoeger, Andrew (Surveyor). 

Oct. 26, 1754. 
Christensen, Hans Christoph. 

(For the miU). 
von der Merk, Jacob. 
Schmidt, George. 
Kapp, Jacob. 
Bez, Andrew. 
Holder, George. 

Rancke, John. 
Nagel, John. 

April 28, 1755. 
Nitschman, Bishop David. 
Benzien, Rev. Christian Thomas. 
Stauber, . 

June 13, 1755. 
Rancke, Michael. 
Steiner, Jacob. 
Baumgarten, John George. 

Aug. I, 1755. 
Sauter, John Michael. 

Kreiter, . 

Mueller, Joseph. 

Sept. 15, 1755. 
Wutke, Samuel. 
Goss, Andrew. 
Richter, John. 
Goepfert, George. 

Oct. II, 1755. 
Friebel, Christian. 
Kuerschner, Christoph. 
Angel, William (England). 
Pfeiffer, Christian. 

Nov. 4, 1755. 
Hoffman, Rev. Gottlob. 
Bachhoff, Rev. Ludwig. 
Fogle (Fockel), Gottlieb. 


Kremer (Cramer), Adam. 
Aust, Gottfried. 
Myers, Stephen. 
Rasp, Melchior 
Renner, John George. 
Muenster, Melchior. 
Rauch, Rev. and Mrs. Christian. 
Kuehnast, Mr. and Mrs. Christoph. 
Opiz, Mr. and Mrs. Charles. 
Krause, Mr. and Mrs. Matthew. 
Bieffel, Mr. and Mrs. Henry. 
Schmidt, Mr. and Mrs. Christoph. 
Schaub, Mr. and Mrs. John Fred- 

May 28, 1756, 
Zeisberger, Rev. David. 

Aug. 22, 1756. 
Hehl, Bishop Matthew. 
Seidel, Rev. Christian. 

Sept. 12, 1756. 
BischofF, Rev. and Mrs. David. 

Oct. 29, 1756. 
Grabs, Mr. and Mrs. Gottfried. 
Grabs, William (nine months old). 
Straus, Abraham. 
Schaaf, Jeremiah. 
Heckedorn, Erhard. 
Hoffman, Thomas. 
Anspach, Nicholas. 

Dec. 31, 1756. 
Mack, Martin. 
Garrison, Nicholas. 

June 28, 1757. 
Pizman, . 

Nov. 17, 1757. 
Lawatsch, Mr. and Mrs. Anton. 
Lueck, Mr. and Mrs. Martin. 
Lueck, Magdalin. 
Hege, Mr. and Mrs. Balthasar. 

Lash, Mrs. Anna. 

July 22, 1758. 
Ettwein, Rev. John. 
Rogers, Rev. and Mrs. Jacob. 
Nilson, Mr. and Mrs. Jonas. 
Renter, Gottlieb (surveyor). 
Lenzner, Henry. 
Wuertele, John. 
Blum, Jacob. 
Lash, George. 

Nov. II, 1758. 
Bonn, Dr. Jacob. 

May 30, 1759. 
Seidel, Catharina. 
Kalberlahn, Catharina. 
Lash, Barbara. 
Ranke, Elizabeth. 
Beroth, Maria Elizabeth. 
Kremer, Barbara. 
Ettwein, Johanna Maria. 

June 5, 1759. 
Spangenberg, Bishop and Mrs. 
Buerstler, John. 

June 25, 1759. 
Schaus, Andrew. 

Dec. 31, 1759. 
Odenwald, Michael. 

July 23, 1760. 
Dickson, Mr. and Mrs. Christian, 
von der Merk, Christina. 
Schubert, Dr. John A. 
Edwards, William. 

Feb. 15, 1 761. 
Post, John Frederick. 
Bonn, John. 

June 8, 1762. 
Graff, Rev. and Mrs. John Michael, 
von Gammon, Mr. and Mrs. Abra- 


Transou, Mr. and Mrs. Philip. Grosh, Felicitas. 

Transou, Abraham. Holder, Elizabeth. 

Transou, Philip. Palmer, Elizabeth. 
Transou, Maria. Nov. 14, 1762. 

Herbst. John Henry. KofBer, Adam. 

Witke, Elizabeth. Stoz, Peter. 
Leibert, Maria. 

Although we have devoted some space to the industrial 
features of the first year, it is necessary to allude to these 
matters in the period now under consideration. 

In the year 1755 six houses were finished, or nearly fin- 
ished, in addition to the smaller ones described earlier in 
the history. 

Mill. Kitchen. 

Congregation house. Smith shop. 

Single brethren's house. Home for the miller. 

The erection of all these was accomplished without seri- 
ous accident, though one of the workmen had his arm 
broken, and on New Year's Day, 1756, the large frame- 
work in one of the buildings fell, but providentially all the 
workmen were away at the time. The mill gave them 
some trouble before all was in order. The iron bearings 
of the large wheel were defective, hence they had to be 
taken out and repaired. The first millstones were found 
to be too soft, therefore another set had to be quarried 
and dressed. Gradually all things were arranged. The 
married people moved into their house March 5, 1756, 
and the single men were again given possession of their 
home. A bell was placed in position, the same that 
alarmed the Indians when they had gathered for the 
attack. This bell was blown down from its frame about 
the close of the Indian War, and was broken. An organ 
was brought to Bethabara in 1762. 


The farming was successful during these years. They 
understood how to get the best results. One year during the 
war they planted an additional sixty acres in wheat, because 
they thought the demands would be greater than usual. 

In 1759 they harvested 1400 bushels of grain. 

In 1 76 1 the harvest is described as follows : — 

1984 shocks of wheat. 7 wagon loads of barley. 

304 shocks of rye. 

The harvest of 1 762 was as follows : — 

1009 bushels of wheat. 40 bushels of buckwheat. 

163 bushels of rye. 73 bushels of flaxseed. 

328 bushels of barley. 114 bushels of corn. 

300 bushels of oats. 

2027 total. 

This was several hundred bushels more than the year 

The commercial interests were not as great prior to 1 763 
as after that date. At the same time, some of the indus- 
tries had assumed creditable proportions, among them the 
pottery trade. When it was known that a kiln would be 
burned, large crowds gathered, and the ware was sold as 
soon as taken out. People came fifty miles and more to 
the mill for flour and meal. 

We notice a number of entries in the diary which can- 
not be classified, but must be given as independent items. 
As early as this we note the request of parents to have 
their children cared for by the Moravians, as if the love 
of the church for children had been recognized before the 
day of schools. 

There is a record of the appointment of fire inspectors, 
that is, men whose duty it was to inspect the condition of 
each house, to be sure that there was no risk of fire from 
neglect or defect. 



A request came to them from South Carolina to estab- 
lish a colony, a grant of land having been offered them. 
Request also came from Fayetteville to establish a ware- 
house, in order that their commercial interests might be 

We read that on a certain day all engaged in opening 
a new road which they termed " The king's highway." 

The government paid the usual bounty for all the wolf 
scalps which were presented to the proper authorities. 

Wrld pigeons passed in great flocks ; so numerous were 
they that the air was darkened by their numbers, and 
when they settled for the night great Umbs of trees were 
broken by the weight of their numbers. 

The poll tax was a little more than $2. 

The professional work done by Kalberlahn and Bonn is 
worthy of our admiration. Not only were they called 
upon to attend to the ordinary forms of illness, but espe- 
cially difficult cases arose. Wounded men were brought 
to Bethabara, and received the best care and interest- We 
are told of one man who had his skull fractured. A 
part of the skull pressed upon the brain, and his mind 
was affected. By a skilful operation the splinter of bone 
was removed and the man's reason was restored. It is of 
interest to note the visit of the Bethabara physician to 
Hans Wagner, the same farmer whose hut had sheltered 
the first settlers when they arrived in 1753. In the records 
we find the note that on a certain occasion " all the people 
in Bethania were bled by the direction of the physician." 
A list of the medical herbs gathered is recorded and a 
laboratory and a drug store established. During this 
period the good and famous physician Kalberlahn died, 
and Bonn arrived. The latter won great honour in the War 
of the American Revolution, as a physician and surgeon. 


In the domestic life we find among the arrivals, which 
were now increasingly frequent, the names of a number of 
single women who came in 1762. It is but logical to find, 
later in the year, the record of the first marriages in 

The first death occurred December 26th, 1757, — a little 
child, the infant daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Opiz, by name, 

Anna Maria. 

In speaking of this death the diary says, " She was gath- 
ered in as the first flowret in Wachovia by our Heavenly 
Gardener, and her little tenement was sown as the first 
grain of wheat in this God's acre, which upon this occa- 
sion was consecrated." 

The first child born in Bethabara was a little girl, the 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Krause, the date being May 11, 
1756. The name was 

Anna Johanna. 

The political history of Wachovia during this period is 
both interesting and important, and parts are given in 
detail in the record. In 1755 the legislature was peti- 
tioned to constitute Wacho\aa a separate parish. This 
petition was granted. Benzien and Stauber were the 
representatives from Wachovia to present the petition. 
Jacob and Herman Lash waited on the governor in New- 
berne, in December, and received official notice that the 
bill was a law. The representatives of the Bethabara 
congregation were graciously received by Governor Dobbs. 

In April, 1756, the Act of the Assembly was communi- 
cated to the congregation by Ranch and Angel. By this 
act twenty men were created freeholders, and each man re- 
ceived fifty acres of land. In May these twenty men were 
summoned to Salisbury to be invested with their new 


powers. The journey was somewhat difficult for so large 
a company, but at nine o'clock, June i, all arrived in Salis- 
bury. The record gives a detailed account of the visit, and 
we copy the extract, which throws light upon the experi- 
ences at court one hundred and fifty years ago : — 

" In Sahsbury some lodged at Mr. Burry's in a little 
room. Hughes and the Sheriff welcomed them. Weidell, 
a captain of the fort, of nice appearance, paid his respects. 
He had met Benzien at Newbern. In his reception he 
was very kind. They had a short discussion and all went 
to the court house to elect vestrymen. A herald took 
their names, and then made known to them their duties. 
The vote of the Freeholders was taken, and the names of 
the vestrymen made known to the public. When this was 
done the Chief Justice announced to the vestrymen that 
they would have to appear at court and select two wardens. 
The Sheriff said that as it would be a task for so many to 
travel to Salisbury he would himself come to Bethabara to 
qualify them. They gladly accepted his offer. Twelve 
vestrymen were chosen. Thus the affair happily ended. 

" Chief Justice Handely and other gentlemen were 
invited to dine with us, but the Chief Justice had to con- 
tinue the sitting of the court. The Sheriff with Hughes 
and Carter came and sat down with us. We had an enjoy- 
able time in our social intercourse. After the meal we 
bade them farewell. The Sheriff took Lash and Rauch to 
pay their respects to the Chief Justice, who was profuse in 
his professions of friendship. 

" After this we got ready for our journey, which began 
at three o'clock. We went eighteen miles and camped 
where we had been the day before for dinner. Haltem and 
two others were with us. Haltem had recovered his stolen 


horse. He went on to Wachovia, as his family was at 
Bethabara. A thunderstorm drenched the party, as it 
poured rain for two hours. We arrived well and happy. In 
the evening meeting Ranch gave an account of the visit to 

June 21, Justice Hughes visited Wachovia to complete 
the organization of Dobbs Parish. The record says : — 

" The Vestrymen gathered in Lash's room before break- 
fast. There the oath was taken. We answered "yes." 
Thus we were qualified to legally act. Our first step was 
to select two wardens. We elected Lash and Wutke. 
The organization was now complete according to the wish 
of our hearts. We thanked the Lord that it is so. A 
breakfast was served, and remuneration given to the 

The vestry meeting was held the first month of each 
year, and the proper officials elected. 

Rogers, an EngHsh-speaking minister, came to Bethab- 
ara, this evidently being one of the requirements of the 
regulations of Dobbs Parish. In August formal notice 
was sent to the governor that the English pastor had 
arrived, and that he would later present himself in person. 
In January he visited both Newbern and Brunswick, and 
was formally presented to Governor Dobbs. Several visits 
to the governor were made by others. On one of these 
visits. Lash was made justice of the peace, and during the 
war he was appointed official commander of the men at 
Bethabara and Bethania, so that in case of emergency he 
could act with full military authority. This authority was 
called into use on more than one occasion when turbulent 
crowds threatened harm. The freeholders were authorized 
to vote for members of the legislature. 


The festival services were held regularly, and special 
mention is made of Christmas and Easter. At the Christ- 
mas meetings there was great rejoicing, and we are told 
that the presentation of lighted wax candles to the children 
was begun thus early. On one Christmas eve the little 
children from the stranger families at the mill were invited 
to the church, and each child was presented with a little 
card, and was served with a love-feast bun and coffee. 
They were a ragged and neglected little company, "so 
poorly clad," says the diary, "that it seems the very stones 
would cry out in pity." In addition to the material pleas- 
ures, the minister gave good words of religious advice. 

At the Easter services the company was increasingly 
large. These were soul-stirring occasions, and though 
many had strange and fantastic ideas in regard to what 
they expected to witness, all returned to their homes 
impressed with the deep religious spirit which actuated 
the congregation. 

In 1763 they celebrated the tenth anniversary of the 
arrival of the first settlers in Wachovia, and by this time 
peace and prosperity were again abroad in the land. 

Three miles north of Bethabara is located what was 
called the Black Walnut Bottom. Early in their history 
land was cleared, and in 1759 the question of providing 
for certain existing circumstances brought this section 
before them. A number of persons were drawn very 
close to them in sympathy and had expressed a desire to 
unite with the church. These outside friends could not 
readily be received into the congregation of Bethabara, 
since there was a certain community of material affairs 
which would have failed as soon as a strange or unsympa- 
thetic element was introduced. Hence these strangers had 
continued to live with or near the Moravians, but had not 


united with them. Furthermore, there were within the 
church a number of famihes who desired to have more 
individuahty in their home interests. The condition of 
affairs in Wachovia made the community of interests very 
desirable at the beginning, but it was never the plan of the 
church to deprive the members of the right to own prop- 
erty. To meet the wants of these two classes it was 
decided to begin another village at the Black Walnut Bot- 
tom, in which the members could own their homes, conduct 
their own housekeeping independent of the general econ- 
omy, and a part of the town was assigned to the strangers 
who had applied for membership and later became mem- 
bers. This village was to be only a village, as was also 
Bethabara. The larger central town was to be established 
at some point to be later selected. To this new settlement 
was given the name " Bethania." 

Bishop Spangenberg came to Wachovia in 1759, six years 
after his first visit, when he and his party surveyed the 
land. June 12, Spangenberg, Seidel, and Jacob Lash 
decided the exact location of Bethania. It is on a gently 
sloping hillside, north of the Black Walnut Bottom. On 
the 30th of the same month the streets and lots were laid 
out. About thirty town lots were marked off, and two 
thousand acres set aside for the use of the Bethania con- 
gregation. This land was divided into smaller sections to 
be rented to the members. The records of the first days in 
the establishment of this new village of Bethania have a 
peculiar interest, because of the sad and even tragic cir- 
cumstances connected with the writing. The diary was 
probably written by Christian Seidel. He was active in 
prosecuting the work at Bethania. At a certain point the 
handwriting in the original manuscript changes, and this 
is the exact time when Seidel was stricken with the fatal 


fever. Hence the extract which follows may be looked 
upon as one of the last acts of the good man who had fol- 
lowed the remains of his devoted wife to the grave, and 
who was himself carried thence so soon after. The journal 
says in regard to the founding of Bethania : — 

"July 9, 1759. — In the morning we held a conference 
in regard to building Bethania. Renter, the surveyor, 
was appointed to lay out the new road from the mill. 
July 10. — Seidel and Lash with eight men went early to 
make the road, and to cut down wood for the houses. 
Erected our tent in the midst of the forest in the centre 
of the location of the new town. July 11. — We had 
our morning devotions, in which Bishop Spangenberg 
gave his benediction to the whole company, but especially 
to the Bethania party who were beginning their work. 
The company began their labours by opening the road. 
They were served with breakfast, there being sixteen in 
the party. Noon arrived, and dinner was eaten in the 
tent in the Bethania square. After the meal we began 
transporting the timbers for the Grabs house. Renter 
measured the square, and marked the location of the 
houses. In the latter part of the afternoon we had a 
religious service. July 12. — We were awakened by some 
of the brethren beginning to sing hymns, and when ready 
for the work of the day, we went to the place where 
the Grabs house is to be located. The morning prayers were 
conducted on this spot, and we prayed that those who 
would reside in the house, as well as all the future inhab- 
itants of the town, might be blessed. The service drew 
us very near to each other in the bonds of brotherly love. 
Last evening we heard the Bethabara trumpet, three miles 
distant Renter and Peterson went back to Bethabara. 



Kapp became ill and had to remain in his tent. At ten 
o'clock the old man Hauser came to cut timber for his 
house. Jacob Steiner presented a pound of sugar to 
those who were sick. In the afternoon we had a heavy 
rain and thunder-storm. Spangenberg came soon after, 
and was pleased to see that the framework was up. We 
had a fine evening service. Spangenberg remained all 
night. July 13. — After the morning service we cut out 
the road to the stone quarry, and made a bridge over the 
creek. Later a number of men came from Bethabara. 
Holder and Spangenberg returned to Bethabara. The 
foundation stones of the Grabs house are in place, and 
the chimney commenced. Shingles placed on the roof. 
Sixteen at work. By sundown we had finished our work, 
and returned to Bethabara. July 15. — Conference about 
second house in Bethania. This house is to be thirty 
feet long and twenty feet wide, and is to serve as a model 
for the future dweUing-houses. At four o'clock Spang- 
enberg notified us that on Wednesday, Brother Grabs 
would move to Bethania, and he designated other brethren 
who would live there. Brother Grabs has already been 
assigned to his house. The lots were divided as follows : — 

No. I. — Grabs. No. 20. — Hege. 

No. 2. — Beroth. No. 21. — Biefel. 

No. 4. — Kremer. No. 22. — Opiz. 

No. 5. — Ranke. No. 23. — Schmidt. 

July 16. — We went to Bethania and the wagons followed 
us. Lash came later. The day's work was to clear lot 
No. 6, for the meeting hall. This was to be the second 
building, and in addition to this we were to cut more 
logs. The chimney of the Grabs house finished. July 17. — 
Our morning prayers were held on the location of the 
second house. The text of the day was about the servants 


of the Lord, a fitting scripture for the day that we laid 
the foundation of the church. Grabs came from Bethab- 
ara, and Lash and Seidel returned. July i8. — Peterson 
went to Bethabara. Grabs, his wife, and his little son 
William moved into their new house ; they are the first 
inhabitants of Bethania. Service conducted by Spangen- 
berg on the site of the new church, his text being taken 
from the 23d Psalm. Shore received lot No. 10 and 
Strupe No. 17. [These two names are spelled in the 
old record Shoer and Strube.] July 19. — In the after- 
noon Lash returned. Seidel called home by the illness of 
his wife. Otherwise the work continued as usual. Renter 
measured sixty acres of land to be cleared. He also laid 
out an orchard. A road was made from Dorothea Creek. 
Made shingles and nailed them on. One side of the meet- 
ing hall finished. Seidel sent word that Mrs. Rogers 
was dead. Most of the brethren went to the funeral. 
July 21. — Some of the members visited Bethania, among 
them Spangenberg. He conducted the meeting." 

Here the diary suddenly stops. We know that on the 
next day Mrs. Seidel died, and a little later Seidel visited 
Bethania. While there he became ill and felt that his 
end was probably near. A few days later he entered 
into his rest. 

This sad dispensation introduces us to the period 
which we have termed the time of sorrow. There is 
no chapter in the entire history of one hundred and fifty 
years so sad as that of the summer of 1759. The work of 
the Moravian colony had been blessed. Good and earnest 
men and women had come to North Carolina to make it 
their home. The village of Bethabara was growing. The 
new village of Bethania had been founded. Their har- 


vests were abundant, and their efforts in every direction 
were being crowned with success. Even the terrors of 
the Indian War did not ampen their ardour, yet at this 
time the saddest experience possible came upon them. 

This terrible visitation was a deadly fever. We do not 
know what was the exact nature of the disease, but it 
was stated that it was contagious, that the blood of the 
patient became " boiling hot," that there was in some 
cases a white eruption, and that the sickness lasted only 
from two to four days. After considering all the symp- 
toms described in the diary, medical men of our day 
give it as their opinion that it was probably typhus, or 
ship fever, no doubt brought to the settlement by one of 
the numerous strangers passing through from a seaport 
town. Whatever may have been the nature of the disease, 
the results were speedy and fatal. The first to succumb 
was Mrs. Rogers, the wife of the English pastor. She 
died at noon on the 19th of July, 1759. The next day 
her body was tenderly laid to rest in the graveyard on 
the hill, a large concourse of friends being present. Two 
days later Mrs. Seidel, the wife of the German pastor, died, 
and on July 23 she was buried in the same sacred spot, 
which they termed their " Hutberg." After three days 
the spirit of Seidel took its flight, and at that time Dr. 
Kalberlahn, the faithful and able physician, became ill. 
He heard of several cases of sickness in the town, and 
deplored the fact that he could not go to them, and relieve 
their suffering. Two days after the death of the minister 
the physician closed his eyes in the last long sleep, and 
on the 30th of the month, Ingebretzen, one of their 
business managers, died. He had a foreboding of his 
coming end. On the 27th of the month he closed his 
accounts, and going to his superior in office he stated 


that, though four days remained in the month, if his 
forebodings were fulfilled he could turn over all things 
in order. His premonitions were realized and the same 
day the fever took hold of him. Before the close of the 
month he had closed all his earthly accounts, and his 
body was laid to rest beneath the sighing pines. 

To understand fully the dark cloud of sorrow which 
fell upon them, we must recall all the surrounding circum- 
stances. Even though prosperity was smiling upon them, 
they were only a little band, a month's journey away 
from their nearest friends. A cruel and relentless war 
was in progress around them. How sad the company 
of mourners as they returned from the funeral of Mrs. 
Rogers, and how much heavier their hearts as the second 
consecrated woman was laid to rest beside her ! Then the 
blow fell on their minister, and alarm began to mingle 
with heaviness of heart, only to be increased and intensi- 
fied as their physician so soon followed. And when the 
warden and others were called home, no doubt the question 
uppermost in their minds was, "Where will this end .'' " 

This time of sorrow needs no comment. It was so 
deep and terrible that even at this distant day our sym- 
pathy flows out to the stricken little colony. But their 
faith in an all-wise Providence was never shaken, and on 
the following Easter the congregation gathered on the 
hill at sunrise, in the midst of the green graves of their 
loved ones. The people from the mill joined the proces- 
sion, and one hundred and fifty or more stood with bared 
heads, as good Bishop Spangenberg read aloud the con- 
fession of faith, and then solemnly repeated the words : — 

"And keep us in everlasting fellowship with those of 
our brethren and sisters who since last Easter day have 
entered into the joy of their Lord." 


At this point in the prayers, he read in a clear and tender 
voice the names of the departed, — 

Christian Seidel. Samuel Wutke. 

Hans Kalberlahn. Samuel Shaub. 

Henry Biefel. Maria Rogers. 

Eric Ingebretzen. Catharine Seidel. 

John Lentzner. Anna Lash. 

John Negel. Anna Smith. 

The sun rose and bathed the hills and meadows and the 
distant mountains with its glorious morning light. The 
well-armed guards gazed with unrelaxing vigilance into 
the gloomy shadows of the forest, lest the savages should 
choose this sunrise service as the time for a murderous 
assault. The procession was again formed at the con- 
clusion of the prayers, and as it made its way down the 
hill the heavy tramp of soldiers was heard on the oppo- 
site side of the village. This Easter Day in 1760 should 
never be forgotten : the watchful sentinels, guarding 
the praying congregation ; the silent graves, recalling the 
sorrows since last Easter ; the clank of arms as the militia 
filed into the fortified village; the sunshine just as bright 
and gorgeous as if no sorrows threw their dark shadows 
athwart the months ; and above all the triumphant faith 
of those true and brave men whose unwavering trust in 
God was never shaken, and was never more severely tried 
than in 1759 and 1760, and which never appeared in a 
brighter and grander light than on that glorious Easter 
morning one hundred and forty-two years ago. 



I 763-1 773 

The thirty years from the founding of Bethabara, in 
1753, to the celebration of the Peace Jubilee at the close 
of the Revolution are divided into three periods of ten 
years each. The first period includes the founding of 
Bethabara and Bethania ; the second that of Salem ; the 
third the formal organization of Friedberg, Friedland, and 

The first of these ten-year periods brought the colony 
into touch with the natives, their cruelty and treachery, 
during the Indian War. The second introduced them to 
the royal governors, Dobbs, Martin, and Tryon. They 
were in the midst of the struggle which ended in the sup- 
pression of the Regulators, and for a time Tryon had his 
headquarters in Wachovia. During this decade they came 
into close contact with that type of men which passed 
away with the War of Independence. The last one intro- 
duced the new era, and includes the interesting experiences 
of the Revolution. There is a marked contrast between 
each one. 

1753-1763, the redman : his friendship, his treachery, 
his cruel warfare. 

1 763-1 773, the rough Regulators, and side by side with 
them the almost royal ceremonies of the ostentatious Tryon, 



and his struggle with and persecution of these misguided 

1 773-1 783, the American patriot, driving before him the 
British army as the new era is ushered in. 

These are the bold and striking characteristics. The 
Indian troubles have been studied. The period which 
includes the battle of Alamance is now before us. 

We will first consider the affairs of the Province, then 
the founding of Salem ; and finally the account of the two 
visits of Tryon will form a suitable introduction to the time 
of the Revolution. 

1 763-1 773 were eventful years in the internal history of 
Wachovia, and witnessed many important constitutional 
changes. These will be considered in the next chapter. 
The present chapter will bring before the reader the 
affairs of the Province in general. 

The Indian troubles were at an end. No doubt the red- 
man suffered much at the hands of the whites, — a natural 
result of their own cruelties inflicted upon the rude settlers 
during the war. The diary says the inhabitants of Wachovia 
were uneasy regarding the rumours which came to them of 
the sufferings of converted Indians in Pennsylvania. In 
that state the frontiersmen were cruel and unjust in their 
broadcast attacks upon the redmen ; they did not distin- 
guish between the wild, marauding bands and the peaceful, 
civilized Christian Indians. The event to which these re- 
ports referred is thus described by Hamilton, " History of 
the Moravian Church," p. 240 : — 

" Dreading a counterpart of the Conestoga massacre 
at their village. Governor Penn had, therefore, already 
ordered the Moravian Indians to remove to Philadelphia 
for safety, together with their missionaries, Zeisberger, 
Grube, Schmick, and Roth. Excitement ran high in the 


city. Members of the Society of Friends, setting aside 
their peace principles in the conflict of duties, took arms to 
defend their charges, against whom frontiersmen swore 
vengeance. For a time the lives of the missionaries and 
their converts seemed to be in serious danger. But actual 
strife was providentially averted, though the arrangements 
for their sustenance at Province Island, the summer quar- 
antine of the port, were distressingly inadequate, and the 
evidences of insecurity and of possible inability to protect 
them led to an attempt to remove them to New York. 
Thither they proceeded under escort. But when Perth 
Amboy was reached, they were stopped by a peremptory 
inhibition of farther advance, and had to retrace their 
weary steps. Returned to Philadelphia, the barracks were 
assigned as their quarters. Now came a rumour that men 
from Lancaster and Reading were marching on the capital, 
bent on having the lives of the Moravian Indians. Phila- 
delphia surged with excitement. A large part of the 
people sympathized with the Paxton party. Again blows 
were averted by the determined position of the governor 
and his associates, backed by the sober treaty-respecting 
majority. But terrible distress was experienced by the 
Indians and their teachers in their cramped quarters and 
from the unnatural life. Confinement enfeebled them. 
Dysentery and smallpox broke out. From January, 1764, 
to March, 1765, fifty-six victims of barrack life were laid 
in the potter's field." 

No similar scenes were witnessed in North Carolina, for 
even when the military expeditions resorted to the severest 
measures, they merely destroyed the villages and farms, 
but spared their lives. " Little Carpenter " made overtures 
to Bethabara to establish friendly relations, but there is no 
notice of a response to his efforts at that time, though 


later the Moravians were very active in evangelistic efforts 
in his tribe. It was in these years that Governor Tryon 
made his expensive journey to the Indian reservation to 
locate their boundary line, and received the severe criti- 
cisms of his opponents for spending so much money to 
settle such a trivial matter; he greatly rejoiced the chief 
by presenting him with a suit of his own clothing, but the 
gift of the suit of clothing did not make the tribe accept 
his ruling in regard to the reservation lines. On this occa- 
sion the Indians gave the governor the sobriquet, " The 
Great Wolf of North Carolina," and the enemies of the 
governor continued to apply this title, though with a dif- 
ferent meaning. 

The religious work of the period was vigorously and 
successfully done. Within the church itself the services 
were carried on with great earnestness. A number of 
leading men came to Wachovia, either to assist in mak- 
ing the constitutional changes, or to permanently engage 
in the work of the province. We notice such names as 
De Watteville, Gregor, De Schweinitz, Marshall, Utley, 
Soelle, and others. A bishop for Wachovia was conse- 
crated, and men were ordained to the ministry to serve 
as pastors or to superintend the various divisions of the 
congregations. Instruction was regularly given to the 
young people. They were active in the home mission 
work, and the foundation was laid for several new con- 
gregations. Had the church all through the succeeding 
years followed the example of men like Utley and Soelle, 
the Moravian Church in North Carolina would be a large 
and powerful organization. The fathers thought differ- 
ently, and only under special circumstances did they allow 
an outside friend to join the church. 

This decade witnessed the preliminary work of Fried- 


berg, Friedland, and Hope. Friedberg is situated in a 
beautiful grove nine miles south of Salem, Friedland is 
five miles east, and Hope is west about eight miles. Reichel, 
in " Moravians in North Carolina," gives a carefully pre- 
pared account of the founding of these three congregations, 
pp. 69-79. 


In August, 1754, not quite a year after the arrival of 
the first Moravians in Wachovia, Adam Spach settled 
about three miles from the southern line of the land of 
the brethren. In September he visited Bethabara for the 
first time, to become acquainted with his nearest German 
neighbours, and cut a road from his house to Bethabara. 
At a second visit, in December, he requested the brethren 
to send one of their number from time to time to hold 
meetings in his house; but, for various reasons, this re- 
quest could not be complied with at that time. During 
the first alarms of the Indian War he and his wife were 
among those who took refuge in the fort. 

At his oft-repeated and urgent solicitations, Bachhof 
visited Adam Spach on November 26, 1758, and preached 
in his house, eight German families having assembled 
there for the purpose. The commencement was thus 
made, and preaching at this place continued at intervals, 
the number of hearers gradually increasing, and at one 
time considerably augmented by the arrival of some fami- 
lies from Pennsylvania, previously in connection with the 
congregations at Heidelberg and York, who now settled in 
this neighbourhood. 

A meeting-house would have been built by them at once 
if they could have received any promise or assurance of 
receiving a stationed minister. Thus matters remained 


till 1766, when, in answer to their petition, they received 
a promise that a minister would be stationed among them, 
which caused them to prepare immediately for the build- 
ing of a meeting-house. During the preparations of the 
building, Peter Frey died, and was buried in the present 
Friedberg burying-ground. 

The house being finished, Utley consecrated the same 
on March 11, 1769, and kept a love-feast for all those who 
desired to become members of the congregation. On the 
1 2th he preached publicly, and baptized two children, viz. 
Joseph Frey and John Walk. 

They now had stated services every four weeks, and 
very soon fourteen married couples pledged themselves 
to the support of a resident minister. Their names 
were : — 

Valentine Frey. Adam Hartman. Christian Stauber. 

Christian Frey. John Mueller. Martin Walk. 

Peter Frey. John N. Boeckel. Peter Volts. 

George Frey. Frederick Boeckel. Adam Spach. 

George Hartman. Jacob Graeter. 

On February 18, 1770, Bachhof was introduced as their 
minister by Graff and Utley. 

In January, 1772, this society was formally consecrated 
a Moravian Brethren's Congregation, by the name of Fried- 
berg (hill of peace), in which, besides the preaching of the 
gospel and other means of grace, the sacraments were 
henceforth regularly administered, the first communion 
being held January 17, 1772. 

February 19, 1768, the corner-stone was laid for a larger 
church, and this building served till 1827, when the pres- 
ent church was finished and solemnly dedicated. 



In 1769, quite unexpectedly six German families arrived 
from Broad Bay in Maine. They originally belonged to a 
larger company of emigrants from Palatinate and Wiirtem- 
berg, who, about the year 1738 or 1739 had landed near 
Broad Bay and the Muscongus River, in the province of 
Maine. There they had settled and founded the town 
of Waldoboro, so called in honour of the original proprietor 
of the soil, George Waldo. They were Protestants, either 
Lutherans or German Reformed, but for a long while des- 
titute of the means of grace. Since 1762 George Soelle, 
who, before he entered the Church of the Brethren had 
been a Lutheran pastor in Denmark, visited them from 
time to time. Thus they became acquainted with the 
Brethren, and soon began to build a meeting-house with a 
view to retaining Soelle as their resident minister. But as 
there were legal difficulties concerning their title-deeds, 
and they could not enjoy full religious liberty, they re- 
solved, according to Soelle's suggestion, to emigrate to 
North Carolina. Having been shipwrecked on the coast 
of North Carolina, they arrived by way of Wilmington, in 
November, 1769, on the Wachovia tract, poor, wayworn, 
and many of them in ill health. 

As the brethren had not been apprised of their inten- 
tions, no preparations had been made for them. Some 
found a temporary home in Bethabara, others in Salem, 
where some new houses were yet unoccupied. In the 
following year they were joined by another company of 
eight families, with whom Soelle arrived. Not wishing to 
remain in Salem, they determined to commence a settle- 
ment of their own on the southeast corner of the Wachovia 
tract, where nine lots, of two hundred acres each, were sold 


to them, and thirty acres in the centre were reserved for a 
meeting-house, and for school purposes. In 1771 nine 
houses were finished and occupied, and the settlement re- 
ceived the name of Friedland (land of peace). 

In February, 1772, the corner-stone was laid for the 
house destined for church and school purposes. This 
house was consecrated to the worship of the Lord on the 
1 8th of February, 1775, and Tycho Nissen was introduced 
as minister. The names of the members of the society in 
connection with the Brethren's Church were : — 

John Peter and Elizabeth Kroehn. Melchior and Jacobina Schneider. 

Michael and Catharine Rominger. Frederick and Salome Kuenzel. 

Christopher and Barbara Volger. Michael and Elizabeth Seiz. 

Jacob and Barbara Rominger. John and Catharine Lanius. 

Frederick and Anna Maria Miller. Peter and Elizabeth Fiedler. 

Jacob and Margaret Hein. George Frederick and Gertrude 
Peter and Elizabeth Schneider. Hahn. 

Jacob and Elizabeth Ried. 

In September, 1780, this society had meanwhile increased 
to forty persons, and received a regular constitution as a con- 
gregation in full communion with the Brethren's Church. 


As early as the year 1758 Rogers and Ettwein had kept 
meeting on the southwest borders of Wachovia, having 
been invited there by Christopher Elrod and John Douthit, 
who had enjoyed the protection and hospitahty of the 
brethren, while fugitives to the fort, during the Indian 
War. They repeatedly expressed their desire of entering 
into a more close fellowship with the Moravian Church, 
and some attached themselves to the congregation at 


But as this was an entirely German congregation, they 
desired to have an English minister residing in their midst. 
After some years their numbers increased by the arrival 
of several English families from Carrol's Manor, Mary- 
land, where Joseph Powell had preached the gospel to 
them for some years. These were followed by others, a 
year or two later, all settling in the southwest corner of 
the Wachovia tract, near Muddy Creek. For the time 
they participated in the enjoyment of the means of grace 
in the neighbouring congregation of Friedberg, the Breth- 
ren Utley and Soelle attending to the English part of the 

The church building for the Hope congregation was 
finished in 1780. On the 28th of March, of that year, the 
house was solemnly dedicated to the worship of God, and 
John Christian Fritz placed in charge of the little flock of 
Christ, which was, on the 28th of August following, fully 
constituted a congregation of the Brethren's Church. On 
this day, the 28th of August, two married couples, viz. John 
and Mary Padget, and Benjamin and Mary Chitty, were 
added to the congregation ; and on the 24th of September 
the first children, William Pettycord and Elizabeth Elrod, 
were baptized. The holy communion was administered for 
the first time, on October 14, to eight communicants. The 
burial-ground of Hope was laid out during the same year. 

The business interests of this period were large. The 
farming operations were carried on with success, the vari- 
ous trades flourished and increased, while the store drew 
customers from the entire region round about Wachovia. 
Certain articles were standard products of the country and 
were, no doubt, the same as currency or coin. One was 
deerskins. Notice is frequently given of wagons going 


to Charleston loaded with deerskins, and returning with 
goods for the store. While the diary does not give com- 
plete lists, the mention made from time to time shows that 
in seven shipments there was a total of thirty-five thousand 
pounds of deerskins. This being evidently only a small 
portion of the amount sent from the store, we can imagine 
how numerous were the deer in the forest at that time. 
On one occasion sixteen hundred pounds of butter were 
sent to Charleston, four hundred pounds of snakeroot, 
and a number of beaver skins. When the teams went to 
Newburn, shells were brought to burn for lime. 

An interesting fact is stated in connection with orchard 
and garden. In 1768 apples were gathered which measured 
fourteen inches in circumference and weighed seventeen 
ounces. From the garden they gathered cabbages, speci- 
men heads weighing eleven pounds, and these were raised 
from seed without transplanting. 

No great dangers threatened the colony except in 1771, 
during the troubles with the Regulators, described in a 
later chapter. Still the country was a rough, wild section, 
filled with dangers for the individual. Many an hour 
could be occupied with fireside stories for young people, 
gleaned from the headings in the diary, " Preservations." 
The mention of a few will convey to the reader the picture 
of the surroundings. We find notices like these all through 
the period : To-day a very large bear was shot near the 
mill. A wolf attacked a sheep in the barnyard and wounded 
it so that it had to be killed. Snakes were numerous and 
deadly. They were found coiled around the vessels in 
the spring-house, lying on the ledges over the doors, or on 
the steps of the houses. Marshall was walking with a 
friend and had extended his hand to raise the latch of 
the gate. Some one spoke to him at that moment, and 


he turned to reply. As he did so a venomous serpent 
dropped from the latch which he had already extended 
his hand to raise, when interrupted by the voice of his 
friend. Graff was preserved from a great copperhead, 
and rattlesnakes of immense size were killed. 

We note a few items which call for passing mention. 

A meteor fell August 17, 1764. It was so large that 
the surroundings were brightly illuminated. It appeared 
to be very near. We know that large meteoric specimens 
have been found some miles south of Bethabara, possibly 
remains of the one which fell in 1764. 

Mention is made in 1765 of a deadly disease in Wilming- 
ton, which, from the description given, is not unhke the 
fever in Bethabara in 1759. 

Trombones were used for the first time at a funeral 
in 1768. 

A Swiss miner visited Wachovia in 1767 in search of 
minerals. The people wished to find lime, so they joined 
him in his prospecting tours. It is claimed that two and 
a half miles west of Bethabara, on the Johanna Creek, 
lead was found, with a trace of silver. Copper ore was 
also found. 

The original Hans Wagner hut was torn down November, 

A number of new roads were opened to various sections. 

The deed to Mulberry Fields was secured in 1769. 

A number of boys arrived, and began to study the trades 
as apprentices. They were also taught the common school 
branches, and were well cared for. A few restless spirits 
made trouble, and several ran away, while others rebelled 
against authority. It was not an easy matter to adjust, 
but all save one returned to their duties. 

An interesting episode was the unusual circumstances 


surrounding the offer of marriage to Mrs. Gammon a few 
years after the death of her husband. The offer was from 
an English nobleman, on a visit to Florida. He sent a 
prominent officer in his Majesty's service to formally rep- 
resent him in this matter. The lady declined the offer, 
and later returned to her home in England. 

During this decade there were a number of deaths in 
the colony, which were a heavy loss to the communities. 
Dixon, Schropp, Gammon, and Klein were among the 
number. Klein had come to fill an important office. He 
was drowned while trying to cross a stream swollen by 
recent rains. Gammon was the financial leader, a man of 
rare qualities both in his business and his social relations. 
When he was buried, a very large concourse of people 
gathered to pay their respect to his memory, and he was 
spoken of as being a " father to this section of the coun- 
try." Lash was called to Pennsylvania in the period now 
before us. He was very prominent in the affairs of this 
section, having laboured with great faithfulness and ability 
during a residence of sixteen years in Wachovia. 

The social relations of the people of Wachovia with 
others were pleasant. They were envied by some, and 
misunderstood by others ; still all good people were their 
friends. Lash, Bonn, Holder, and others were appointed 
to civil offices. At times fears filled the hearts of the 
people, and we find the note is made that " many colonies 
have been blotted out in these unsettled times, but ours 
has been spared." They were visited by civil and military 
officials, with whom they discussed the odious " stamp act," 
the "threatened negro rebellion," which had been put down 
"by the aid of the Indians," and from the visitors they 
heard of the death of their friend, the aged Governor 
Dobbs, which occurred March 29, 1765. 



I 763-1 773 

The founding of Salem was an important epoch in the 
history of Wachovia. The town, begun in 1766, has in- 
creased till, with Winston, it is now the home of fifteen 
thousand people or more. The towns Salem and Winston 
are divided by only the width of a street, and hence geo- 
graphically are one town. The history of this twin city 
is interesting and important. The business enterprises, 
begun in a modest manner one hundred and thirty-six 
years ago, have continued to grow and increase, and we 
now have a progressive manufacturing town. The profes- 
sional men of that day were well and favourably known, 
and if the history of these men and their successors were 
written, we would have an interesting volume. The man- 
agement of the finances was difficult, but successful, and 
we find all through the generations that follow, men who, 
in a conservative and faithful manner, administer impor- 
tant interests. The care of the young people was a prime 
consideration from the early days, and this same interest 
has made education one of the most cherished objects, so 
that in 1902 there are thirty-seven hundred names on the 
school rolls of Salem and Winston. Religion was greatly 
neglected in many sections in those early days, but from 
the time that the first house of worship was erected, in 
1766, till 1902, the people have been a religious people. 
The community was important from the beginning, has 


continued to exert a power all through the succeeding 
years, and has a call to continue the work of solving cer- 
tain problems in the development of the commonwealth. 
For these reasons a detailed account of the founding of 
Salem will be given. (See map of Wachovia.) 

Near the centre of the tract of one hundred thousand 
acres there is a hillside, at the foot of which is a stream 
called on the first maps the Wach. At this point the 
Wach flows from east to west. A number of smaller 
streams empty into it, among them the Lech, which is a 
mile or more east of Salem, and about the same distance 
west is another small creek called on the map Petersbach. 
The present resident of Salem will at once recognize in 
the Wach, the Salem Creek; in the Lech, the Brushy 
Fork; and in the Petersbach, the Paper Mill, or Peters 
Creek. This body of land, bounded by the Wach, the 
Lech, and the Petersbach, is about three miles wide, and 
slopes upward from the Wach a distance of two miles 
before it reaches the elevation which the land has as it 
stretches northward toward Bethabara. 

These creeks were larger in the earlier days than now, 
since the rains, falling upon the forest-covered land, filtered 
slowly through the covering of leaves upon the ground ; 
while at the present day the rains fall upon the cleared 
hillsides, and rush down into the valleys in a freshet, and 
thus in a day an amount of water flows by which one 
hundred years ago would have slowly found its way down 
the same stream during the entire month. 

This land was the centre of Wachovia, as we have 
already said ; and when Frederick William de Marshall 
arrived for the purpose of selecting the site for the 
central town, he naturally turned his attention to this 


The first mention of a search for the place to locate the 
town was in November, 1764. Marshall, Frommel, Lash, 
and Ettwein went southward down the Petersbach to the 
general Friedberg neighbourhood. They speak of the 
falls of the Wach, which was no doubt some miles below 
Salem, at what was later called Laugenour's or Stafford's 
mill. On this first search they travelled as far south as 
the point where the south fork, middle fork (Wach), and 
the north fork unite before they empty into the Yadkin 
River. This selection was disapproved, as was also the 
one made a month later. A third place was found, and 
this was negatived. December 19 it was made known to 
them that the location was to be between the Petersbach 
and the Lech. 

With the beginning of the new year, the search was 
continued, and all the possible sites along the Petersbach 
and the Lech were examined, but each selection was in 
turn disapproved by the lot. February 14 a place was 
found near the Wach, and about halfway between the 
Petersbach and the Lech. This was approved, which 
gave great happiness to the people. The text for the 
day was, " Let thine eyes be open toward this house night 
and day, even toward the place of which thou hast said 
my name shall be there." (i Kings 8 : 29.) The decision 
was formally announced to the congregation in the evening 
service, and all united in singing : — 

" Die Stadt soil werden 
Dein Lob auf Erden." 

We hear little of the project during the year 1765. 
Marshall returned to Pennsylvania. The name Salem 
(peace) was given by Count Zinzendorf before his death. 
With the beginning of 1766 the work was pushed rapidly 

Frederick William de Marshall 



Before taking up the events connected with the actual 
beginning of the town, we will glance at the life of the 
man who was in a special manner connected with the 
founding of Salem. A careful study of the one hundred 
and fifty years under review show us that, though many 
good, wise, and able men are found all through the years, 
certain men stand out as specially connected with periods 
of development. Spangenberg is the central figure con- 
nected with the beginning of Wachovia. Marshall's influ- 
ence is felt from 1764 to 1802. Louis David de Schweinitz, 
Reichel, and Van Vleck were strong men in shaping affairs 
from 1800 to 1850. Then the names of Bahnson and 
E. A. de Schweinitz stand out prominently during the suc- 
ceeding twenty-five years, and the present period of growth 
and progress has felt in a marked degree the personahty 
of Rondthaler. Thus we recognize the leaders and their 
special work. 

Frederick William de Marshall was born February 5, 
1 72 1. His father was the commander of the great for- 
tress of Konigstein on the river Elbe. Marshall received 
a military training, strict and severe, and was thus fitted 
for the hardships which he was later called upon to en- 
dure, and habits of punctuality and order were formed. 
Doubtless the spirit of the soldier was present when Mar- 
shall and Tryon, in 1771, stood as the central figures of 
the one hundred officers, and witnessed the evolutions of 
the three thousand soldiers on the hillside east of Beth- 
abara. Marshall, when a young man, became acquainted 
with Zinzendorf, and joined the Moravian Church. He 
always took the part of a leader. He spent more than 
sixty years in the service of the church of his adoption, 
and was active till the day of his death, February 11, 1802. 

The first act in the founding of the new town of Salem 


took place January 6, 1766. A company of twelve men 
went from Bethabara to the site selected to clear the 
ground and build the first house. The weather was very 
cold. During the singing of a hymn the work was for- 
mally begun by the felling of the first tree on the lot at 
present belonging to the Shaffner estate, corner of Liberty 
and Shallowford streets. The house which they erected 
is still standing, being a part of the building used many 
years as a pottery. Immediately north of this was erected 
a small second house occupied by hired men. Their home 
was so far completed that February 19 the following per- 
sons moved to Salem, and thus made the beginning : — 

From the Europeon party, Gottfried Praezel, Niels Peter- 
son, Jens Schmidt, and John Birkhead. 

From Bethabara, George Holder, Jacob Steiner, Mi- 
chael Zigler, and Melchior Rasp. 

To Peterson was given the special duty of writing the 
diary and caring for the home, and he and Praezel con- 
ducted the religious services. On the journey to Salem 
two deer were shot. Bagge went with them and spent 
the first night with the party. The wagons carried tiles 
and brick. 

During the month Renter was very busy surveying, and 
ran a straight line over the ridge, probably what is now 
Main Street. This was cleared the same year. At the 
middle of this line a square was laid out, probably between 
Bank and Academy streets, as this was the first selection 
of the open public square around which the large congre- 
gation houses were to be built. At the northwest corner 
they located the first church building, on the lot now occu- 
pied by Hampton's store. It is probably known to but 
few persons that the Salem square was originally one 
block farther north. The reason why it was moved south 


was that, after the place had been decided upon, it was 
found that the water from the springs (south of Calvary 
Church) could be led to the houses only at the lower end 
of the original square. The first church building had 
already been finished, and the above fact explains why it 
was so far north. April, 1766, the first or upper site for 
the square was chosen, and two years later, April, 1768, it 
was decided to locate it one block farther down. Thus 
the first place of worship was not on the public square, 
though according to the original plan it was so located. 

Under date of April 12, 1766, the diary says, "further- 
more on the northeast height, behind the outer street, the 
place for a graveyard was decided." 

A careful examination of the original diary shows the 
order of the erection of the first houses to be as follows : — 

January 6, 1766, first house, located on the lower corner 
of Liberty and Shallowford streets, still standing. 

In 1766, a little later than the above date, a small house 
of logs, north of the first one, and probably the log build- 
ing still standing. 

June 6, 1766, first meeting hall, forming part of a dwell- 
ing house, later removed to make place for Fries' store, 
which in its turn was replaced by Hampton's store. 

October, 1766, a dwelling house, later the property of 
Fries, now removed to Liberty Street, corner of Bank 
Street, and used as a tenement house. 

After this the dwelling houses were built in rapid suc- 

July 23, 1768, the lot was measured for the single breth- 
ren's house, the largest building undertaken, thus far, in 
the town. It was finished December 27, 1769, and was 
opened and occupied by sixteen single men and four boys. 
A very interesting and complete history of this house 


(now occupied as a home for the widows of the congrega- 
tion) was written by Mr. J. A. Lineback, and appeared in 
the Wachovia Moravian, June, 1900, to February, 1901. In 
December, 1768, a site for a hotel was selected, and in 1769 
the graveyard was enclosed by a fence. 

Much is said in regard to the water-works, and this 
forms an interesting subject to be treated later. The first 
supply of water was obtained from the springs on the 
" reservation " near Calvary Church, and led to town 
through wood pipes. 

At Easter, 1 770, the corner-stone of the new congregation 
house was laid, and on November 13, 1771, the meeting hall 
in this building was consecrated. It faced the east side 
of the Salem square, and was the residence of the minis- 
ters, and contained the hall for religious meetings. The 
consecration services were solemn and impressive, and 
mark an epoch in the history of Salem, and it was at this 
time that the constitutional changes took place which 
made Wachovia an independent province. 

On the day of the consecration services a large number 
of friends came together. At ten o'clock all the members 
gathered in the meeting hall. After singing a hymn they 
knelt down and Marshall offered the dedicatory prayer. 
The texts were : " The Lord is in his holy temple, let all 
the earth keep silence before him." " One is your Mas- 
ter, but ye are all brethren." In the afternoon the com- 
pany that gathered was still larger, filling the large hall 
and the two small adjoining rooms, there being present 
more than three hundred persons. One of the features of 
the occasion was the baptism of the converted negro, who 
was named " John Samuel." After this they partook of 
the cup of covenant. During the service it was announced 
that the ministers called to the work in Salem were Mar- 

. ti:^ 


shall, Tiersch, Utley, and Graff. The latter was to con- 
tinue as the head of the married people, but would reside 
at Bethabara. The day was a blessed one, and all returned 
to their homes happy and thankful. 

The Synod of 1765, at Lititz, Pennsylvania, was the last 
American synod held under the old state of affairs. In 
1770 Christian Gregor, John Loretz, and Hans Christian 
Alexander de Schweinitz were sent to America in order 
to settle the affairs which related to the property of the 
Unity and of the American congregations. In 1771 these 
commissioners visited Wachovia, and established a local 
administration, the centre of government having thus far 
been vested in the Bethlehem board. 1771 may therefore 
be looked upon as the birthday of the Southern Province, 
and also as the birthday of Salem, as an independent, self- 
governing congregation. This was a step of far-reaching 
importance. Wachovia was henceforward to be no longer 
an experiment. Heretofore it had been receiving help 
from Pennsylvania and from Europe, and it had had little 
voice in the government of its own affairs. Now it became 
self-supporting, gradually paying all its obligations to 
other provinces, and receiving its title to its own lands. 
This was opportune and providential ; otherwise, the ques- 
tions which arose during and after the Revolution would 
have caused great embarrassment and the possible confis- 
cation of the property. 

The time had now arrived when by natural evolution 
the common housekeeping would have to be discontinued. 
This had already been done in Bethania, also in part in 
Salem, and the three visitors arranged to have it dissolved 
in all the congregations. 

The Bethania land difficulties were of long standing, 
and for a time fears were entertained that this congre- 


gation would become greatly disaffected, or even with- 
draw from the communion of the church. The affairs 
were happily adjusted by the purchase of the twenty-five 
hundred acres of land at $i.SO per acre. 

Salem received a little more than three thousand acres 
of land for its portion. 

The governing board, consisting of Marshall, Graff, 
Tiersch, and Utley, were to reside in Salem. 

The title to the land in Salem was transferred to Mar- 
shall in 1778, and the actual purchase money paid to Lord 
Granville and those to whom he sold his rights. The total 
sum paid in rents and purchase money was ^32,777.02. 
(See "Forsyth County," Fries, p. 44.) 

One feature which cannot but cause a bit of regret in 
the mind is the virtual discontinuance of Bethabara as a 
village. It is true that the plan was not to make Bethabara 
a town. Still, we have learned to know it as a place in 
which had occurred many thrilling and interesting events ; 
we have seen it populous with residents and refugees ; we 
beheld it as a busy centre, with store and shop, farm and 
mill, tavern and trade, all busy and thriving; hence the 
mind unconsciously lost sight of the fact that this was all 
temporary, the very name Bethabara meaning " house of 
passage." Therefore, with a feehng akin to surprise, we 
read that after the dedication of the church hall and the 
location of the governing board in the new town the popu- 
lation of Bethabara was reduced to fifty by the removals 
to Salem. At the close of 1772 there were one hundred 
and twenty persons connected with the Salem congregation. 

Reichel gives a list of some of the first settlers in 
Salem : — 

F. W. Marshall. Daniel Schnepf. Gottfried Aust. 

Paul Tiersch. George Holder. Traugott Bagge. 


Richard Utley. Jacob Steiner. C. G. Reuter. 

John M.Graff. Charles Holder. Matthew Miksch. 

Jacob Bonn. Valentine Beck. Jacob Meyer. 

John B. Herbst. Philip Meyer. J. G. Stockberger. 

Henceforth the history will centre around Salem, 
though, during the Revolution, the mill and store in 
Bethabara played an important part ; and it is not till 
after the year 1783 that Bethabara drops into the back- 
ground, and Salem assumes the position of leadership 
which it has ever since maintained. 


Plan for Salem raade about 1750, or a little later, in Germany. The church forms 
the centre ; the hotel, congregation houses, etc., around the church ; the 
streets, with the dwelling houses, radiate from the central group. The ground 
was unsuited, hence this unique plan was not carried out. 



I 763-1 773 

The events which appear in this chapter have remained 
buried in the yellow and time-stained leaves of the Beth- 
abara diary for more than a century and a quarter. A 
brief allusion is made by Reichel to the second visit, but 
only six lines are devoted to the subject, and the first one 
is not even mentioned. Yet these visits brought the people 
of Wachovia into intimate relations with a very important 
event of North Carolina history, and witnessed the gath- 
ering of a larger number of distinguished North Caro- 
linians than at any time previous to the meeting of the 
legislature in Salem at the close of the Revolution. 

Governor Tryon has carried with him the bitter hatred 
of our people. It is not our intention to pass an opinion 
on his character, but the mention of a few events con- 
nected with his rule in the colony will lend interest to the 
record of his visits to Wachovia. He became royal gov- 
ernor upon the death of the aged Governor Dobbs. His 
wife and her sister were ladies of great culture and per- 
sonal charms. At Newbern, the residence of the governor, 
there was established a miniature court. The legislature 
was under the influence of this charming social atmos- 
phere, and voted 1^25,000 for the erection of a governor's 
palace. The house cost nearly $100,000 before it was 
completed. This was a very large sum for that period, 



and for a poor colony already groaning under the burden 
of taxes. The erection of the governor's palace was only 
a type of the other oppressions by the company of unscru- 
pulous men who surrounded Tryon. From Fanning, the 
chief lawyer, down to the most ignorant tax-gatherer, it 
was a rule of injustice and oppression. One simple illus- 
tration will open the entire view of what the people were 
suffering. The tax-gatherers were accustomed to demand 
immediate payment, and if the money was not at once 
handed to them, any article within reach was taken and 
sold at any price. A collector calling at a home in Orange 
County found the father away. There was little in the 
house which could be converted into money, so the tax- 
collector required the mother of the family to change her 
dress, as she was wearing a new one, woven with her own 
hands. When she had given him the garment, he slapped 
her in the face, as he rode off, and told her to weave 
another one (Caruthers). 

With these oppressions, from the governor down the 
entire list of officials, the temper of the people was aroused. 
An organization was formed for the purpose of righting 
the wrong, and the name " Regulator " was given to them. 
This body had among its members many good men, but it 
also contained many who were lawless. The worst fea- 
ture was that they had miserable leaders and were mis- 
guided. Their chief, Herman Husbands, was entirely 
unfitted for such a position. These men were originally 
acting with a desire to correct the evils of the times, and 
they had just cause for complaint ; but their methods were 
lawless, as bad as the outrages of the officials, and their 
acts led directly to the annihilation of law and order, which 
is anarchy. 

The above statement is based upon the opinion of a 


number of historians, all of whom admit that many good 
men were in the ranks of the Regulators, but who claim 
that leaders, methods, and results were wrong. 

Waddell says, " The warmest apologist of the Regulators 
has never justified the lawless and cruel acts perpetrated 
by them — their gathering in arms to overawe the legisla- 
ture, and rescue Husbands, who had been expelled from 
that body and afterwards imprisoned, and the various other 
acts leading up to the battle of Alamance." 

Moore writes : " These misguided people, however much 
justified in their original movements, had become an intol- 
erable nuisance — an impediment alike to legislation and 
the administration of public justice. . . . Brutal mobs 
ranged unchallenged from where Raleigh now stands, to 

Caruthers, the ablest apologist of the Regulators, admits 
that their leader, Husbands, was not at that time in mem- 
bership with the Quakers, although he had been. 

Wiley, another apologist, says Husbands, " was not a 
character worthy of much commendation." 

Waddell further says : " The conduct of the Regulators 
forced the issue between law and mob rule, and left no 
alternative to the authorities but the prompt suppression 
of them by force. ... It was the plain duty of officers 
and citizens ... to suppress revolt . . . which meant 
naked anarchy." 

These opinions are cited to show the propriety of the 
position held by the people of Wachovia. They were 
friendly toward the Regulators, and succeeded in secur- 
ing the release of some of their members while Tryon was 
in Bethabara. They were opposed to mob law in all 
forms, and hence could not either join the Regulators, or 
espouse their cause. Equally strongly did they condemn 


Tryon's course, characterizing his sentences as being " in- 
human obstinacy " ; but as governor in office they paid 
due respect to him, and the narrative of his visits shows an 
admirable side to Tryon's character, which no writer has 
thus far brought out, and will therefore be of interest 
to the general student of North Carolina history. The 
facts are absolutely reliable and have never appeared in 

We again take up the history of Wachovia. Marshall, 
Gammon, and others visited old Governor Dobbs at Bruns- 
wick and Newbern, and on these occasions met the new 
lieutenant governor, Try on. In 1767 information was 
sent to Bethabara that Governor Tryon intended to pay 
them a visit. Preparations were made for a proper re- 
ception of his Excellency. Literature was sent from 
Bethlehem to present to their honoured guest, and among 
the books was the history of the Greenland missions. This 
publication had recently appeared, and it is stated that it 
created a stir in scientific circles, since it opened a hitherto 
unknown land. There were enough articles written about 
this book to fill a volume. In reading the Bethabara diary 
we must bear in mind that at this time Governor Tryon 
had not yet fallen into disfavour with the people, in fact, 
he did not win their bitter hatred till after the Regulator 
War; and it was during this struggle that he made his 
second visit to Wachovia, hence both occasions antedate 
the final popular condemnation, which followed his cruel 
and unwarranted sentences at Hillsboro, after he left 
Bethabara in 1771. 

The diary says : — 

''Wednesday, September 16, 1767. — From the informa- 
tion received we felt sure that Governor Tryon would 


arrive within a day or two. Men were sent to repair the 
road over which he would travel. 

" Thursday, September 17, 1767. — Letters were received 
from Colonel Fanning informing us that the governor 
would arrive next day. A conference was held to dis- 
cuss the question of the proper reception and entertain- 
ment of the governor and his party. We were greatly 
pleased by the wilHngness of our people to help in these 

^^ Friday, September 18. — Warden Lash and Dr. Bonn 
went ten miles to meet the governor. Graff had been 
called to Bethania to conduct a funeral service. At one 
o'clock the party arrived. It consisted of the governor 
and Mrs. Tryon, the counsellor, McKellock, the colonels, 
Fanning, Frohock, and Banton, the EngUsh minister, 
Micklejohn, from Hillsboro, and others. As the com- 
pany approached, our band of musicians with French 
horns and trumpets greeted them. Half an hour later 
they dined in the hall of the single brethren's house, the 
musicians furnishing music while they sat at table. At 
the conclusion of the repast the governor, accompanied 
by some of the gentlemen of the party, took a walk 
through the village, inspecting the property, the stables, 
and the farm. As it began to rain, they returned to their 
rooms. In the meantime, Mrs. Tryon was entertained by 
the ladies of the congregation, she conversing with them 
in a charming and lovely manner. [This remark bears 
out the statement so often made that Mrs. Tryon was 
possessed of unusual personal charms. The adjective 
used in the original diary is very expressive.] When 
comfortably seated in the room, the governor had a long 
and familiar conversation with Graff. He was greatly 
interested in our constitution and government. Graff 


presented him with the book, ' Acta Fratrum in AngUa.' 
Supper was served to our visitors in their rooms, though 
some of them gathered at the tavern. Thus the first day- 
was concluded. 

*^ Saturday, September 19. — The governor informed us 
that he had read * Acta Fratrum in Angha ' till late in the 
night. This morning he was presented with a ' History 
of the Moravian Missions in Greenland,' the book having 
been sent to him by the missionary society at Bethlehem, 
After having breakfasted, the governor and his party went 
across the great meadow to Salem. He examined every- 
thing with interest. He was pleased with the regularity 
of the streets, and the care with which everything is laid 
out. When we returned to Bethabara, dinner was served, 
as yesterday, in the large hall, and later his Excellency 
examined the potter shop. The party then went to Beth- 
ania, spending some time at the mill. In the evening we 
were again in Bethabara, the governor having expressed 
himself as greatly pleased with what he saw. As he 
passed and greeted the young people, and saw them in 
front of the houses, he said the country would be blessed 
in these happy children. In the evening we had our usual 
service, and our visitors were present. 

" S7i7iday, September 20. — The English minister from 
Hillsboro preached from the text, Hag. 2 : 6. The ser- 
mon of the Moravian minister was based on Gal. 5. The 
English minister then baptized the children of a number 
of members of his church, who lived in the neighbourhood 
of Wachovia. We had arranged for a quiet afternoon for 
our visitors, but Mrs. Tryon expressed a desire to play 
upon the organ, and as she played a number of the girls sang. 
This pleased her. She later requested Graff to perform 
on the organ, and he did so. By this time the governor 


became interested in the music, and came to the meeting 
hall from his room. An hour was pleasantly passed in 
this way. From the meeting hall Mrs. Tryon visited the 
room which specially belongs to the older girls, and she 
requested them to sing for her as they had done during the 
afternoon. While thus engaged, supper was announced, 
and the visitors seemed loath to have the little gather- 
ing broken up. Supper being over, a visit was paid to 
the home of the single men [one of the largest and 
most important buildings in the village]. At the usual 
hour the Sabbath evening service was held, a portion of 
the exercises consisting of responsive singing. Governor 
and Mrs. Tryon were present, and manifested a devout 
interest, being specially pleased with the antiphonal sing- 
ing. After the service Mrs. Tryon was presented with a 
copy of the * Berlin Sermons ' preached by Count Zinzen- 
dorf. When the friends had gone to their rooms for the 
night, a number of the musicians gathered in front of the 
house and discoursed music as a pleasant way to express 
our ' good night.' 

^^ Monday, September 21. — This morning his Excellency 
visited all the remaining houses of the village, and studied 
carefully all the business enterprises carried on in each. 
A number of questions were asked privately, and he seemed 
pleased and satisfied with the answers. He asked whether 
a man could retain his own property as an individual sep- 
arate from the general economy, and we told him that he 
could. He studied with great care the methods of con- 
ducting the common housekeeping, the business enter- 
prises, and all the affairs which differ from the customs 
elsewhere ; and as a result of the study, he expressed him- 
self as being impressed with the wisdom of the plans and 
methods. We gave him a catalogue, or business directory, 


which described each house and the occupation carried on 
therein. Our distinguished guest advised us to arrange to 
have a representative in the legislature. We told him we 
thought that a step of this kind would arouse the jealousy 
of our neighbours. He replied that our prosperous condi- 
tion would arouse envy and jealousy even if we were not 
represented in the legislature. [These were prophetic 
words.] Later in the day the governor and his party 
began their return journey. They were profuse in their 
expressions of satisfaction at what they had seen, and 
were very grateful for the kindness shown them. A num- 
ber of our members accompanied them some ten miles, 
and Lash went to Salisbury." 

From this simple, clear, and interesting account we 
cannot but trace a genial and sympathetic line running 
through Tryon's nature ; and on his memorable march 
from Alamance to Wachovia he sent in advance the 
request that the people of Bethabara should correct the 
erroneous opinion which many persons seemed to have 
of his " dreadful severity and cruelty." 

According to an arrangement made with Governor 
Tryon while he was in Bethabara, they sent to him 
seven wagons loaded with goods, in order to open com- 
mercial relations with Brunswick on the Cape Fear River. 
Though Brunswick is now marked only by the interesting 
ruins of the old English church, it was then a busy centre, 
with vessels coming and going, and with crowds thronging 
the wharves. The following articles are mentioned in the 
invoice of goods : A windmill, 476 pounds of candles, 150 
pounds of butter, 6 beehives, a new gun, 3 bushels of rye 
flour, and so on. All these things had been ordered by 
the governor. The contract was that the wagons should 


be in Brunswick by November 6, before the governor left. 
Bad roads and other causes delayed them, and they arrived 
after he had left Brunswick. This was unfortunate, since 
they did not receive proper consideration, and hence the 
venture was a financial failure. They received in cash 
^5 per hundred pounds for the flour, and 20 cents per 
pound for the butter. The other articles had to be 
exchanged for goods. The Brunswick charges were as 
high as the Bethabara selling prices, and this was the 
last trip made to Brunswick for commercial purposes. 
The governor later wrote to them and expressed regrets 
that he had been absent when the wagons arrived, stating 
that if he had been there at the time, the results would 
have been different. 

The Bethabara diary is not written with the intention 
of picturing the course of history, either in the colony or 
the country at large ; but the statements bearing upon cur- 
rent events are remarkably clear and correct, much more 
so than many made by historians who lived generations 
later, and who insert tradition as facts, and whose accounts 
will often bear a question mark. The writer of the Wacho- 
via diary is very careful to say only what he knows to be 
true, and, as he lived contemporaneous with the events, 
he seldom makes a statement contrary to the general 
history of the colony. For that reason the account 
which follows concerning the Regulators and Governor 
Tryon is of great value to the state history because of 
its reliability. 

Little is written of political events from 1767 to 1770. 
A note says that in 1768 the Regulators were at work in 
the neighbourhood of Pine Tree store. The same year 
there were sent from Bethabara two wagons loaded with 
" rusks " for the colonial troops. The governor wrote a 


courteous note of thanks. They speak of the governor's 
visit to Salisbury, and say that he returned to his home 
with an escort of men, and another item says that all " is 
quiet at Hillsboro." Evidently this remark is connected 
with the turmoils which beset the legislature, as well as 
Fanning and others, and which were the forerunners of 
the struggle at Alamance. In August, 1768, we find a 
note that the Regulator matter was becoming serious. 
About this time Chief Justice Howard visited Wachovia, 
and after examining all things, he said to the friends who 
entertained him that he considered the Moravians " a 
happy and blessed people." In 1769 a note states that 
an assault had been made in the neighbourhood upon a 
tax-collector by the Regulators. 

In 1 77 1 we find the people of Wachovia surrounded 
by circumstances which called upon them to definitely 
decide whether they would espouse the cause of the 
Regulators or remain neutral. Let us hear what the 
people in other parts of the colony thought, in order 
that we may judge of the wisdom of the decision. Wad- 
dell says, " The best men of the province were all on one 
side, and that was the side of law and legitimate rule." 
Tryon himself writes to Lord Hillsboro, " His Majesty's 
Presbyterian subjects showed themselves very loyal on 
this service, and I have a pleasure in acknowledging the 
utility that the Presbyterian ministers' letter to their 
brethren had upon the face of public affairs." In like 
manner a careful conference was held in Wachovia, and 
it was decided that their duty was to submit to the powers 
then in authority. They never acted in any other than 
a kind and friendly manner toward the Regulators, and 
the latter came and went with perfect freedom during 
these years ; but the Moravians could not espouse their 


cause, since it was opposed to law and order. Having 
arrived at this conclusion, they awaited the development 
of events, and soon the cloud darkened and the storm 
burst. We copy a part of the diary which describes the 
days before and after the battle of Alamance. 

"May 16, 1 77 1. — Many Regulators pass through our 
town on their way to Guilford, where they are massing 
their forces to oppose Governor Tryon. 

''May 17. — More Regulators march through. Some 
are friendly to us. One of them, a Mr. Allen, gave Mrs. 
Bagge a gold coin, with the request that if he did not 
escape in the battle, she should send it to his wife. Others 
are very bitter and hostile. Old man Jarvis is loud in his 
threats against the Moravians for their unwiUingness to 
take up arms against the governor, and he declares that 
if the battle is decided in their favour, severe punishment 
will follow for Bethabara. On this same day a rumour 
reaches us that a battle has already been fought, and that 
many have been killed on both sides. Our informant says 
that when he left, a truce had been declared that both 
sides might bury their dead. 

"May 18. — All during last night and during to-day 
Regulators continue to pass, and they tell us that when 
the governor began to fire upon the Regulators with his 
cannon, they were so terrified that they fled and left 
everything in the field. 

''May 19. — A one-armed man by the name of Hughes 
came from the camp of the governor and confirmed the 
rumour that the Regulators were unable to withstand the 
cannonading by Tryon's troops. 

"We had on this day a visit from an unknown man, 
who requested Dr. Bonn to go to the home of James 


Hunter and assist in the care of the wounded Regulators. 
Hunter Uves about five miles from the field of battle. He 
reported that more than twenty wounded men were there, 
and that the surgeon in charge did not have the proper 
instruments for his task. Bonn declined to go, stating 
that his duties to this section required him to remain at 

" Old man Borg, a Regulator, was in town to-day, mak- 
ing wild and excited speeches, filled with lies, and trying 
to stir up our people to take part in the troubles. 

" Armstrong and Hall passed through on their way to 
the governor. 

'' May 20. — Whitsuntide. Lanier visits us, and brings 
the startling news that the man who visited us yesterday 
was none other than Herman Husbands, the ringleader of 
the Regulators, and the man on whose head the governor 
had fixed a large reward. He had met Husbands as he 
was leaving our town, had talked with him, and knew him 
well personally. There is no mistake about his identity. 

"While Husbands was in the tavern yesterday, a certain 
visitor was making his boasts that if he could get help, he 
would capture Husbands, deliver him to the governor, and 
receive the reward offered for his capture. The unknown 
stranger listened to the conversation, but said nothing. 

"The man who had been boasting of his intentions to 
capture Husbands started home by way of Bethania. 
When a short distance beyond the town, he was attacked 
by five Regulators and shot. The bullet passed through 
his clothing, and made a flesh wound, but his horse 
wheeled and galloped back to Bethania, so he escaped. 
When he entered the town, he was pale as death, and 
was weeping from terror. It is supposed that Husbands 
himself made the attack on the man. 


"The Regulators continue to pass in large numbers 
day and night. One of the men related his experiences. 
He said that in Thursday's fight the Regulators had with- 
stood the first two volleys from the governor's troops. 
When he left the field nearly all the Regulators were flee- 
ing. He had passed near a spring and had been accosted 
by a wounded man. He stopped and found that the poor 
fellow had a terrible bullet wound in his abdomen, and 
he exclaimed, ' For God's sake give me a little water ! ' 
He had dipped up some water with his hat and had given 
it to the wounded man. As he turned to continue his 
flight, he saw another man lying near by, with a portion 
of his skull shot away. 

" A company of three men passed. They related how 
they had approached the home of James Hunter, where 
the wounded men lay. They were drawn to the house by 
a desire to see the wounded men. This was five miles 
from the scene of the battle. Before arriving at the spot 
they were discovered by the governor's troops and were 
fired upon. They fled, and in so doing they came within 
range of a company of Regulators, and they also opened 
fire. For a time they were surrounded by the utmost 
peril, but finally escaped. 

" This conversation was evidently in the tavern, for the 
narrative continues, saying that the old man Borg up- 
braided them for their curiosity, at which the three Regu- 
lators became very angry, and replied to the old man, 
telling him he had no right to find fault with them, since 
he had not even been near the fighting. The discussion 
waxed so warm that we were afraid they would resort to 
violence. They related further that the leaders were the 
first to run from the battle-field, and the common people, 
after resisting for a time, also fled into the forest. The 


governor had hung some of his prisoners, and was now 
marching to Salisbury to join Waddell. He will remain 
in Orange County till quiet is restored, and after that he 
will come to Wachovia. 

" Two wagons loaded with Regulators passed through 
Salem on the journey to Alamance. It is supposed that 
they were going to get their wounded comrades. Old 
man Borg was among them. He said that the people in 
Bethabara had given him good advice, and that he in- 
tended to follow it. Their advice was to surrender to the 

"May 22. — Old man Jarvis passed through to-day 
from the battle. When he was on his way to the struggle, 
some days ago, he was threatening and abusive. Now he 
was equally humble, and pleaded with Meyer to use his 
good influence with the governor when he came to 
Wachovia. Jarvis said the Regulators would never forget 
the kindness if the Moravians interceded for them. 

" At this time the diary says the first court was held in 
Surry County, at the home of Gideon Wright, and the new 
charter was read. Bonn was sworn in as the first justice 
of the peace. 

" May 24. — Two men came from the camp of the gov- 
ernor with letters for Lanier and Armstrong. They were 
already on their way to meet the governor, and the mes- 
sengers had passed them without knowing it. We con- 
versed with these men and received the following 
information : — 

"The governor and his troops have arrived in the 
neighbourhood of Husbands and Hunter, and have utterly 
destroyed their property, both houses and crops. He has 
devastated other farms in the same manner, declaring the 
men themselves outlaws. His Excellency will spend some 


time in this section before returning to Newbern. He 
issued an ultimatum to the Regulators, and within a cer- 
tain time they are to take an oath which he has prepared, 
and to promise the following : — 

" 1st, to be loyal to the government. 

" 2d, to pay all arrears of taxes. 

" 3d, to surrender their arms. 

" The governor had quite a supply of arms which had 
already been surrendered, and which he intends to send 
to Newbern. It is further his intention to return them to 
the owners after a certain time. 

" A pitiful incident was related by one of these messen- 
gers. A certain young man, a fine young fellow, had 
been captured, and when given the alternative of taking 
the oath, or of being hanged, he chose the latter. The 
governor wished to spare his life, and twice urged him to 
submit. But the young man refused. The messenger 
described how, with the rope around his neck, he was 
urged to yield, but refused, and the governor turned aside 
with tears in his eyes as the young man was swung into 
eternity. The diary, commenting on Tryon's part in this 
execution, says, 'this severity we call inhuman obstinacy!' 

" May 27. — Two men report that the governor is de- 
tained by high water. The Regulators are in great con- 
fusion, since some have submitted and others have not, 
and between the dangers which threaten with the advance 
of the government troops, and the turmoils in their own 
ranks, no man's life is safe. 

" The governor has made June 7th the limit when par- 
don can be obtained by submission. Those who fail to 
comply with the conditions of the proclamation will be 
considered outlaws. 

*^Jime I. — Gideon Wright with two others came from 


the camp of the Governor. They brought a copy of the 
proclamation [the original is in the possession of the 
Salem Historical Society], and also sent his greetings to 
his good friends, the Moravians. He requested the people 
of Wachovia to use their influence to correct the erroneous 
ideas which the Regulators have about his severity. 
Tryon had asked Wright how the inhabitants of Wachovia 
had acted during this time, and Wright gave a favourable 
account of our conduct. Among other things he told the 
governor that we had made ready the same room he had 
occupied on his former visit in 1767. This pleased him 
very much. He said further that among the various 
churches the Moravians v/ere the only people who had 
without exception remained loyal to the existing authority. 
That if all men were like the United Brethren, the bless- 
ings of peace would be abroad in the land at all times. 

" Governor Tryon made requisition of flour from us. 
He has with him three thousand troops and one hundred 
men of distinction. As soon as he has joined Waddell he 
will go to Hillsboro, to try a number of prisoners now 
with the army. 

"Wright confided to Marshall the real object of his 
visit. He had come to try to arrange for the capture of 
Herman Husbands. He also gave an account of the 
battle of Alamance. He had counted thirteen dead Regu- 
lators. Many had taken refuge in the woods. [This 
doubtless refers to the wounded.] The governor ordered 
the woods to be set on fire, and thus the poor helpless 
fellows were roasted alive. Their charred corpses were 
found later. The governor had three men killed and 
twelve wounded. 

" Sunday, June 2. — Copy of proclamation has been 
posted. Some men whose names are given on the proc- 


lamation were not included in the offer of amnesty, be- 
cause of special offences in connection with the uprising. 
They are proclaimed outlaws. 

"Jtme 3. — The governor arrived at the farm of Merrill. 
[Merrill had been specially active in resisting the troops, 
and after the battle his son had made every effort to reach 
the governor in order to secure some consideration for his 
father. Merrill was captured before his son accomplished 
his task, and was later tried and hanged.] He was 
arrested in his house and his farm destroyed. It was here 
that Governor Tryon met Friedrich and Miller. He 
spent some length of time in questioning both, but espe- 
cially Friedrich. The chief interest in this examination 
was to secure all the facts connected with the visit of Her- 
man Husbands to Bethabara, May 19. When Tryon 
heard that Husbands had not been recognized, but had 
come and gone as any other stranger would have done, 
he was greatly pleased. He related in confidence how 
a proposition had been made by some of the officers of 
his staff to send a detachment of light cavalry to Bethab- 
ara to destroy the town with fire. He had not consented, 
since he did not believe the reports that the Moravians 
had aided and abetted Herman Husbands. Now he saw 
how wise had been his decision, and that all had turned 
out as he had expected. He said that he did not suspect 
the Moravians of being false to the established govern- 
ment. Governor Tryon sent two letters by Miller and 
Friedrich. The one was to Marshall, and in it he asked 
him to use every effort to have Husbands arrested, promis- 
ing to the man who could secure him, ^100 in money, and 
1000 acres of land. The second letter was to Bonn, and 
was a requisition for 10,000 pounds of flour to be sent to 
his camp at Bough's place. 


" Friedrich related that several women had fallen on 
their knees before the governor, and had besought him to 
pardon their husbands. Tryon replied that he could not 
do so. They would have to appear at Hillsboro for trial. 

"Regulators exploded 150 pounds of powder at Pine 
Tree store, wrecking the building and destroying the 
goods. This was confused by some with the destruction 
of the Waddell powder train of wagons, by the so-called 
' Black Boys.' Two of the latter were later captured 
and hanged, 

" On this side of the Yadkin River, Miller and Fried- 
rich saw Fanning with his corps of five hundred soldiers, 
and conversed with him. He refused to make known his 

''June 4. — Yesterday Adam Lash was at Reedy Creek 
camp, and came early with the news that his Excellency 
would arrive in Wachovia that same evening. Holder and 
Mushback went from Salem to meet him, and as he ap- 
proached Bethabara, he was met by Marshall and Bonn, 
who escorted him to the same rooms he had occupied 
four years before. After a short delay he rode with the 
brethren and a number of his officers to inspect the fields 
on the Bethania road, and having chosen a site, he an- 
nounced his intention of remaining four days, and during 
this time to appropriately celebrate the birthday of King 
George III. Even on the day of his arrival a number of 
Regulators came, with their prayers for pardon. After 
returning to the village, and a brief season of rest, the 
governor dined in the brethren's house, having with him 
only his counsellor and secretary, together with Marshall 
and Bonn. His staff consisted of thirty people. In the 
evening one company after the other, under Waddell, 
arrived, and took up camp in the field. The number of 


horses was three hundred, and they were placed in the 
large meadow and were carefully guarded. Forty pris- 
oners came with the soldiers, bound together, two and two 
[at another place the diary says with chains], and this in- 
deed furnished a pitiful sight. Hardly were the troops in 
camp when a thunder-storm broke upon them, but they 
appeared to be accustomed to such things. A guard was 
placed over the tavern, bakery, kitchen, and wash house, 
as the village was filled with soldiers. Notwithstanding 
these precautions they complained so much of hunger that 
our people gave them all the provisions they had. 

'^Juiie^. — Many Regulators came to-day. One hun- 
dred and thirty-five took the oath. Among these were 
some Southfork people, who brought their requisition of 
eight hundred pounds of flour and six oxen. Bethania fur- 
nished bread and mutton. This supplied the most press- 
ing needs of the soldiers. Utley came from Salem to pay 
his respects to the governor, and had a friendly talk 
with him. His Excellency shows on all occasions his 
kindly feelings toward the people. We referred certain 
parish affairs to Tryon, but he said these matters would 
have to go through the hands of the counsellor, De Rosette, 
the brother-in-law of the speaker of the assembly. To- 
day about thirty more prisoners were brought in, among 
them Sam Jones, of Yadkin, who, though outlawed, had 
given himself up. His Excellency heard that he was a 
good, honest, simple man, and had had little to do with 
the recent trouble. Marshall made a strong appeal for 
Jones. The former was approached by a great many 
persons who implored him to intercede for them, but he 
told them that his influence with the governor in political 
matters was not great, though socially there seemed to be 
a strong bond of friendship. 


" In the evening his Excellency attended the song ser- 
vice in the church, and he requested us to repeat the sweet 
singing which he had heard on his previous visit. It was 
an hour of harmony, but it was also an hour of strange 
impressions, with the chief executive in the audience, with 
the room filled with colonial officers, with the door guarded 
by sentinels, and with the village and the surrounding coun- 
try filled with soldiers. At ten o'clock there was another 
severe thunder-storm, but by midnight the sky was again 

''June 6. — We had a conference early this morning in 
order to discuss the question of sending a formal address 
to the governor, to express our submission to the existing 
government, and we felt that the occasion of the king's 
birthday would be a fitting time. The governor had not 
required us to take the oath of allegiance. Having de- 
cided to send the address, we consulted the secretary, Mr. 
Edwards, and he referred the matter to the governor. 
The latter was much pleased with the idea, and appointed 
as the time the close of the review of the troops. 

" The celebration of the king's birthday was after the 
following manner : — 

" At ten o'clock in the morning all the troops came out 
of their camp by companies. Our musicians furnished the 
music for the review. The soldiers marched to the field 
beyond the barn. [This was on the slope of the hill in 
front of the Bethabara church, and can be seen in the pic- 
ture to the left.] The army was drilled for several hours, 
and the manoeuvres of the battle of Alamance were re- 
peated. Volley after volley was fired, both from the mus- 
ketry and the artillery, until the houses in the village 
trembled and shook. This display of an army of 3000 
men, under the command of select officers, was a grand 


and imposing sight. At two o'clock the manoeuvres were 
finished and the army marched back to its quarters. 

" Meanwhile the governor's tent had been erected in 
the pubUc square. [This was just north of the present 
church. See map.] After returning from the drill ground 
he entered his tent with a number of his more distin- 
guished officers. Then Marshall, Graff, Utley, and Bagge 
were received in the tent by the governor and his staff, and 
Marshall read the formal address. At the mention of 'His 
Majesty ' or ' His Excellency ' they made a low obeisance. 

" * To His Excellency Will"" Tryon, Esqur, Captain 
General and Governor in Chief in and over the Province 
of North Carolina. 

" ' May it please your Excellency. 

" ' Upon this most solemn Occasion the celebration of the 
Birthday of our most gracious King, the United Brethren 
in Wachovia inviolably attached to his Majesty's Govern- 
ment, esteem themselves particularly favoured by the pres- 
ence of this Representative of the Province in the person 
of your Excellency. With hearts full of the warmest sen- 
timents of allegiance, give us leave. Sir, to lay before your 
Excellency our most fervent Wishes to the Lord, by whom 
Princes rule, to pour down his choicest Blessings upon the 
sacred person of our Sovereign, King George III and all 
his Royal Family, and to estabHsh his Kingdom to the 
latest posterity over the British Empire. 

" ' May the Troubles which have of late unhappily torn 
this Province, be the last that shall ever give any Uneasi- 
ness to the paternal Breast of the best of Princes, and 
may this very Day be the blessed period from which this 
Province shall date her future happiness through the good 
success of your Excellency's measures, as well as in the 


Reward of the Dangers your precious life was eminently 
exposed to in his Majesty's Service. The kind protection 
this Settlement has enjoyed during your Excellency's happy 
Administration will ever leave the deepest impression of 
gratitude in the minds of the thankful people and combine 
their prayers with all well wishers of this Province for your 
Excellency's prosperity in your future Government.' 

"After this address had been communicated the governor 
graciously read his answer, and then handed it to Marshall, 

" ' To THE Ministers and Congregation of the United 
Brethren in Wachovia. 

" ' Gentlemen : — I return thanks for your loyal and 
dutiful address. I have already had the pleasure to 
acquaint his Majesty of the Zeal and Attachment which 
his Subjects of Wachovia have on all occasions shown to 
his Government, and the laws of this Province. 

" ' I am obliged to you for your congratulation on the 
success with which it has pleased Almighty God to bless 
the Army under my command, and cordially wish with you 
that it may lay the foundation of peace and stability to 
this country. 

" ' Your affectionate Regard for my Particular Welfare 
I gratefully receive. 

" ' Wm. Tryon. 
" ' Moravian Campe, 

"'Bethabara, June 6, 1771.' 

" During the reading of these papers it was noticed that 
there was special attention and a sympathetic feeling dis- 
played by the governor. This was spoken of by the 
officers later. The four who presented the address to 
the governor were invited to dine with him, and all ac- 
cepted the invitation except Utley, who was unable to 


remain. There were several toasts during the dinner, 
and to each of the toasts the response was a loud: — 

" * Hurrah ! Hurrah ! ' 

" Our musicians furnished music while the dinner was 
in progress. The last toast was 

'"For the prosperity of the United Brethren in 
Wachovia ! ' 

" The governor was specially gracious to Marshall and 
placed him at his right hand during the meal. Next to 
Marshall sat Graff. 

" The remainder of the day was spent in a happy and 
cheerful manner. As soon as it was dark there was a dis- 
play of fireworks in front of the governor's tent, by order 
of his Excellency, and the houses around the square were 
brilHantly illuminated. 

"June 7. — His Excellency had conference the entire 
morning, in the hall of the brethren's house, which could 
only be made ready for dinner after the close of the con- 
ference. The governor dined in his tent. Meanwhile his 
time was occupied with the examination of Regulators, 
and other matters. James Klan was released, but Adam 
Cresson remained in irons. He cried like a child when- 
ever he saw one of our number, and begged us to inter- 
cede for him. We told him that we had done all that we 
could, and advised him to address himself to the honest old 
counsellor, De Rosette, as others had done, and with success. 

"At noon the great army marched away. [The gov- 
ernor did not accompany the main body of the army.] It 
was pleasant to see how mutually pleased the officers and 
the people were with each other. 

"June 8. — Several notes are made with regard to the 
visit of the army. 

" There was great confusion and loss in connection with 


the laundry work of the officers, but they did not lay the 
blame upon the people of the village, but upon the care- 
lessness of their own messengers who took the hnen back 
and forth. The bills were paid without protest. 

" From the tavern many articles were borrowed by the 
officers. A record was kept, and when the bill was pre- 
sented to the proper authority the only remark was that 
the bill was too small. 

" For the governor's entertainment we declined to take 
any compensation, insisting that he should be considered 
our guest. 

" The governor gave strict orders to his soldiers before 
they arrived at Bethabara that no damage dare be done to 
property, under penalty of severe punishment. This order 
was carefully observed, and we feel grateful to his Excel- 
lency for his interest in the matter. 

" Governor Tryon dined in his tent, at three o'clock, 
and afterward walked up the hill to the graveyard. He 
passed the place where a number of the sisters of the con- 
gregation were engaged in domestic duties. He stopped 
and exchanged a number of pleasantries with them. Many 
of the officers of the army had very strange ideas in regard 
to our customs. They thought our ladies were shut up in 
a prison-hke nunnery, and had other similar absurd con- 
ceptions. The ladies were equal to the task of defending 
themselves against these erroneous ideas. 

" Sunday, Jime<^. — Our wagons returning from Charles- 
ton some days ago fell into the hands of the Regulators, 
but they spared the goods. 

"The governor has issued a second proclamation to the 
effect that no pardon will be given to those who blew up 
Waddell's powder wagons. 

" The poor prisoners were confined in our barn. 


" At nine o'clock the governor left. One of his attend- 
ants told us that he seemed as reluctant to leave Bethab- 
ara as if it was his own home. As it was Sunday, he 
requested us to commend him to Almighty God in our 
united prayers. 

" Soon after leaving, a Mr. Walker, a captain, was 
brought back to us, as he had suddenly become very ill, 
and they wished Dr. Bonn to attend to the case. De 
Rosette, his brother-in-law, brought him to us. 

" The governor went to Salem and met Rutherford. 
Von der Merk and Holder were made justices of the peace. 

'^ June 10, 1 77 1. — The five wagons arrived safely from 

" We received ;£75 sterling for hay used by the horses 
of the army. All our bills were paid in coin, but the 
bills of other people were paid in paper money. This 
caused some bitter feelings against us on the part of our 

" The new proclamation extended the time of swearing 
allegiance to July, but no mercy will be shown those who 
blew up the powder." 

There are more items scattered through the diary of the 
succeeding days, but we will not add to the length of the 
extract which we have already given. From the several 
histories of North Carolina we learn that Tryon returned 
to Hillsboro, and went through the form of a trial with the 
poor prisoners whom he had guarded in the Bethabara 
barn, and in whose behalf the people of Wachovia did all 
they could. It is the universal judgment of all writers that 
there was no justification for the criminal severity which 
the governor and his court used. Tryon's injustice had 
stirred up these poor misguided men, and though it was 


necessary to check this lawlessness, when he had accom- 
plished that, he should have gone no farther. As it was, 
Tryon had one poor half-witted fellow executed, because 
he had uttered some wild expressions about the person of 
the governor. Six other prisoners were hanged, in the 
presence of the governor and his entire army. This 
absolutely inexcusable act was a crime against justice 
and mercy, and has been designated a "butchery." This 
deed, more than anything else, has caused the name of 
William Tryon to be odious to the people of North Caro- 
lina. Still, we must admit that, aside from the crime 
already described, he was an able soldier and leader, a 
polished gentleman, with magnetic personal powers. 

After the battle of Alamance Tryon was appointed 
governor of New York, and in a few weeks left North 
Carolina for that colony. 

He was succeeded by Josiah Martin, who pursued a quite 
different course. He was conciliatory, travelled among his 
people, made right their wrongs, and while on his journeys 
came to Salem, Bethabara, and Bethania, August 11-13, 
1772. He was very cordial, and expressed himself as being 
greatly interested and pleased with his visit. 

And this brings us to a different era — an era in which 
violence is again abroad in the land ; but this time the 
American is the central figure, and he uses the right and 
proper methods — methods in harmony with law and order, 
even though revolutionary in their nature. The students 
of North CaroHna history tell us that the Regulator and 
the American patriot of the Revolution are not the same. 
We leave the Regulator and enter a new period, one which 
has a record of events more momentous than any other in 
the history of our country — the period of the American 




The third decade of the thirty years under discussion 
introduces experiences which differ widely from the other 
periods. The perplexities were multiplied, the difficulties 
increased, the dangers far greater. The history of Wach- 
ovia during the Revolution is not easy to relate, because 
the experiences follow each other in rapid succession, in 
reality blend and interlace, so that only a careful study 
will bring order out of the apparent chaos of events. Still, 
the narrative is filled with thrilling interest, and in order 
to assist in making clear the story of these years we will 
devote a brief chapter to a general view of the situation. 

The Moravians of that day had conscientious scruples 
against bearing arms and taking an oath. 

When they refused to bear arms, it was not from cow- 
ardice, for they were brave and able men, and did much 
to protect the lives of the inhabitants of western Carolina. 
They defended their own people, and they defended their 
neighbours, from Indians, from wandering bands of Tories, 
and from stragglers who followed in the wake of the 
troops. The people of Wachovia were not cowards, but 
they would have emigrated to the other side of the world 
rather than enlist as soldiers. 

When they refused to take an oath, it was with them a 
matter of conscience, as with the Quakers and some other 
bodies of Christians. They were willing to affirm, and 


their affirmation was worth more than the oath of many 
another. But at the particular time under discussion any 
one refusing to take the ordinary oath of allegiance to the 
new Republic was at once brought under suspicion. 

When we study this portion of the history of Wachovia, 
we must never doubt the patriotism of the people. They 
would not become soldiers, but they supported the govern- 
ment by equally valuable methods. 

They would not take the prescribed oath, as the form 
was against conscience; but they made an equally solemn 
affirmation that they would support the state, lend no aid 
to the enemy, and deliver up to speedy justice any one 
who was untrue to the government. 

A strong example of their loyalty is shown by the action 
taken in August, 1776. Previous to that time the church 
litany was the same used by the Moravian Church in Eng- 
land, August 6 they received official news that in Phil- 
adelphia a declaration of independence had been made. 
Three days later they sent notice to each church in the 
Province that they should discontinue the prayer " for his 
Majesty, King George III," and replace this petition with 
the one "for the authorities of our land who have rule 
over us." 

To fully appreciate the situation, we should understand 
who were their enemies, and who were their friends. 

Their enemies were divided into four classes : — 

First, the desperadoes who always flourish in a time of 
public confusion. 

Second, a class of envious, shiftless people who felt 
that if by some political tangle the Moravians were ban- 
ished, they could enter claims for the mills, the trades, the 
homes, the well-cultivated farms. Therefore their enmity 
was based upon the prospect of material gain. 


Third, a number of "hotheads" who laid undue stress 
on some fancied personal wrong. For example, the re- 
fusal of store or hotel to receive a doubtful piece of 

Fourth, honest men who misunderstood them, because 
of lack of information. This class of enemies frequently 
became their warmest friends. 

Those who were friendly toward the Moravians were 
divided into three classes : — 

First, those who represented them in the legislature, in 
Congress, or in the courts. Such men were Armstrong, 
Lanier, Williams, and others. Their friendship and sup- 
port never wavered for an hour. 

Second, the officials who studied them and their actions. 
Among them we mention the Committee of Safety, and 
the legislature, after its meetings in Salem. 

Third, the army officers. We have the record of 
friendly visits from Washington and Cornwallis, from 
Tryon, Waddell, Rutherford, and others. 

When we contemplate the situation of Bethabara, sur- 
rounded by large bands of hostile Indians, in 1759, we 
recognize the divine protection as the only power that 
could save them from destruction. The study of the time 
of the Revolution calls forth the same acknowledgment of 
special divine guidance, for during these years they were 
threatened with every form of danger, from the vicious 
prowler to the great armies of Greene and Cornwallis; 
from the petty envy of the county magistrate to the ani- 
mosity of the full meeting of the legislature in 1778. 

In the end they were successful in carrying out their 
honest plans. They had a pure religion, they cared for 
education, they were honest and thrifty, they lived in the 
midst of the world, but were not of the world. They 


understood men and things, but were themselves not 
understood. They had burdens placed upon them that 
would have crushed almost any other colony. They were 
beset with dangers which often made them feel that sud- 
den destruction was sweeping down upon them, yet they 
were always mercifully preserved. 



I 773-1 783 

The year 1776 was ushered in by the movements of sol- 
diers hither and thither, in rapid succession, and the pass- 
ing of refugees, fleeing from either the royal power or the 
continental authority. North Carolina entered an early 
protest against English oppression. The Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence was formally made before 
the Philadelphia paper was signed; the tea had been 
thrown into the Cape Fear River as was done in the 
Boston harbour, because the people hated the Stamp Act ; 
the colonial dames met at Edenton and refused to drink 
tea sent to them from the mother country ; the Regulators, 
misguided and lawless as they were, entered their protest 
at Alamance ; and from one end of the North State to the 
other there was unrest and excitement. The presence of 
the soldiers of both parties in the field led to the greatest 
confusion. The Tories claimed that the Moravians were 
in sympathy with the continental forces. The Committee 
of Safety accused them of secretly aiding the royal party. 
At one time a troop called expecting to find the governor 
concealed in the town, and determined to capture him if 
found. At another time an agent of the government 
waited upon them, to investigate certain charges. The 
result of these conflicting flying rumours was that threats 
were made to destroy the fortifications (see map, p. 39) at 
Bethabara and burn the town. These threats were made 



by the lawless element, and were not sanctioned by author- 
ity. We have already said that the people in Wachovia 
were peaceful, but they were not cowards, and any attempt 
upon their lives and property by these miserable prowlers 
would have been a dear experiment for the attacking party. 
A special decision in a conference required each house to 
be prepared with heavy cudgels ; in case of an attack by a 
band of marauders the church bell was to be rung, special 
watchmen were placed on duty, and every precaution for 
defence taken. In speaking of the various and conflicting 
rumours which filled the land, the writer of the diary says, 
" The stories abroad seem to point to the fact that all men 
are liars." 

Certain people from the general neighbourhood of Wach- 
ovia joined the army collecting at Fayetteville to resist the 
forces of the king. While there they saw a number of 
the Bethabara wagons enter the town and depart again. 
The object of this visit was to secure salt ; but these hostile 
neighbours spread the report that they carried both arms and 
ammunition concealed beneath the merchandise. Hence, 
after the battle of Moore's Creek, in which the Tory forces 
were defeated, the Committee of Safety, from Salisbury, 
decided to formally investigate the charges. In February 
they came to Bethabara, and having assembled the prin- 
cipal men of the town, the Committee of Safety informed 
them that they were present to find out whether it was 
true — 

1. That they were accustomed to hold secret meet- 
ings, or that they were cognizant of such meetings ; 

2. That they had arms and ammunition concealed for 
the use of the king's soldiers ; 

3. That they refused to receive continental money as 
freely as the old money. 


There were sundry other minor charges which the 
enemies had gathered, and the record says, " we resolved 
to talk less in the future." 

The investigation showed that all the charges were false, 
and after having visited Bethabara, Bethania, and Salem, 
the committee were not only satisfied that there was no 
cause for censure, but on the other hand that the commu- 
nities deserved the full protection of the law. The follow- 
ing papers (never before printed) will show how fully 
they understood each other, and how friendly they were 
at parting. The first paper was given to the Committee of 
Safety, and is as follows : — 

" We, the Subscribers, Inhabitants of the towns of Salem, 
Bethabara and Bethany, in the Parish of Dobbs, for our- 
selves and our fellow Inhabitants of said towns, hereby 
solemnly promise and declare, that, in the present calami- 
tous circumstances of North America, which we heartily 
pray to God Almighty in his Mercy soon to avert, we 
intend to demean ourselves as hitherto, as quiet People, 
who wish the welfare of the County and Province, and 
that we, nor either of us, will not at any time intermeddle 
in political affairs, and that we will cheerfully assist and 
support the county, along with our other fellow Inhabit- 
ants, in paying of Taxes and anything else that is not 
against our conscience and the privileges upon which we 
have settled here, and that we in no case whatever shall 
or will be anything that shall be detrimental to the good 
Province we inhabit. 

"Salem, the 15th Day of February, 1776." 

Then follow seven signatures from Salem, four from 
Bethabara, and seven from Bethania. The paper was 


attested by Graff. The people of Wachovia, in their 
turn, received the following : — 

" I hereby certify that agreeable to the Direction of the 
Council of Safety, dated February 8, 1776, directed to 
Captain John Armstrong and Captain Jesse Wallon, to- 
gether with myself, by Order of the Committee for the 
County of Surry, waited on the gentlemen of the towns 
of Salem, Bethabara and Bethany, and after a mature 
deliberation on the Cause of Our Meeting received full 

"I hereby require and charge all persons whatsoever to 
take notice that as far as cognizable by me, the said Gen- 
tlemen, together with the rest of their Brethren in the 
aforesaid towns, have a right to protection both of their 
persons and their properties, and that no person molest 
them who has not a proper authority and show just cause 
for his so doing. Given under my hand this 15th Day 

of February, 1776. 

" Col. Armstrong, Col. of S. R. 
" A true copy, 

"JoH. Michael Graff." 

This closed the episode of the "salt wagon charges," 
and although one or another company of overzealous 
patriots from time to time demanded an explanation of 
floating rumours, the paper from the Committee of Safety 
satisfied every one. 

An incident which produces a smile in the midst of the 
serious events of these days was the result of a summons 
to Salisbury in March, 1776. Graff and Bagge responded 
to the summons. The object was to deliver to them a 
package which was regarded as suspicious, and they were 
required to open the same in the presence of the officials. 


The ominous budget was untied, and found to contain 
magazines with the church news. The officials had no 
further interest in the matter, and no doubt the astonish- 
ment of the inquisitors brought a smile to the travellers as 
they journeyed over the score and a half miles homeward. 

Indian troubles caused great uneasiness. The Tories 
had enlisted the Indians against the American sympa- 
thizers, and preparations were made for a vigorous cam- 
paign. Notice was sent to Wachovia that they should 
enlist or furnish substitutes, or each pay ;^io fine. The 
officer who issued the order was hastily summoned else- 
where, and the demand was never enforced. Great fears 
for the safety of the place were entertained, but the army 
sent against the Indians was successful and peace was 
again restored. 

The disturbed state of the country is illustrated by an 
occurrence in July, 1776. Four desperadoes entered the 
home of the single men in Salem and made a murderous 
assault, seriously, almost fatally, wounding one, and injur- 
ing a number of others. They terrorized the town for a 
time, and then continued northward. Later they were 
arrested by the Moravians from Salem, and taken to the 
Salisbury jail. 

Every effort was made to show to the world that the peo- 
ple of Wachovia were law-abiding citizens. Taxes were paid 
promptly ; they were willing to sign another paper similar 
to the one given the year before ; still the situation was 
critical, and Mr. Lanier, their representative in the legis- 
lature, advised them to be very discreet in their conversa- 
tion, since enemies and spies were all around them. 1777 
closed with enmities increasing rather than diminishing. 

The paymaster of the soldiers came to Wachovia, at 
times, and this was a signal for turmoil. There was much 


drinking and fighting, broken heads in some cases, and on 
one occasion the hostility to the town began to crystallize, 
and they trembled for their safety. Fortunately for them, 
disputes arose among the soldiers themselves, which di- 
verted their minds, and gradually the crowds dispersed. 

Not less alarming was the nature of the companies 
which gathered at the hotel, made up of Tories and pa- 
triots. They came to hear and talk over the news. The 
battles were discussed, and the note is made that on one 
occasion information was brought that Washington had 
crossed over the Delaware, on the ice, and that he had 
captured a large number of Hessians. In the midst of 
the heated discussions now and then a voice would call 
out " Hurrah for King George ! " or " Hurrah for Wash- 
ington ! " and a conflict was imminent. 

Among the other items which came to them was that 
of the imprisonment of some members in Pennsylvania, 
for refusing to take the oath. The facts on which these 
rumours were based is thus stated by Hamilton : — 

"April I, 1778, twelve members of the Emmaus congre- 
gation were imprisoned at Easton, and were kept on bread 
and water till the 29th, because they refused to take the 
oath ; and in September thirteen others repeated the ex- 
perience. . . . Conscientious scruples in respect to mili- 
tary service called for further pecuniary sacrifices. . . . 
The fines thus imposed upon seven amounted to £2^4. 
At another time eight men were mulcted to the sum 
of ;£40i." 

In these days conference was held by the Wachovia 
officials with the Pennsylvania members, and they gained 
comfort and wisdom. The Pennsylvania Moravians had 


the opportunity of conferring with the national authorities 
and the state officials at Philadelphia. They frequently 
received advice and aid from friends, among the most 
prominent in the affairs of the country, such as Henry 
Laurens, John Hancock, Samuel Adams, and George 

Among the members themselves there were differing 
views which led to unwise discussions, and remarks were 
frequently picked up by unfriendly visitors for future use 
against the towns. The diary says, " Several of our breth- 
ren were taken to task for incautious remarks about the 
condition of the country, but if they will not listen they 
must suffer." Again, "We reproved two boys for unwise 
enthusiasm, the one hurrahing loudly for Washington, the 
other responding in an equally enthusiastic manner for 
King George ! " 

Strict orders for " general muster," or heavy fines in lieu 
thereof, were issued. The fines were paid. The taxes 
were doubled, and finally a triple tax was imposed. The 
state collected the full amount, and from time to time bor- 
rowed money from Wachovia, and still the enmities 
continued. About the middle of this period we find a 
paragraph which contains the key-note of the final result. 
The statement is made that the number of friends are 
increasing, but that henceforth still greater caution is 

A pleasing experience it was which won for them a 
larger number of friends than any other single event. It 
was after one of the bloody battles of those days that 
a number of wounded soldiers were brought to Salem. 
Here they remained several months, receiving tender nurs- 
ing and the most skilful surgical care. In fact, the work 
of Dr. Bonn is said to have effected some marvellous re- 


suits in the case of the severely wounded soldiers. Some 
of these men were Virginians, and some North Carolinians. 
They left Salem, and reported to those in authority how 
kindly they were treated, and that the skill of the physi- 
cian had saved their lives ; the diary says from that time 
forth " we never lacked friends among those high in 



A MORE difficult and perplexing question probably never 
presented itself to a community than that which confronted 
the governing board of Wachovia in its dealings with the 
legislature. We have already seen how hostile were many 
persons, and this enmity would have been a burden in 
peaceful times. When we consider all the circumstances, 
it is marvellous that they escaped voluntary or forced ban- 
ishment. We must not judge them by our standards, for 
their unwillingness to take an oath or bear arms was a 
matter of conscience, and they were ready to endure any 
loss or hardship rather than act against conscience. 
Therefore the complications which met them were the 
following. The title to the land had been made to Hutton, 
in trust, for the Moravians in North Carolina, hence it 
escaped the Confiscation Act which was passed upon land 
held by the non-resident English ; this saving clause (in 
trust) was not known to all, and hence the popular belief 
and desire was that the Moravians should go, and at one 
time the shiftless class of neighbours had preempted the 
mills, stores, houses, and lands. Again, the legislators 
could not understand the motives which caused them 
to refuse to take the oath. It appeared to be lack of 
loyalty, while in reality there were no truer patriots in the 
land. The officials construed their unwillingness to bear 



arms as indicating a predisposition toward King George, 
or cowardice, while in reality the Moravians did as much, 
if not more, for the cause of American independence than 
any similar number of men in any portion of the state. 
Still, when the condition of their remaining in North Caro- 
lina depended upon the task of securing from the same 
hostile legislature an official indorsement of these very 
principles which were the prime cause of the difficulties, 
the task indeed seemed to be a hopeless one. 

Already, in 1777, information was brought by their rep- 
resentative, Mr. Lanier, and also by Colonel Armstrong, 
that the attitude of the legislature was hostile. The 
statutes were very severe ; in one instance there was a fine 
of ;£ioo and a ban which forbade association with other 
men. At last, in 1778, they determined to send official 
representatives to Hillsboro, where the legislature was in 
session, and work earnestly to change public opinion, and 
gain legislation which would make their future secure. 
It was necessary that some action should be taken. A 
few of the younger men were willing to take the state 
oath. All were willing to affirm their loyalty to the 
state. But the majority were unwilling to forswear, 
the king, under whom they might have to serve in the 
mission fields, and furthermore, they were not willing to 
join the army. Banishment would be welcome when com- 
pared with acting against conscience. These facts were 
known to others, and some eager settlers had already 
moved upon Wachovia lands, believing that within a few 
weeks the Moravians would be driven into exile. 

The visit of the two representatives from Salem to the 
legislature in Hillsboro, August, 1778, is given in full in 
the records, and aside from its being the pivotal point on 
which the affairs of Wachovia turned, it also gives us 


a good view of the methods of work pursued by the law- 
givers of that day. 

Bagge and Blum were the men chosen to bear the peti- 
tion to the legislature. The petition itself is a strong and 
dignified paper. A careful perusal shows the true ring 
of the patriot, the honest citizen, the law-abiding member 
of the commonwealth. But all through the paper we 
notice that the gauntlet is thrown down, and that in a digni- 
fied manner they claim that, if freedom of conscience is as- 
sailed, the same spirit which drove the great Comenius out 
of Bohemia, and caused the Georgia colony to forsake 
their homes, will influence the Moravians to emigrate from 
North Carolina and settle in the midst of a people who 
would allow freedom of conscience. There is not a breath 
of hostility in the paper ; they were observing every law 
of the land, they were paying the triple tax, they were 
feeding and sheltering the soldiers, and nursing the 
wounded, their broad acres were cultivated for the benefit 
of the army, their shops and mills furnished supplies for 
troops, they never aided the enemy by word or deed, every 
effort was put forth to support the powers ruling over 
them ; but freedom of conscience had been promised them, 
and this they would have, at any cost. This is the spirit 
of the petition, which we give in full : — 

" To the honourable House of the Senators and the hon- 
ourable House of Commons in the State of North Caro- 
lina, gathered now together for the General Assembly, 
is presented this petition of the United Brethren in this 
State, who live in Bethabara, Bethania, Salem and the 
adjoining sections of Wachovia: — 

" We respectfully declare unto your honourable body, 
that the ancient Episcopal Church, called the Unitas 


Fratrum, or Unity of Brethren, having heard of the great 
religious liberty in America, sent representatives, chiefly 
from the country of Moravia, to preach the gospel to the 
Indians of the Colony of Georgia, and to establish settle- 
ments where a place of refuge could be found by those 
who were being persecuted and banished from lands in 
which the blessings of freedom and religious liberty could 
not be enjoyed. After these settlements in Georgia had 
been established, the war with the Spaniards, of Florida, 
began. Although we had received full assurance that our 
conscientious scruples against bearing arms would be re- 
spected, the authorities of that colony were not true to 
their promises to the Moravians, and oppressions and per- 
secutions followed. Realizing the great injustice of the 
position taken by the authorities who had invited them to 
settle in this Colony, under the above mentioned condi- 
tions, and had then refused to allow them the very 
freedom which had caused them to forsake home and 
fatherland, and cross the ocean, the Georgia colony re- 
moved to Pennsylvania where they were assured religious 
liberty and freedom of conscience. They settled in the 
wilderness in the forks of the Delaware river. Here 
they found the liberty which had been denied them in 
their first home in America, and they lived in peace with 
God and their fellow men. Their industry and success 
attracted the attention of many people. During the thirty 
years that followed they received invitations from many 
sections of the British possessions to establish settlements. 
Especially urgent was the call to begin a colony in North 
Carolina. The reply to this invitation was to the effect 
that if the church began a colony in North Carolina the 
new effort must be under the same conditions, and for the 
same objects which had governed the settlement in Georgia. 


To make this firm and sure, our deputy appeared before 
King George and the EngUsh Parliament, and petitioned 
his Majesty to assure to the new settlement the same 
rights which had been given to them in Pennsylvania, 
New York, Maryland and other colonies. These rights 
included the privileges of affirming instead of taking an 
oath, and also included exemption from bearing arms, or 
serving as a soldier in time of peace or war. Parliament 
examined very carefully and thoroughly into the affairs of 
the Unitas Fratrum, its history, its doctrine, its daily life 
and customs, and its discipline. Being fully satisfied that 
it was an ancient Episcopal Church, that its doctrine was 
pure and its discipline correct, an act was passed encourag- 
ing them to settle in the English Provinces in America, 
and assuring them forever these rights and privileges. 
All this is set forth in the copy of the above named 
Act of Parliament, the original of which is herewith sub- 
mitted to your honourable body. The present duly elected 
Governor of the state of North Carolina has examined 
this document, has confirmed it, and has declared that it 
is binding upon the new government of North Carohna. 

" This act held out strong inducements, and encouraged 
by the prospects they came to America, to enjoy freedom 
of conscience for themselves and their posterity. This 
desire for freedom was not a mere sentiment ; many had 
suffered persecutions for the sake of the Gospel. They 
forsook houses and land ; they left homes and loved ones ; 
they gave up material possessions, but they did all this 
cheerfully for the sake of their religious liberty and free- 
dom of conscience which they expected to find in North 
Carolina. For a quarter of a century these privileges 
have been enjoyed, and our people have lived in Wachovia 
quiet, happy and useful lives. 


" Then the war broke out, and the developments which 
followed began to encroach upon those rights which we 
deem the very foundation condition of our settlement in 
Wachovia. We should not be considered as other than 
loyal subjects of the present government. We are willing 
to bear our full share of the burdens of the war. But 
liberty of conscience in the matter of bearing arms and 
taking the oath, we believe to be consistent with loyalty to 
the government, and the fulfilment of our duties. 

" Not long since an act of tiie legislature imposed upon 
us military duties, or in default thereof a heavy fine. 
Again an Act of your honourable body has ordered us to 
attend the general musters, and if we do not appear, men 
are to be drafted for service and the cost therefor to be 
paid by the people of Wachovia. From the Constitution 
of this state and the Act of Parliament, already referred to 
and which has been endorsed by the present authorities of 
North Carolina, we feel that we can justly claim the privi- 
leges which induced us to come to North Carolina, and 
that we are justified in humbly petitioning your honour- 
able body to abolish these oppressions, which petition we 
do herewith respectfully present. 

" Furthermore, there has been placed upon us by an Act 
of the Assembly the necessity of taking a prescribed oath 
of allegiance to the United States of America, and the 
State of North Carolina, and of forswearing allegiance to 
Great Britain, to King George III, and to his posterity for- 
ever. The penalty attached to the violation of this act is 
either banishment, or the loss of all protection of the law. 

" Concerning this Act of the legislature, we beg to say, 
that with our whole heart we promise allegiance to the 
state. But the forswearing of Great Britain is against our 
conscience for the following weighty reasons. We are 


intimately connected with the Unitas Fratrum in all parts 
of the world. According to our general church govern- 
ment our people stand ready to respond to the call of the 
church to labour in whatever field is assigned. Hence, 
within the next years, without doubt, a number who are 
now called upon to forswear King George III will be sent 
to serve the church in England, or as missionaries in Eng- 
lish provinces. One of the objects of this settlement in 
North Carolina was to create a training school for mission- 
aries. How can these men who expect with reasonable 
certainty sooner or later to labour on English soil, forswear 
the King.? We esteem an oath too solemn a matter to 
thus forswear the King with the lips but with the heart 
repudiate the words of the lips. 

" As the greater part of the United Brethren do not wish 
to take the prescribed oath, since it is against our con- 
science, we humbly petition your honourable body not to 
take from us the right of affirming. We furthermore hum- 
bly petition you to still accord to us the blessings of the 
protection of the laws, so that we may not suffer violence 
of person and property at the hands of evil men. We feel 
that this protection is due us, unless we are found guilty 
of treacherous actions against our own or other states, and 
this, by the grace of God shall never be. 

" We will be bound by conscience to seek the best inter- 
ests of the land where we dwell, and to discharge our 
duties in an honourable and honest manner. Not one of 
us will hesitate to solemnly affirm ' that he will not under- 
take or do anything that will injure the United States, or 
the state of North Carolina, that he will not furnish news, 
help or assistance to the British, at war with this or other 
states.' In case an individual proves faithless to his 
affirmation, let him be punished as an individual. We 


will give all possible assistance to bring such an one to 
justice, but our humble prayer is that you will accord pro- 
tection to our persons and possessions against all violence 
and injustice and that you will allow us the full benefit of 
the law. 

" Permit us to remain in peace and quiet in the homes 
in which Providence has placed us. These homes are con- 
secrated to the furtherance of Christianity and the promo- 
tion of the fear of God and virtue. We have demonstrated 
by our manner of life that the Moravians are industrious 
members of society. Give to us permission to serve the 
public in our daily callings ; enable us to show to our fel- 
low members in this country and in Europe, that the new 
government insures to us the same liberty which we 
enjoyed under the late rule ; if the same generous treat- 
ment is given by this government, then many worthy men 
and women will gladly come to North Carolina to enjoy 
the blessings of freedom, and will build up the interests of 
the new commonwealth. 

" We have no implements of war. We do not wish to 
use violence against this or any other power, as has been 
falsely charged against us. We do not covet positions of 
honour, nor lucrative offices. We have paid our taxes 
promptly, and no obligations to the state have ever had 
to be collected by process of law. 

" The officials of our church who reside in Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey and Maryland have presented to the national 
government, on our behalf, as well as on their behalf, a 
petition similar to this one, which we now respectfully 
bring before your honourable body. We are not without 
hope that it will be granted, since this hope is based upon 
a letter from General Washington, a copy of which is 
added to this petition. 


" Should any members of your honourable body fail to 
fully agree with us in your opinions as individuals, we will 
crave your sympathy in your official capacity. Our com- 
mon Lord and Master has said, * Blessed are the merciful, 
for they shall obtain mercy.' 

" We the undersigned beg leave to submit this petition 
and respectful presentation of our case to your gracious 
and earnest consideration, and pray you to give to us and 
our brethren such help as you are able to give consist- 
ently with leniency and justice. We remain your obedient 

On the 4th of August Bagge and Blum began their 
journey to Hillsboro, to appear before the legislature and 
present the petition. We will let them tell the story of the 
succeeding days. 

When we arrived at Lindsey's, we learned that a conspir- 
acy to assassinate General Rutherford had been discovered. 
The conspirators were scattered through Rowan, Surry, and 
Guilford counties. We stopped with Councilman Strud- 
wick, and there we were informed that the intention to pre- 
sent the petition was already known, and had met with 
much opposition, even thus far in advance. Strudwick also 
informed us that a party of ladies and gentlemen from 
Hillsboro were especially active in promoting ill will 
against us, because last year they had visited Wachovia, 
and received some fancied slight. He predicted that our 
petition would meet with strong opposition. At noon, on 
the 7th of August, we rode into Hillsboro. As soon as 
we had dismounted, we were told that the conspirators in 
the plot to assassinate General Rutherford had declared 
under oath that the Moravians were cognizant of, and 
party to, the plot. We were at once questioned on this 


point. August 8th we began our work of preparing the 
way to present the petition to the legislature. We worked 
in and out among the people, here and there, making them 
acquainted with our affairs, and distributing copies of the 
pamphlet which contained our church history. This pub- 
lication was read with great interest. We found some 
persons who had been in Bethabara with Governor Tryon, 
and they were very friendly. Still matters were by no 
means in a satisfactory position. 

The House of Commons met in the afternoon. Their 
sessions are held in the church, and the Senators meet 
near by in a small house. During the oath taking, a man 
called down from the gallery, asking whether we were 
implicated in the recent plot. We gave an emphatic 
denial, adding that if any individual member of our church 
was connected with it we would use our utmost endeavour 
to bring him to justice. A merchant of Cross Creek, a 
Mr. Patterson, formerly a resident of Santa Cruz, testified 
to the excellence of the Moravians as a people. August 
9th, as his Excellency Governor Caswell went to church 
to-day, Bagge introduced himself and was received in 
a polite and courteous manner. We met many people and 
conversed at length with two gentlemen of prominence 
who seemed to be favourably disposed ; but in another quar- 
ter the reception was anything but friendly. The leader 
(Fuhrer) soon became our friend. On the loth the pre- 
liminary work was begun, and our documents were 
examined. We continued to work in and out among the 
people and the officials. The governor told us that the 
evening would be the most favourable time for an interview 
with him, but when we called he was engaged and could 
not see us. We left our papers for him to examine. A 
certain lawyer, of great influence, was approached, but he 


answered shortly and gave little hope. Another leading 
lawyer made an appointment, but when we called he 
slipped away. General Parsons arrived to-day, and is very 
friendly toward us. He has already examined the peti- 
tion. During the night of the lOth and till noon of the 
nth a very severe storm prevailed. Great damage was 
done, and it was difficult to secure the attention of any one. 
On this day Bagge had half an hour's interview with the 
governor, who handed him back his papers. He promised 
to aid him all he could, but said he was afraid he could not 
do us much good. He expressed himself very warmly 
toward the Moravians. There was no session of the 
legislature to-day as the storm had injured the church, and 
the documents were wet. Bagge handed our papers to 
Colonel Alexander Martin, and he promised to carefully 
examine them. On the 12th it became apparent that it 
was time to have our petition formally presented to the 
legislature, and Mr. Brooks promised to do so next day. 
August 13th, being our special festival day, we were in 
spirit with the congregations in Wachovia. In the after- 
noon there seemed to be an opportunity for presenting our 
petition. When Mr. Brooks arose he became entangled in 
a discussion in regard to some unpopular measure, and 
when he recognized the antagonism which he aroused, his 
judgment told him he could now do us no good. He there- 
fore requested the leader, Hawkins, to take in hand our 
matters, and he agreed to do so. A man, by name White- 
aker, asked for our petition. He read it during the even- 
ing, and became our friend. The historical pamphlets 
continued to circulate, and many persons asked for them. 

A company of people called the Nickolites were peti- 
tioning the legislature for certain privileges, and Bagge and 
Blum, as well as their friends, were desirous of keeping 


the affairs of the Moravians separated from these people, 
as their record was in some respects unsavoury. 

On the 14th of August, Mr. Hawkins presented our 
petition. It was read by the under clerk. Usually there 
was so much disturbance in the house that the voice of the 
reading clerk could not be heard. But when it was 
announced that the petition of the United Brethren would 
be communicated, an impressive stillness came over the 
assembly, and in a clear voice, with marked attention on 
the part of every one present, the clerk read our paper. 
When he had finished, on motion it was referred to the 
proper committee. We then proceeded to the Senate, and 
the petition was read to this body, and in like manner 
referred to a committee. 

The next morning before breakfast the joint committee 
met in a large room. There were at least one hundred 
visitors present. Among them were the Speaker of the 
House of Commons and the President of the Senate. 
The committee organized by electing General Rutherford 
chairman. From the Senate the members were Carr, 
Battle, Stone, Alexander Martin, and a few others. From 
the House of Commons, Generals Parsons and Bryan, and 
Whiteaker, Hawkins, and Brooks. Abner Nash was to 
have come, but failed to appear. The papers were read. 
Bagge was requested to address the committee, and pro- 
duced a printed copy of the Act of Parliament, which 
made a good impression on the members of the committee. 
This Act of Parliament was unknown to any of the com- 
mittee men. Carr and Bryan were particularly interested 
in our case, and we trust the Lord will reward them for 
thus endeavouring to further his cause. All save two or 
three, who remained silent, indorsed our cause. Colonel 
Martin made himself special guardian of the Act of Parlia- 


ment, lest harm should come to it, as it was passed from 
one to the other. After full discussion the following 
favourable report was adopted : — 

" The joint committee selected to consider the petition of 
the United Brethren who live in the settlements of Beth- 
abara, Bethania, Salem and the neighbouring sections of 
Wachovia, met and elected General Rutherford chairman. 
The committee begs to submit the following report. We 
find that the religious society which is called Moravian, 
have received by an Act of Parliament their full rights and 
liberties as free citizens. We find further that by industry 
and frugality they have improved the commercial and 
manufacturing interests, as well as trade and agriculture ; 
that their peaceful and orderly behaviour has won the respect 
of all good men ; that on all proper occasions they have 
contributed their quota for the public needs, and have 
assisted in the support of the public weal in as far as their 
religious scruples will allow. It has further been repre- 
sented to your committee, that the Moravians in North 
Carolina have an organic connection with the Moravian 
Church in all parts of the world, and that their members in 
this State are often called to mission fields, in many lands 
and among many peoples. In view of this fact petition has 
been made to the honourable Assembly that the following 
words be omitted from the form of their affirmation of alle- 
giance, to wit : 'And I renounce all allegiance toward the 
present King of Great Britain, his heirs and successors.' 

"Therefore, I, Griffith Rutherford, chairman of the joint 
committee, in behalf of the committee, do recommend to 
the honourable legislature that the members of the Unitas 
Fratrum or Moravian Church be allowed to omit the above 
clause from their affirmation of allegiance. 


" I further recommend in behalf of the committee that 
the members of the above religious society be allowed to 
pay a regular tax, or a money equivalent, in lieu of mili- 
tary service, in militia drill, or actual warfare. The above- 
named tax to be used for the need of the general govern- 
ment, and to replace the fines heretofore imposed, said 
fines having been applied to the payment of substitutes. 

"The report is approved by the committee and is re- 
spectfully submitted to your honourable body. 

" Griffith Rutherford, Chairman. 

"August 15, 1778." 

The committee seemed to feel very kindly toward the 
Moravians, and before the report was handed in it was 
shown to Bagge, and he was asked whether he desired 
to add to the paper or alter anything. 

Already at breakfast we received an intimation that the 
report would not be accepted. 

The morning passed and there were no developments. 
At noon we heard that the Speaker of the Assembly was 
unfriendly. After dinner Bagge spoke to him, and he 
admitted that there was truth in the rumour, but added that 
in his capacity as a public official he would use every effort 
to deal fairly with the question without allowing his pri- 
vate opinions to unduly influence him. A number of sena- 
tors were interviewed. The majority were friendly to our 
cause. The chairman of the committee. General Ruther- 
ford, was a senator, and he presented the report to the 
Senate in the afternoon. Immediately the lawyer, spoken 
of by Strudwick, arose. This was one of the party whom 
he said we had in some way offended last year when he 
visited our place. This lawyer addressed the senators and 
painted us in dark colours. He said that we did not treat 
visitors with proper hospitality ; that we refused the cur- 


rent money, receiving only gold coin ; that we boasted 
about our improvements, and of the great value to the 
state of our commerce ; the only object of this boasting 
was to throw dust in the eyes of the honourable senators ; 
that the improvements were nothing more than a tavern 
and a few houses ; that the wonderful commerce consisted 
in the stronger wresting money from the weaker, and send- 
ing it, no one knew where ; that we formed a dangerous, 
independent little state within the commonwealth of North 
Carolina ; that if we were not willing to live as other 
people, the sooner we cleared out of the country the 

Mr. Carr and Colonel Martin spoke in our favour, and 
presented true statements. 

Mr. Shepherd advocated freedom from military service, 
but did not consent to the affirmation. 

General Rutherford agreed with Shepherd, and made a 
powerful speech. 

We sat in the midst of all this with calmness of feeling, 
and thought of the evil which had been spoken against our 
divine Master, and felt that if he suffered thus the mem- 
bers should also be willing to endure persecution. 

The abusive lawyer repeated his remarks several times 
with great vehemence. 

When the vote was taken it resulted as follows : — 

In favour of the report, 11. 

Against the report, 13. 

Thus the report was voted down. 

Colonel Martin at once arose and introduced a bill 
which he had already prepared. In this bill he suggested 
to the House that the matter be compromised by allowing 
the forswearing of the king to cover only such time as 
they are citizens of the United States. This was sent to 


the House. It was already dusk, and according to the 
rule the lower House could not consider the measure until 

Sunday was passed quietly, but we noticed that the 
enemy was busy. Some strongly advocated a refusal to 
further consider the matter, or to allow it to again be intro- 
duced. We quietly continued to disseminate information 
about our people and our communities. 

Monday morning the message from the Senate was 
read in the House. The suggestion was approved, but 
the House added the condition that we take the form of 
the oath as all others do ; hence the only benefit we seem 
to have gained by all our work is the introduction of a 
clause making the forswearing of the king binding only 
while we reside in the United States ; the taking of the 
prescribed oath and the bearing of arms, the very things 
we came here to have removed, are imposed in a more 
emphatic manner. Parsons, Hawkins, Brooks, and even 
Gilbert spoke in our favour. A lawyer, one Williams, 
abused us shamefully. In the midst of the harangue he 
was called to order by the Speaker, and thus the matter 
closed, in a worse condition than when we came. 

Already, before we knew how the matter would be re- 
ceived by the House of Commons, we had determined to 
take our case to the courts, and endeavour to secure from 
them the protection which the legislature declined to give 
us, and thus await the gathering of the next legislature. 
In the evening Colonel Armstrong called upon us and ad- 
vised us to make no further attempt to secure legislation. 
That the members wished to adjourn speedily, that during 
these times of war they were not in a condition to look 
at such questions in an unbiassed manner, and we could 
expect nothing further at this time. He promised to 


secure for us all possible protection for life and prop- 

Early Tuesday morning, August 18, Colonel Armstrong 
came to inform us that the preceding evening Lanier 
had received a startling piece of information. It was to 
the effect that the Surry court had decided to enforce 
the law of banishment from the county, within sixty days, 
in the case of all who refused to take the prescribed oath. 
Armstrong advised us to make a determined effort to have 
some act drawn up which would afford us temporary pro- 
tection, and offset this action of the Surry court. Bagge 
hastened to Lanier and found it even as Armstrong had 

The situation, as it stood on that critical day, was as 
follows : — 

The legislature declined to free them from the oath, or 
to allow them to affirm instead of taking the oath ; it also 
declined to permit them exemption from bearing arms. 

The court of Surry County had decided that they must 
leave the county in sixty days, if they failed to take the 
prescribed oath. 

The Moravians would have forsaken homes and lands 
rather than have acted against their conscience. 

Hence, as matters stood on the morning of Tuesday, 
August 18, 1778, the voluntary removal of the Moravian 
colony from North Carolina, because of unjust legislation, 
seemed to be one of the strong probabilities, and if no 
change in the situation could be effected, it appeared to 
be inevitable. But it is the darkest hour which always 
precedes the dawn. 

Bagge and Lanier went at once to Mr. Hooper. He 
drew up a bill which would allow us to affirm instead of 
taking the oath, and his plan was to attach this as an 


amendment to some act which was about to pass the 
final reading. All now appeared to desire the passage 
of a bill which would counteract the work of the Surry 
court ; they felt that it would be to the detriment of the 
commonwealth to drive out so large a body of honest, 
thrifty citizens. The loss of a thousand and more of the 
best people of the thinly populated state was no small 
consideration, and the legislators seemed to at last have 
realized that it was trivial and belittling to refuse the 
request of these good and honest people. The amend- 
ment was first attached to a bill which had no manner of 
connection with the subject in hand ; illogical as was the 
amendment, it passed the House of Commons, but in the 
Senate it was defeated, because their rules allowed no 
amendment to be attached to a bill which came up for its 
third reading. 

It was now no longer a question in the minds of the 
representatives. They felt that they must save this colony 
from banishment, hence the following bill was drawn up 
and passed in the Senate, with only three dissenting 
votes, and in the evening it passed the House of Com- 
mons : — 

"Resolved in the General Assembly, this i8th day of 
August, 1778, that all Moravians . . . who before the next 
session of the General Assembly will take the affirmation 
of allegiance prescribed by law, shall be admitted to the 
full rights and privileges of citizenship." 

We received a copy of this resolution on the evening 
of the 18th. At five o'clock of August 19, when the 
Assembly convened for the last time, this was the first bill 
which the speaker signed. Thus they gained their object, 


at least in part, and their position was made secure for the 
present. At seven o'clock the same morning, Bagge and 
Blum began the return journey, and on the evening of 
the 20th of August they were once more at home. 

The neighbours around Wachovia still firmly believed 
that the people would leave their homes rather than sub- 
mit to the laws which deprived them of freedom of con- 
science. They continued to preempt the land at the rate 
of fifty shillings per hundred acres, and even the town 
plots of Salem, Bethania, and Bethabara, as well as the 
land on which stood the mills, were entered by speculative 
neighbours, they erroneously thinking that no lawful deeds 
existed (Reichel). 

In the midst of this state of affairs the alarm of the 
Moravians may be imagined when the legislation in Janu- 
ary, 1779, placed the position in a more dangerous shape 
than at any time before. (See Fries, " Forsyth County," 
and the Laws of North Carolina, printed in 1821.) 

Without quoting the exact words of the various pream- 
bles and the acts, we give the substance of the same. 
The law enacted, that because certain persons who came 
under the Confiscation Act of 1777 had failed to appear 
before the present legislature, in order to show just cause 
why the act should not apply to them, therefore their 
lands shall be forfeited to the state. That three commis- 
sioners shall be appointed by each county court, in each 
county ; that these commissioners shall give bond to the 
amount of ;^2 50,000, and take a prescribed oath; the 
commissioners shall take charge of all confiscated lands, 
etc., and shall have the power to summon all the citizens 
to appear before them, in the several counties, to give an 
account of forfeited property. It was the duty of the 
commissioners to report to the county court, and the court 


had the right to stay execution if the justice of the action 
appeared to be in doubt. In October, 1779, this law of 
January, 1779, was repealed, but was replaced by one 
which was in effect the same. 

This was adding fuel to the fire of their difficulties, and 
two representatives were at once sent from Wachovia to 
Halifax, where the legislature was in session. The task 
was not as difficult as last year. The petition was favour- 
ably received, and the act which was passed is as 
follows : — 

"An Act to prescribe the Affirmation of Allegiance 
and Fidelity to this State to be taken by the Unitas 
Fratrum, or Moravians, . . . and granting them certain 
Indulgences therein mentioned and other Purposes. 

" I. In order to quiet the Consciences and indulge the 
religious Scruples of the Unitas Fratrum, or Moravians ; 

" II. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the 
State of North Carolina and by and with the Authority of 
the same, that the Affirmation of Allegiance and Fidelity 
to this State shall hereafter be taken by all the above Peo- 
ple, in the Form Following, viz: [here follows the form]. 
Which said Affirmation being taken before any Justice of 
the Peace, in the County where they reside, at or before 
the first day of May next, shall entitle them to all those 
Rights, Privileges and Immunities, they heretofore re- 
spectively enjoyed, any Law to the contrary notwithstand- 
ing, the Assessment and Payment of Taxes only excepted. 

"III. And be it further enacted by the Authority afore- 
said, that all and every of the said People, upon taking 
and subscribing the Affirmation of Allegiance and Fidelity 
to this State as aforesaid, before the Entry-Taker of the 
County, may reenter all their Lands formerly made in Earl 


Granville's Office, or Public-Land Office, or any Lands 
they or either of them, have had the prior Occupancy of, or 
may enter a Caveat or Claim against any Person or Per- 
sons who may have entered or surveyed the same, pro- 
vided such Entry, Caveat or Claim, be made on or before 
the first day of May next after the passing of this Act, and 
shall be entitled in Preference of all others to obtain a 
Grant for the same, according to the Rules of the Act of 
the Assembly for establishing Offices for receiving Entries 
of Claims for Lands, etc. 

" IV. And whereas many ignorant though good sub- 
jects of this State have not taken the Oath of Allegiance 
owing to the Neglect of the Justices of the Peace in many 
Counties ; Be it therefore enacted by the Authority afore- 
said, that all Residents of this State, who have not been 
inimical, or heretofore refused to take the Oath when par- 
ticularly called upon, and who shall take the Oath of Alle- 
giance to this State prescribed by Law before the first day 
of May next, or who have taken the said Oath since the 
Time prescribed by the said Law, shall be admitted to all 
the Rights, Immunities, and Privileges of Citizens, hereby 
granted to the Moravians ; any Law to the contrary not- 

"Halifax, January 19, 1779." 

The diary says that Praezel and Heckewelder, whose 
visit secured the above legislation, had been sent to Hali- 
fax after hope had failed, and the property was being seized 
and occupied. When they returned all was changed, and 
from that time forth there was no serious fear of the loss 
of their homes and land. 

In the month of February, Justice Dobson met the men 
of the several towns, and they gathered in the church, 


forming a half-circle about the magistrate. The latter 
read the form of the affirmation, the men repeated it 
after him. 

" I, A. B., do solemnly and sincerely declare. and affirm, 
in the Presence of Almighty God, that I will truly and 
faithfully demean myself as a peaceable Subject of the 
independent State of North CaroHna, and will be subject 
to the Powers and Authorities that are or may be estab- 
lished for the good Government thereof, and not inconsis- 
tent with the Constitution, by yielding either an active or 
passive Obedience thereto ; and that I will not abet or 
join the Subjects or forces of the King of Great Britain, 
or other enemies of this State, by any Means, in any Con- 
spiracy whatsoever, against the said State, or the United 
States of America; and that I will make known to the 
Governor, or some Member of the Council of State, Judge 
of the Supreme Court, or Justice of the Peace, all Trea- 
sons, Conspiracies, or Attempts, Committed or Intended 
against the same, which shall come to my Knowledge." 

At the end of this formula Dobson said, '* so help ye 
God." He then gave each one the written certificate. 
This closed forever the question of their liberty in the 
matter of affirming. They were likewise relieved of fur- 
ther anxiety regarding military duty by the imposition of 
a triple tax. This tax was paid until 1783. 

There seemed still to have been some who annoyed 
the people of Wachovia in regard to their land, and hence, 
to settle any legal complications, in May, 1780, the legisla- 
ture in Newbern, Abner Nash, governor, passed the fol- 
lowing : — 

" An act for the relief of the People called Moravians, 
. . . within this State. 


" I. Whereas by an Act of the General Assembly of this 
State, entitled an Act to amend an Act for declaring what 
crimes and practices against the State shall be treason, 
and what shall be misprision of treason, and providing 
punishments adequate to the crimes of both classes, and 
preventing the dangers which may arise from persons dis- 
affected to the State, all persons within the State are 
requested to take an oath, or an affirmation to the State, 
and in case of refusal are either to be sent out of the 
State, qr to be deprived of the benefit and protection of 
the laws of said State, and disabled from prosecuting or 
defending any suit either in law or equity : and whereas 
numbers of persons under pretence that the people called 
Moravians, . . . have not taken an affirmation to the 
State have entered and taken up the lands which the said 
denomination of people have remained in quiet possession 
of for many years : for remedy whereof, and to prevent 
such abuses for the future, 

" II. Be it enacted etc.. That from and after the pass- 
ing of this Act, when it shall appear that any of the peo- 
ple of the said denomination within this State, . . . shall 
have been lawfully possessed of any lands within the said 
State, either by patent, deed, or otherwise, whereon any 
other person hath heretofore made entry, and under the 
above said pretence, all such entries and the proceedings 
thereon shall be deemed null and void ; and in case any 
entries shall hereafter be made on any of the lands of said 
people, such entries shall also be void and of no effect. 

" Read three times and ratified in General Assembly, 
the tenth day of May, a.d. 1780. 

"Alexander Martin, S.S. 
"Thomas Benbury, S.C." 


When Marshall took the deeds which had been received 
from England, to Salisbury, in 1 780, to have them recorded, 
the recorder declined to accept them at that time. These 
were the deeds made by Hutton, of London, to Marshall. 
Hutton had received the deeds from Lord Granville, the 
original proprietor, and he had held the land in trust for 
the church. He, in his turn, transferred them to Marshall, 
as proprietor. Soon after Marshall's visit to Salisbury, he 
and Bagge were summoned to appear before the commis- 
sion which had in charge the affairs of confiscated estates. 
The interview between the members of the commission 
and the Moravians was fairly satisfactory to the latter. 
When the legislature gathered in Salem, in 1781 and 1782, 
their affairs were fully studied and finally understood by 
the legislators. It became apparent that there had never 
been any just cause for doubt in regard to the title; 
hence, to settle the question beyond the possibility of any 
further complications which might arise as a result of 
plots against the people of Wachovia, Marshall appeared 
before the legislature in April, 1782, and the following 
act was passed, thus ending the years of unjust persecu- 
tion : — 

" I. Whereas, Frederick William Marshall, esquire, of 
Salem in Surry County, hath made it appear to this 
General Assembly that all the tracts of land in this State 
belonging to the lord advocate, the chancellor and the 
agent of the Unitas Fratrum, or United Brethren, have 
been transferred to him from the former possessors, in 
trust for the Unitas Fratrum, or United Brethren ; and as 
doubts have arisen whether the said tracts do not come 
within the description of the Confiscation Act ; and to 
quiet the minds of those to whom conveyances have 


been made, or are to be made, of any part or parts 
thereof ; 

"II. Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly 
of the State of North Carolina, and it is hereby enacted 
by authority of the same, that a certain deed of lease and 
release, dated the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth of 
October, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, 
from James Hutton, conveying the tract of Wachovia, in 
Surry County, to said Frederick William Marshall, be 
hereby declared valid in law, and to be admitted to probate 
in the County of Surry, and registered in the Register's 
office thereof, agreeable to the testimonials thereunto per- 
taining ; and that all lands which by deed of bargain and 
sale of the twentieth of April, one thousand seven hun- 
dred and sixty-four, between William Churton and Charles 
Metcalf, registered in the County of Orange in book num- 
ber one, page one hundred and six, and in Rowan County, 
in book E, number five, page four hundred and fifty-two, 
etc., were then conveyed to said Charles Metcalf, be 
hereby vested in the said William Marshall in trust as 
aforesaid ; and all conveyances of the above mentioned 
lands, or any one of them, made, or which shall be made, 
by the said Frederick William Marshall, shall be as good 
and valid to all intents and purposes as if the Confiscation 
Act had never passed. 

" III. And be it further enacted by the authority afore- 
said, that the power of Attorney of Christian Frederick 
Cossart, dated the third of November, one thousand seven 
hundred and seventy-two, empowering said Frederick 
Wilham Marshall to sell his lands, be admitted to probate 
and registry in the County of Wilkes, and be as good and 
valid in law as it could or might have been, had the Act 
of Confiscation never passed." 


The proprietors of the Wachovia tract were and are 
the following : — 

1. James Hutton, of London, Aug. 7, 1753 — Oct. 28, 
1778. Title transferred by deed to 

2. Frederick William Marshall, of Salem, N. C, 1778 — 
Feb. II, 1802. Transferred by will to 

3. Christian Louis Benzien, of Salem, 1802 — Nov. 13, 
1 8 II. Transferred by will to 

4. John Gebhard Cunow, of Bethlehem, Pa., 181 1 — 
March 28, 1822. Transferred by deed to 

5. Lewis David de Schweinitz, of Bethlehem, Pa., 1822 

— Feb. 8, 1834. Transferred by will to 

6. William Henry Van Vleck, of New York City, 1834 

— Aug. 7, 1844. Transferred by deed to 

7. Charles F. Kluge, of Salem, N. C, 1844 — April 19, 
1853. Transferred by deed to 

8. Emil A. de Schweinitz, of Salem, 1853 — Dec. i, 
1877. Transferred by deed to 

9. The Board of Provincial Elders of the Southern 
Province of the Moravian Church. 

In 1 78 1 the legislature appointed Salem as the place for 
meeting. The time was November. On the 8th of the 
month Governor Alexander Martin arrived, and also two 
companies of soldiers. Ex-Governor Caswell came, and 
sixty-three members of the Senate and the House. 
Twenty-eight members of the House were absent, and ten 
members of the Senate. On the night of November 24 
the alarming news was received that a large body of Tories 
was near the town, and intended to make an attack for the 
purpose of seizing the person of the governor. Governor 
Martin had his room in the Brethren's House, corner of 
Main and Academy streets. It was a cold November 
night, rain was falling, and all night long the two com- 



panics patrolled the streets. No attack was made, and 
at 9 o'clock in the morning, the tired, cold, and wet soldiers 
retired to their quarters. 

On the 27th of November it was decided to adjourn. 
Several meetings were held, but no business was transacted. 
The utmost cordiality existed between the people and the 
officials. Homes were engaged for the next meeting, and 
with this kindly feeling the members departed. 

Governor Martin again arrived in Salem January 25, 1782, 
and with him the Speaker, and a number of the members 
of the legislature. Among the representatives present on 
this second occasion were many who were not present the 
first time, and thus nearly all the representatives were in 
Salem, either in 1781 or 1782. On the 30th of the month 
Governor Burke unexpectedly arrived. He had been a 
prisoner in the hands of the British, and his sudden appear- 
ance was a source of so much joy that a number of thanks- 
giving hymns were sung in the evening service. Colonel 
Steward was present to officially represent General Greene's 
army, and Major Taylor was sent from the Virginia legis- 
lature. Several sessions were held, but a quorum not 
being present, no business was transacted. Some were in 
favour of waiting a week, but it was suddenly decided to 
separate, which was done at once, a number leaving the 
same evening, the remainder the next day. 

While it is true that no executive business was transacted 
either in 1781 or 1782, the legislature was present and was 
represented by almost all the members on the two occasions. 
The first time they were in the town three weeks, the 
second time two weeks. The great benefit resulting from 
these meetings was that the leading men of the state 
became acquainted with the people of Wachovia, and not 
only did all unkind feeling toward the Moravians disap- 


pear, but we read on many occasions of the social visits 
and the fraternal exchange of courtesies. Hence the 
close of the decade finds the Province of Wachovia hke a 
vessel in the harbour after a stormy voyage. Many times 
it seemed that the ship could not weather the tempest, but 
when the great Peace Jubilee was celebrated to commem- 
orate the close of the struggle between England and the 
United States, the Moravians could also rejoice over the 
complete defeat of all their enemies, and rest in the bene- 
fits arising from the friendly legislation which assured to 
them and their posterity that freedom to secure which they 
forsook home and fatherland, and which was to them a 
most precious treasure. 



" In the very theatre of the war " are the words used by 
the writer of a century and a quarter ago. He was fully 
justified in using this description, for although actual 
fighting did not occur in Wachovia, the horrors of the 
struggle were all about them, the hardships were many, 
and their part was none the less meritorious, even though 
they did not engage in the battles. The years 1780 and 
1 78 1 formed a dark and trying period for North Carolina, 
as well as its neighbour, South Carolina. There were 
bloody battles, defeats and victories, doubts and uncertain- 
ties. The interest in Wachovia's part is divided between 
the actual scenes in this Province, and the relation which 
the events bear to the general history of the Revolution. 

In 1780 a large number of soldiers gathered at Fayette- 
ville, ten thousand or more, to resist the English, who were 
invading the states from the south. After the harvests 
had been gathered, a company of men from General Gates's 
army came to Wachovia and impressed horses, wagons, and 
men to carry provisions to Camden. This place is about 
one hundred and twenty-five miles from Wachovia in a 
direct line. At Camden a bloody battle was fought August 
16, and in this struggle the American forces were totally 
defeated, with two thousand killed, wounded, or prisoners. 
The visit of General Gates's troops to Wachovia, the prep- 
aration of the army supplies, the trip to Camden, the 



terrible battle, the loss of the horses and wagons belong- 
ing to the Moravians, — these were the things which brought 
them into contact with the actual warfare of that period. 
Though they lost property, no lives were sacrificed in the 
South Carolina battle. 

After the defeat of the American army at Camden the 
Tories became very bold. They gathered in large numbers 
all around Wachovia, and committed many depredations. 
The experiences connected with this uprising show very 
plainly that the sympathies of Wachovia were not with 
those who were arrayed against the government. At one 
time the Tories were one thousand strong in this neighbour- 
hood, and the military officials detailed three hundred 
Virginia soldiers to " chastise " them. The methods of 
these troops were not as severe as those employed in other 
sections, but what they did had the desired effect. Arriv- 
ing at Bethabara in August, the troops established their 
headquarters in the town, and sent out small detachments 
to arrest and bring in the Tories. They were in Bethabara 
three weeks. The first company of prisoners numbered 
twelve. Then another and another scouting party brought 
in the suspected men and confined them in the Brethren's 
House, the same building in which Governor Tryon was 
entertained. The trial took place as soon as the prisoners 
arrived, some were discharged, some were whipped, and 
one man received more than one hundred lashes. At the 
end of three weeks this company withdrew, but the town 
was not left long in peace. 

A detachment of Georgia soldiers, under Pickens, five 
hundred in number, arrived about this time, at Bethabara, 
and remained several days. It was a time of terror, though 
we are not told in this instance what form the danger 
assumed. Plundering was common, houses were entered 


at will, and we infer that they threatened to destroy the 
town, as it is stated that it was a time of the greatest peril. 
The soldiers, among other depredations, broke into the mill, 
stole the flour belonging to the villagers, and then went to 
the houses and requested the people to exchange bread for 
their flour. When Pickens's troops retired, the town was 
nearly ruined. 

In October of the same year, 1780, the battle of King's 
Mountain was fought. The British officer, Ferguson, had 
taken a position on top of the mountain, and he considered 
his position so strong that he declared impiously that " God 
Almighty could not drive him out." The attack was made 
by the American soldiers, and the British were completely 
defeated. Two hundred of the British were killed, one 
hundred and fifteen were wounded, and six hundred were 
taken prisoners. The Americans had fifty killed. Three 
hundred of the prisoners and a number of the wounded 
were hurried northward, and arrived at Wachovia a few 
days after the battle. Fifty British regulars were taken to 
Salem, two hundred and fifty British militia were assigned 
to Bethabara, while the wounded were sent to Bethania. 
They remained in Wachovia about three weeks, till all the 
provisions had been consumed, and then troops and 
prisoners moved on. 

At this time General Greene was placed in command of 
the American forces, his task being to check or crush the 
British in their invasion from the south. In view of the 
losses already sustained, and the demoralized condition of 
the army, he had a difficult task. But he was a brave man, 
an able soldier, and a strict disciplinarian. A detachment 
of Greene's soldiers, was stationed in Salem, and remained 
during the month of January, 1781. Their object is not 
stated in the diary of Salem, but it was no doubt to 


establish a base of supplies for the army. These soldiers, 
together with the church officials, determined to establish 
what they term barracks. It was a building twenty-four by 
thirty feet, and was built west of the hotel, outside the edge of 
the town. The first effort was to cover the expense by private 
subscriptions, and use it as a shelter for indigent travellers 
who could not pay the hotel charges. They thought that it 
could also be used for soldiers passing through the town, 
for military supplies, and in case of need as a hospital. 
The private subscription plan failed, but the military 
authorities took up the matter, and the building was 
erected, and used as a commissary and for other purposes. 
The developments of the next days were such that Greene's 
soldiers and wagons had to leave, to escape the approach- 
ing British, and February 5, 1781, Greene's men withdrew, 
and removed the supplies. We hear nothing further of 
the barrack-building. A hospital was established in the 
two-story building, corner of Main and Bank streets, the 
same house which contained the first meeting hall. 

By this time, January, 1782, the American forces under 
Greene were beginning to rally ; Morgan and William 
Washington were sent to the border line of South Carolina 
to dispute the progress of Cornwallis and Tarleton. The 
battle of " Cowpens " followed, and the British were 
defeated. This stung the pride of Cornwallis, and he 
determined to make a bold dash and capture Morgan, and 
then crush Greene. He knew that the hopes of the Amer- 
icans in this section depended on these two men. Then 
began the wild chase which became famous in the history 
of the Revolution, and which brought Cornwallis and his 
whole army into Wachovia. The chase covered a distance 
of two hundred miles, and the pursuit of the Americans, 
under Greene, by the British, under Cornwallis, was so 


energetic that often the armies were within sight of one 
another, and the bugles of one army could be heard by 
the soldiers of the other; and frequently the British would 
arrive at one side of a river only to see the rear-guard 
of the Americans hastening up the bank on the other side 
of the stream. In the end Greene outgeneralled Cornwalhs, 
as the history of the Revolution shows. 

It was in the midst of this famous retreat and pursuit 
that, on the 9th of February, the British army of seven 
thousand men marched into Wachovia, under the personal 
command of Cornwallis. The soldiers encamped just out- 
side Bethania, and took entire possession of the village 
and the surrounding country. Cornwallis had his head- 
quarters in the house now occupied by Professor A. I. But- 
ner, north of the church. Fires were kindled in the streets 
and yards, to feed which all fences and outhouses were 
demolished. The ladies of the town were required to 
spend the entire night in baking and cooking for the 
soldiers. The younger people were all gathered in the 
house of the pastor. The soldiers foraged all through 
the neighbouring country, and found several still-houses. 
Liquor was freely consumed. Caruthers is responsible 
for the statement that during the night there was so much 
drunkenness that five hundred American troops could 
have captured the entire army. The people were alarmed 
lest the numerous fires would start a conflagration in the 
village. During the night rain began to fall, and this 
danger was averted. The next morning, when the army 
marched away, a scene of desolation was presented : 
fences and many buildings gone ; all their poultry taken ; 
cattle killed and perhaps only half consumed, the remain- 
der lying untouched. The little village lost thirty head 
of cattle and twenty-three horses. Cornwallis says in his 


despatches that while passing through Wachovia he had 
no trouble to find supplies for his army. Requisition for 
bread, meal, flour, and spirits was sent to Bethabara and 
Salem. The people in the latter place had a difificult time 
to protect themselves against the Tories, who had become 
very bold in the presence of the British army. 

The next day, February lo, the army passed through 
Bethabara. It required six hours, from eight o'clock in 
the morning till two o'clock in the afternoon. Guards 
were stationed at many points in order to prevent depre- 
dations. Cornwallis dismounted at the hotel, and he was 
respectfully addressed by a delegation of citizens, to whom 
he replied in a friendly and pleasant manner. 

Continuing the march, the army passed through Salem 
and encamped once more in Wachovia, this time near 
Friedland. Here the soldiers scattered all through the 
country, and committed much violence on their foraging 
expeditions. Heintzman was surrounded by a company 
of eight British soldiers, and demands were made for 
food. The poor man did not have it, so he could not 
comply with their demands. This enraged them, and 
with bayonets at his breast they were about to run him 
through, when a company of people approached, and he 
escaped. All supplies were seized, and when the British 
troops passed on, there was a feeling of great relief that 
Wachovia had escaped complete destruction. 

One incident threatened serious consequences. The 
depredations of Tories, freebooters, and straggling bands 
of soldiers were so burdensome that it was decided to send 
a deputation to General Greene to solicit protection. At 
that time it was not known that the British were so near. 
Bewighausen and Holder went to Greene's camp. They 
returned only an hour or two before Cornwallis entered 


Salem. Had they been a little later, and their visit dis- 
covered, it would no doubt have appeared to the British 
as if information had been sent to Greene, and would 
probably have cost the two men their lives, and possibly 
the destruction of the entire town. It was a narrow 
escape from a serious trouble. 

Hardly had the British army of Lord Cornwallis dis- 
appeared when new and even greater troubles swept down 
upon them. Different bodies of troops followed in the 
wake of the English. Major Dickens, of Mecklenburg, 
came with a detachment ; Pickens arrived with another 
company ; freebooters came with no commanders. They 
were not friendly, and could not understand the Moravian 
position of neutrality in the matter of hostilities. No 
doubt they were anxious to find an excuse which would 
enable them to plunder without restraint. Accordingly, 
in every form of question and imputation they endeavoured 
to force from the people the acknowledgment that they 
were Tories. This they could not do, as they were stanch 
and loyal adherents of the new government, and dreaded 
the Tories. We find no notice anywhere in the diary 
that they were on friendly terms with the Tories, or were 
ever associated with them. They always dreaded these 
men, who lived in North Carolina but were not true to the 
home land. 

With the arrival of the Wilkes militia matters grew 
worse. No doubt this was a company of rude moun- 
taineers, and they wrought great injury to Wachovia. 
The soldiers from Mecklenburg and from Georgia, reen- 
forced by the freebooters, still retained the semblance of 
responsibility to their commanders, but when the Wilkes 
militia arrived, the last barrier was broken down and riot 
ran amuck. Homes were entered and plundered. Prop- 


erty was seized and destroyed. Men were dragged into 
the streets, and, with loaded muskets placed against the 
breast, demands were made with which it was impossible 
to comply. This state of affairs seemed to be as bad as 
it possibly could be, but the next day, February 17, was 
the darkest and most dreadful day of the war. Just as in 
legislative matters August 18, 1778, was the darkest day, 
so in military matters February 17, 1781, was the time 
when the highest point of danger and terror was reached. 
On that day seven hundred men, rough, wild, and hostile, 
were in Salem. They were plundering and destroying, 
threatening and unrestrained. On this day, when mob 
rule was abroad and the citizens had lost all hope, they 
found the Scripture portion in the text-book was : — 

" Thou hast been a strength to the poor, a strength to 
the needy in his distress, a refuge from the storm, a 
shadow from the heat, when the blast of the terrible one 
is as a storm against the wall." 

The last marked event in the history of the movement 
of the soldiers took place in connection with the battle of 
Guilford Court-house. The scene of this battle is near 
the present city of Greensboro, and about a score of miles 
eastward from Salem. Some of the soldiers alluded to in 
a preceding paragraph were on their way to this strug- 
gle, which every one knew must come, but where it would 
occur could not then be calculated. When Cornwallis 
failed to catch Greene, he retired to Hillsboro. Terrible 
cruelties were going on all over the state by bands of 
Whigs and Tories, and so many lives were being sacrificed 
by these bands that Greene declared North Carolina would 
be depopulated if a stop were not put to these things. 
Hence he returned to North Carolina, determined to 
decide the matter. The armies met at Guilford Court- 


house. The Americans retired before the British veterans, 
and although CornwaHis was left in possession of the field, 
he had lost more than five hundred men, and among the 
dead officers was the brave and daring Colonel Webster, 
personally so dear to Lord CornwaHis. Even American 
writers declare that CornwaHis and his troops fought like 
heroes on that day. But it was of no avail. The Ameri- 
can troops began to recognize the first faint streaks of the 
dawn of victory in the campaign. Though they had re- 
tired from the field of battle, they returned and pursued 
the retreating British army, driving it before them, to 
Wilmington and out of the state. 

After the battle, troops again began to pass through 
Wachovia. They were accustomed to violence and blood- 
shed. The Wilkes militia had expressed their determina- 
tion to finish the destruction which they had begun when 
first in Wachovia. Hence, when news reached Salem that 
the Wilkes militia were returning, an appeal was made to 
Campbell with his sixty Virginia soldiers, and to Colonel 
Armstrong, their tried and true friend, and these two offi- 
cers, with their companies, placed themselves in an atti- 
tude of defence, ready to give battle to the Wilkes militia, 
whose duty it should have been to defend instead of 
destroy. By these means the needed protection was 
given and the crisis was passed. No further overwhelm- 
ing dangers came nigh them. Many soldiers passed ; 
large burdens were laid upon the people ; but they were 
in the end able to say with the good man of old : — 

" He shall deliver thee in six troubles ; yea, in seven 
there shall no evil touch thee." 

We will in conclusion mention two points in connection 
with these turbulent times. 

The first was the care given to the wounded brought to 


Salem from the battle-field of Guilford Court-house. They 
were cared for in the hospital by Bonn, and tenderly 
nursed by the people of the place. When they had all 
recovered at the end of some months, these men spoke 
far and wide of the true kindness of the Moravians, and 
this, more than anything else, won the friendship of the 
general public. 

The second point is the remarkable amount of provi- 
sions supplied from the time the wagons went to Camden 
battle-field, till the last stragglers left after the battle of 
Guilford Court-house. The amount of the requisitions 
is often given, and these, added to the supplies which 
are not enumerated, makes the matter a marvel to us as 
we read the account. 

The preliminaries of peace were signed in Paris, Janu- 
ary 20, 1783, and February 4 they were ratified. July 4, 
1783, was appointed as a day of rejoicing for the return 
of peace. September 3, 1783, the treaty of peace be- 
tween Great Britain and the United States was signed, 
and November 23, 1783, official notice of this final act in 
the great war drama was received in Wachovia. 

The celebration of the Peace Jubilee, July 4, 1783, was 
like the bright awaking of the morning after a night of 
darkness and storm. The governor issued a proclamation, 
calling upon all good people to fittingly celebrate the 
event. All of the congregations complied with the proc- 
lamation. The people of Salem were awakened on that 
morning by appropriate trombone music. In the morning 
meeting the " Te Deum Laudamus " was chanted with 
trombone accompaniment. Benzien preached the sermon, 
taking as his text the scripture portion for the day when 
the preliminaries were signed, "The Lord of Hosts is with 
us, the God of Jacob is our refuge." 


He spoke of the blessings of peace, and urged his 
hearers to seek the peace of heart which is to the indi- 
vidual as blessed as is the peace we are now celebrating 
to the entire land. At the end of the sermon the choir 
sang "Glory to God in the Highest." 

At two o'clock all gathered for a happy love-feast, on 
which occasion a specially composed ode was sung. This 
paper is still in the possession of the Salem archives. 
The title to the composition is " A Psalm of Joy of the 
Congregation in Salem, for the Peace Jubilee, July 4, 
1783." The first choir hymn begins with the line, 

" Peace is with us ! Peace is with us ! " 

At eight o'clock the congregation gathered in the church 
and engaged in singing several special hymns. They then 
proceeded to the front of the congregation house, and with 
two choirs, each discoursing vocal and instrumental music, 
the entire procession moved reverently and solemnly along 
the main streets of the town. The houses were illuminated, 
and after the line of march had been completed, all 
returned to the church and were dismissed with the bless- 
ing of the Lord. It was a deeply solemn occasion, the 
very stillness of the atmosphere being in harmony with 
the hush which came over the large congregation in this 
evening hour. 


I 773-1 783 

Much of the history of this period has already been given, 
but, in addition to what the narrative has shown us, there 
were some experiences which were connected more directly 
with the church life, and these we will gather together in 
a brief closing chapter. 

Marshall's visit to Europe separated him from his 
people for five years, at a time when his presence was 
specially needed. He left Salem to attend the General 
Synod in Germany, and because of the unsettled condition 
of travel was unable to return until 1779. In 1774, 
Tiersch, the first minister of Salem, died. The following 
year Utley, the English pastor, was called to his eternal 
home, after a life of unusual success, not only as a worker 
in Wachovia, but as an evangelist in this entire portion of 
the state. The large concourse of people gathered from 
far and near attested the deep love which all felt for this 
good man. 

In 1774 an effort was made to again begin work in 
Georgia. Miller and Wagner went to Knoxboro, and in 
1775 Broesing left Wachovia to join them, and to begin 
work on the estate of Silkhope. Miller died of fever, and 
when the Revolution broke out, the conditions placed upon 
the others were such that the second effort in Georgia was 
abandoned. The authorities gave the two Moravians the 



choice of four things. First, to enlist in the army, which 
was against their conscience ; second, pay a tax of £,"] per 
month, which was impossible, as they had no means where- 
with to pay it; third, go to jail, which was decidedly disa- 
greeable, since they had committed no breach of propriety ; 
fourth, leave the country, which they did. Miller went 
back to Europe, and Broesing to North Carolina. 

One of the severe trials of the period, and that which 
added untold sufferings to the war troubles, was the prev- 
alence of smallpox. This dread disease was introduced 
by the soldiers, and spread rapidly all through Wachovia. 
Preceding the movements of the soldiers and following the 
season of unrest, the diary says the sufferings were inde- 

It is noted in the diary that early in the period they 
had helped to pay the debt of the Unity by contribu- 

In Salem the strangers' burying-ground was fenced, and 
improved in 1775, and in the same year in Bethabara a 
new tavern was built. 

The pottery interest is specially mentioned in 1777, and 
when the ware was taken from the kilns great crowds 
gathered to purchase. 

In 1778 mention is made of the beginning of the infant 

Rather amusing as well as interesting is a little local 
experience which took place in 1778. A number of young 
men resided in the single brethren's house. They pursued 
various trades, received a regular salary, took their meals 
in the common dining hall, and paid a fixed price for board. 
In view of the increased cost of living they requested a 
larger salary, and expressed a willingness to pay more for 
their meals. The proper authorities increased the salaries 


and fixed the price for the meals. The scale did not please 
the young men. In an evening conference they were 
admonished to consider these matters in a correct and 
proper Hght. A young man spoke rather freely on the 
subject, and he was advised to seek a wider field in which 
to use his talents. When the young men returned to the 
Brethren's House the smouldering fires of discontent broke 
out, and the next morning they left their work, hoping that 
the day labourers would follow. The latter did not do so. 
Some of the young men went from Salem to Bethabara, 
others went into the woods, and thus they passed the day. 
In the evening all were satisfied with the length of the 
•'one day strike," and returned, humbly asking pardon for 
their insubordination, and realizing that they had become 
the laughing stock of the town. 

An important event in this period was the visit of 
Bishop J. F. Reichel in 1780. He was a man of keen 
insight into affairs, and he seemed to intuitively recognize 
the needs of the times. He laboured zealously to har- 
monize the conflicting political views ; he explained clearly 
to the congregations their duties in view of the changed 
state of affairs ; when he left, it was found that his visit 
had been signally blessed by the Lord. 

One special work which Bishop Reichel performed 
in Wachovia was the inauguration of the "ministers' 
conference," which he established September 15, 1780. 
This consists of a gathering of the ministers of the 
Province, in Salem, the first Thursday morning of each 
month. In this meeting the affairs of each congregation 
are discussed in a friendly manner, though the confer- 
ence has no executive powers. The welfare of the con- 
gregations is promoted, and plans for the new month are 
discussed. Much good is done in this respect, and still, 


probably one of the best features of the conference is the 
fraternal feeling which this contact of the ministers, one 
with the other, promotes. For one hundred and seven- 
teen years this ministers' conference has been held in the 
Southern Province. 



With the close of the Revolution the history of Wach- 
ovia passes into an entirely new and different development. 
For generations they enjoyed the blessings of peace; they 
were free from the dangers of warfare, and even the enmi- 
ties of their neighbours ceased. In 1783 Bagge became 
a member of the legislature, the first citizen of Wachovia 
to take a seat in that body. There was no further trouble 
with the lawgivers of that state. In 1792 both the state 
legislature and the Congress of the United States granted 
them full liberty to abstain from taking an oath, and to 
have perfect freedom from bearing arms. In this connec- 
tion we will add that with the passing years the com- 
munity voluntarily renounced both these rights, and in 
the Civil War of 1 861-1865 no braver men went to the 
field than those from Forsyth County. 

The results of the Revolution were very hard for the 
people in the western portion of the state. As we have 
already stated, many settlers were shiftless and improvi- 
dent. This class of people were compelled to begin anew, 
and with nothing to aid them. The diary states that 
famine was abroad in the land, many subsisting on roots 
and berries till the wheat harvest. Scarcity and suffering 
continued several years. As was the case in every pre- 



ceding trouble, the Moravians shared their scanty store 
of provisions with those who were in an even worse 

Frequent mention is made of the sympathy which they 
felt for their fellow-members in various parts of the 
world. It was in this period that the country of France 
passed through the horrors of its bloody revolution. And 
with the rise of the Napoleonic power, and with the whole 
of Europe filled with the war which followed, a number 
of our congregations were brought into the greatest peril, 
especially those of Neuwied, on the Rhine, and of Zeist, 
in Holland. It will be remembered that from the latter 
congregation much aid had been given in the founding of 

In 1793 the news of a terrible hurricane in the West 
Indies reached them, and called forth additional sympathy. 
At this time and all through the succeeding years we find 
the people of Wachovia sending aid to afflicted brethren, 
not only to their neighbours in the West Indies, but even 
to those living in distant Russian Sarepta. 

In the year 1783 a party began the journey to America, 
and were twenty weeks on the stormy ocean. The suc- 
cessive storms prevented the ship from entering the port 
of New York, hence they sailed southward, and were 
finally shipwrecked on the West Indies. Here they were 
treated kindly, and later they set sail for Philadelphia, in 
a passing vessel. Among the members of the party were 
Bishop Koehler, the pastor for Salem, and Bishop John 
de Watteville and his wife Benigna. Bishop de Watte- 
ville was on an official visitation to the churches of Amer- 
ica. On the occasion of this visit, which extended from 
1785 to 1786, the governing board, which had existed since 
1772, was formally recognized as the Provincial Elders' 


Conference of the Southern Province, and consisted of 
Marshall, Koehler, Praezel, and Benzien. 

Benzien went to the General Synod in 1778. 

Spangenberg died in 1792, after a service of sixty years. 

Hans Christian de Schweinitz, and his son, Frederick 
Christian, came on a visit in 1796. The former had been 
in North Carolina twenty-five years before, and the latter 
remained in Wachovia. 

At this time the prospects for beginning a work in South 
Carolina appeared to be very bright. Henry Laurens, 
formerly President of Congress, and one of the commis- 
sioners for the United States at the peace of Paris, had 
long been well acquainted with the Moravians at Bethlehem. 

" He invited the Moravian Church to begin work in 
South Carolina, and offered a gift of two thousand acres 
of land in the district Ninety-Six. This district embraced 
a section of western South Carolina, and it derived its 
name from the military fort built in the Indian wars, about 
ninety-six miles from Orangeburg. On its site now (1855) 
stands Cambridge, in Abbeville district. 

" The church in Wachovia was very anxious to begin 
work among the coloured people, hence they looked favour- 
ably upon the offer. Marshall and Benzien undertook a 
journey to this wild and unsettled region in November and 
December, 1790. 

" They visited Mr. Laurens at his rice plantation on the 
Cooper Run, nine miles from Monk's Corner. They then 
proceeded to his partner, John Lewis Gervais, in Charles- 
ton, by whose assistance they were conveyed to the agent 
in the Abbeville district. Major Bowie. After a difficult 
journey over almost impassable roads they reached, on 
December 10, the wilds of Long Cane Creek and Reedy 
Branch, where Major Bowie assisted them to select, from 


the five thousand acres belonging to Mr. Laurens, a tract 
of two thousand acres which seemed well adapted for a 
settlement, distant about twenty-five miles from the Savan- 
nah River. As the season was already far advanced, the 
survey could not at the time be made. They thereupon 
returned home ; Major Bowie promised them, as soon as 
practicable, to have the survey made. Before this was 
accomplished Mr. Laurens died. By his last will and 
testament all his property was bequeathed to a grandchild, 
without any provision being therein made for the proposed 
grant, hence the whole plan had to be abandoned " 

In the final negotiations in connection with the South 
Carolina effort, another gentleman offered a tract on the 
Santee River, but this project also in the end failed. 

The work among the Indians was not begun until in the 
new century. The first prospecting tour was by Schneider, 
in 1784. He met with encouragement, having visited the 
Cherokees on the Tennessee River. The chief, Tayhill, 
promised to communicate the proposition to the council, 
but the times were so unsettled that nothing could be done. 
Again, in 1799, Abraham Steiner and Frederick Christian 
de Schweinitz visited the same tribe. The journey was 
begun October 28, and they travelled three hundred miles, 
visiting Knoxville and TeUico Blockhouse. Friends 
interested themselves in the visit, and though many Indians 
were away hunting, the journey was attended with 
encouraging experiences. They returned December 28. 

The health record speaks of the prevalence of smallpox 
in 1786, when the citizens of the towns were inoculated. 
The good physician Bonn died in 1781, after his faithful 
attendance upon the wounded soldiers. It was not until 
1784 that Dr. Lewis arrived. Measles were abroad in the 


towns in 1784, but the most serious visitation was what the 
diary calls " hitzige Hals Krankheit." Reichel translates 
this " scarlet fever" ; this is no doubt an error. It was a 
malignant form of diphtheria which attacked adults as well 
as children, and which is described by writers of that day 
as having occurred in this state and also in Virginia. The 
disease was given various local names, such as black sore 
throat, etc., and mortification began before life was extinct. 
Tradition has come down to our day, as well as the record 
which we have just given, describing the terrible disease, 
as well as the great mortality in their village. The disease 
was so dreaded by others that no visitors approached the 
place during its prevalence. 

In the great flood of 1796 William Hall was drowned. 
An account of this sad occurrence is given in the Wachovia 

An accident happened to Matthew Stach, in 1782, and 
he suffered from the effects of the fall until his death in 
1787. Stach is well known in history as the first mission- 
ary to Greenland. He laboured in that land many years 
before any results appeared, and presents to the world one 
of the heroic characters of history, defying discourage- 
ments, trusting in the Lord, and in the end seeing the 
fruits of his faith and works. January 19, 1783, he visited 
Salem on the occasion of the semicentennial jubilee, and 
gave an animated account of his experiences in the mis- 
sionary service. In the Bethabara graveyard a granite 
shaft marks the resting-place of this great and good man. 

The building operations of this period were on an exten- 
sive scale, and some of our well-known structures date 
back to the closing years of the century. The hotel was 
burned in 1784, and rebuilt the same year. The single 
sisters' house was begun in 1785, and finished in 1786. 


Bishop de Watteville preached the first sermon in the 
chapel, and the next year a special thanksgiving service 
was held. (See article, Wachovia Moravian, December, 
1900.) The schoolhouse for the boys (now the Wachovia 
Historical Society building) was erected in 1794. 

The new church in Bethabara was begun and finished in 
1788. This building still stands, and is in a good state of 
preservation, as the picture given in this volume shows. 
April 8, 1788 the Provincial Elders' Conference with many 
other members went to Bethabara to witness the laying of 
the corner-stone. By 9 o'clock a large congregation had 
assembled. Koehler preached the sermon. The inscrip- 
tion and Hsts were read. With the trombone choir leading, 
the congregation went to the church site and formed a 
circle. The corner-stone was laid with the usual ceremony, 
in the northeast corner, and then walled up. Koehler 
stepped on the stone and offered an earnest prayer. After 
the singing of a hymn the masons began their work, and 
the congregation dispersed. November 28, the same year, 
a large number of people again gathered in Bethabara, 
this time to take part in the dedication of the church. The 
following Sunday, November 30, the first public services 
were held, six hundred persons being present. Koehler 
preached in German and Fritz in English. The Spirit of 
God was manifested in a special manner on this occa- 

The erection of the large Salem church was decided 
upon in April, 1797. The corner-stone was laid June 12, 
1798, and by the close of the year 1799 the church was 
under roof. Bachman came from Lititz to build the 

In 1785 two fire-engines were brought from Europe. 

An addition to the Brethren's House was built in 1786, 


and during the construction one of the workmen, Kremser 
by name, lost his life. 

In 1792 the sycamore trees, forming the avenue from 
the hotel to the bridge, were planted. 

The graveyard was enlarged in 1795. 

An embankment, forming the approach to the bridge 
over the Salem Creek, was built in 1798. 

The number of people in Wachovia at the close of the 
Revolution exceeded one thousand. 

The society for propagating the Gospel was founded 
in 1788. 

In 1790 English preaching was arranged for one Sun- 
day in each month. 

A post-office was established in 1792, with Gottlob 
Shober as postmaster. 

In 1792 mention is made that the question is frequently 
asked why a girls' school, like the one at Bethlehem, was 
not established. Applications have been made to place 
pupils with us. There were difficulties in the way, 
especially in securing teachers, and for various reasons 
the matter was deferred. 

This year, 1792, the early morning Easter service was 
conducted in the graveyard, the disorder and confusion 
accompanying these occasions during the previous years 
having led to their being discontinued. 

One of the pleasing events of this period, the account 
of which will close our history of the century, was the 
visit of President Washington to Wachovia, May 31 to 
June 2, 1 791. The President, with his secretary, Mr. 
Jackson, came from Salisbury, and with him a number of 
servants. Marshall, Benzien, and Koehler went to meet 
him. As he approached he was welcomed with music. 
He descended from his coach, in front of the hotel, and 


greeted the assembled company in a friendly manner, 
being especially happy to see the bright faces of the 
children. He conversed with some of the citizens, who 
acted as a committee, and was then escorted to his room, 
on the second floor, northeast corner of the building. 

He intended to continue his journey next day, but when 
informed that Governor Martin would meet him here, he 
decided to remain another day. During the evening 
meal, music was furnished for his entertainment. 

The next day Washington, Jackson, and a number of 
the citizens visited the places of business and the manu- 
facturing establishments. The President expressed him- 
self as pleased with all these things, especially with the 
system of water supply for the town. 

At two o'clock a formal address of welcome was pre- 
sented to President Washington. At that hour Marshall, 
accompanied by several others, read the address, which 
is as follows : — 

" To THE President of the United States : — 

" Happy in sharing the honour of a visit from the illus- 
trious President of the Union to the Southern States, the 
Brethren of Wachovia humbly beg leave, upon this joyful 
occasion, to express their highest esteem, duty, and affec- 
tion for the great patriot of this country. 

" Deeply impressed as we are with gratitude to the 
great Author of our being for his unbounded mercies, we 
cannot but particularly acknowledge his gracious provi- 
dence over the temporal and poHtical prosperity of the 
country, in the peace whereof we do find peace, and 
wherein none can take a warmer interest than ourselves, 
in particular when we consider that the same Lord who 
preserved your precious person in so many imminent dan- 


gers has made you in a conspicuous manner an instru- 
ment in his hands to forward that happy constitution, 
together with these improvements whereby our United 
States begin to flourish, over which you preside with the 
applause of a thankful nation. 

" Whenever, therefore, we solicit the protection of the 
Father of Mercies over this favoured country, we cannot 
but fervently implore his kindness for your preservation, 
which is so intimately connected therewith. 

" May this gracious Lord vouchsafe to prolong your 
valuable life as a further blessing, and an ornament of 
the constitution, that by your worthy example the regard 
for religion be increased, and the improvements of civil 
society encouraged. 

" The settlements of the United Brethren, though small, 
will always make it their study to contribute as much as 
in them lies to the peace and improvement of the United 
States, and all the particular parts they live in, joining 
their ardent prayers to the best wishes of this whole con- 
tinent that your personal as well as domestic happiness 
may abound, and a series of successes may crown your 
labours for the prosperity of our times and an example to 
future ages, until the glorious reward of a faithful servant 
shall be your portion. 

" Signed, in behalf of the United Brethren in Wachovia, 
" Frederick William Marshall, 
"John Daniel Koehler, 
" Christian Lewis Benzien. 

"Salem, the ist of June, 1791." 

The President was pleased to return the following 
answer : — 


" To THE United Brethren of Wachovia : — 

" Ge7itlemeti : I am greatly indebted to your respectful 
and affectionate expression of personal regard, and I am 
not less obliged by the patriotic sentiment contained in 
your address. 

" From a society whose governing principles are indus- 
try and the love of order, much may be expected toward 
the improvement and prosperity of the country in which 
their settlements are formed, and experience authorizes 
the belief that much will be obtained. 

"Thanking you with grateful sincerity for your prayers 
in my behalf, I desire to assure you of my best wishes for 
your social and individual happiness. 

" G. Washington." 

Six of our citizens were invited to dine with President 
Washington, and the meal was enlivened with enjoyable 

Many people came from all the surrounding country to 
greet the President. 

Late in the afternoon Governor Martin arrived from his 
home, forty miles distant. Washington, Martin, and 
Jackson attended the evening service, which was liturgi- 
cal, the choir and congregation engaging in the singing. 
Late in the evening our distinguished visitors were sere- 
naded by a number of our musicians. 

A history of the church and also a copy of " Idea Fidel 
Fratrum " were presented to the Secretary, and he was 
pleased with the gift. 

At four o'clock the next morning the presidential party 
left, Marshall and Benzien accompanying them to the 
borders of Wachovia. 



Marshall had been the guiding spirit during the clos- 
ing years of the old century, and he lived long enough 
to see the fruit of his own labours and that of his coad- 
jutors. There is seldom found a conjunction of circum- 
stances presenting a more attractive picture than the 
history of these years. The close of the old century and 
the beginning of the new ; the culmination of the labours 
of half a century in Wachovia ; the results of the previous 
years of preparation, viz. the erection of the large Salem 
church, the founding of Salem Female Academy, and the 
beginning of the mission work among the Cherokee Ind- 
ians ; the presence of at least a few of the veterans of 
fourscore years (Marshall in Salem, and Grube and Ett- 
wein in Bethlehem), who were closely identified with the 
bright and dark days of the previous fifty years, and who 
were permitted to see the happy opening of the new cen- 
tury ; the peaceful, triumphant end of these fathers in 
Israel, after they had witnessed the final success of their 
labours, — these things make the first years of the nineteenth 
century a bright and happy period in the history of 

The erection of the Salem church was an undertaking 
of great magnitude one hundred years ago, and would be 
no small task in our day. The picture of this building is 



given elsewhere. April, 1797, the decision to erect this 
church was made. The corner-stone was laid June 12, 
1798, and by the close of 1799 the building was under 
roof. The dedication services were held November, 

The erection of this church marks an epoch in the his- 
tory of Salem and of Wachovia. What impresses us 
is the character and size of the structure. The walls are 
three feet in thickness, and the timbers in the framework 
for the roof are remarkably heavy. The plan of the 
auditorium is pleasing and symmetrical. The organ fin- 
ished in 1800 is still in use, and has furnished music for 
generations of worshippers. The organ covers a floor 
space of ten by ten feet, and is fifteen feet high. It has 
two manuals, eighteen stops, and eight hundred pipes. 
The clock was built even before the church, and has 
marked the passing hours during all these years. The 
material and workmanship were such that the walls, the 
timbers, the organ, the clock, the architecture, the iron 
work, all have served the congregation well, and few 
buildings of half its age are as perfectly preserved. 

The Salem church was one of the most pretentious 
structures in this section of the state at that day. Its 
capacity is about one thousand. November 9, 1800, was 
the day appointed for the consecration. The event had 
been announced all through Wachovia and the surround- 
ing country. The company which assembled numbered 
fully two thousand. A full account of the services of 
the day is given in the diary, and we will use the sub- 
stance of this account to show to our readers a bright 
and happy scene, one which will form a companion pic- 
ture to the centennial celebration in 1900. 

Shortly before nine o'clock, the members and friends 


assembled on the open grounds, the men alongside of 
the boys' schoolhouse, the women before the old chapel. 
Between these two companies were the musicians. As 
the clock struck nine the members of the Provincial 
Elders' Conference, with some visiting ministers, came 
from the congregation house. The musicians led the 
procession into the new church, playing the choral, — 

" God bless our going out, and bless our conning in." 

When the first company of musicians were inside the 
auditorium, they ceased playing, and a second band, 
stationed in the gallery, took up the strain. 

As the procession passed into the church, the full choir 

sang, — 

"This is the day the Lord hath made." 

Then the following prayer was offered, from the church 
litany, the pastor leading, the congregation responding : — 

" Lord God, our Father in Heaven ! 

Hallowed be Thy name. 
Lord God, Son, thou Saviour of the world ! 

Be gracious unto us. 
Lord God, Holy Ghost ! 

Abide with us forever." 

After the New Testament blessing was sung, 

" The Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
And the Love of God, 
And the Communion of the Holy Ghost, 
Be with us all, Amen," 

the double choir sang the hymn beginning, — 

" The Saviour's blood and righteousness." 

Benzien made an opening address in which he congratu- 
lated the congregation upon the completion of the great 


work, which, by the blessing of the Lord, had been accom- 
plished without accident, and which has in large part 
been paid by the earnest efforts of the congregation. He 
alluded to the fact that the consecration of the church is 
in the same month in which the first settlers arrived in 
Wachovia, forty-seven years ago, as well as the consecra- 
tion of the first meeting hall twenty-nine years ago. He 
said it was our custom to present such an house to the 
Lord, and for this purpose the large congregation had as- 
sembled. The dedicatory prayer was then offered by 
Benzien, after which the pastor of the Hope congregation, 
Samuel Kramsch, preached the English sermon. The 
music at this service, as in all the meetings of the day, 
was inspiring, and in the afternoon love-feast a specially 
prepared English ode was sung. One thousand buns 
had been prepared for the love-feast, yet on account of 
the number of the people it was necessary to cut these 
buns into two pieces in order that all might be served. 

The feeling of reverence was very great ; not the 
sHghtest disorder marred the occasion. Some declared 
that the presence of God had been revealed in such a 
remarkable manner that children's children would recall 
the day with pleasure, a prediction which was fulfilled 
November 9, 1900, when a reverent congregation gathered 
in the same church, heard the story of the blessings of 
that day, and rejoiced. 

A festival service was celebrated in the evening, and 
this closed the first happy dedication day. 

The second in the series of consecration services was 
November 13, when all the members of the Wachovia 
churches were invited to join in a union Communion. 
The weather was fine, and all the members of the Province 
were present except the sick. The festal service was held 


at nine o'clock, and the pastor, Benzien, addressed the 
congregation on the subject of the special event which 
makes November 13 a festival day in our church through- 
out the world. This was followed by smaller meetings 
for the men, for the women, and for the children of the 
church, the members of each class consecrating themselves 
anew to the service of the Lord. 

All gathered together in the love-feast, and this was 
followed by the Holy Communion, in the celebration of 
which there was a persuasive sense of the gracious pres- 
ence of the Lord, and the members were drawn closely 
one to the other in the union which comes from the merits 
of Jesus' sufferings and death. 

The writer of the diary of one hundred years ago gives 
the account of the impressions of the day and of the even- 
ing service, and is inspired to close the account with the 
words : — 

" Glory be to Him in the church which waiteth for 
Him, and in that which is around Him, from eternity to 
eternity. Amen. 

" Amen, hallelujah, hallelujah ! Amen. 

On November 17 the last of the dedication services were 
held, this being an enthusiastic missionary meeting. The 
mission spirit was always strong in Wachovia, but the way 
had not been open for independent action. Several efforts 
had been made to begin preaching among the coloured 
people of Georgia and South Carolina, and preliminary 
steps had been taken to inaugurate work among the 
Indians. But not till the year 1800 were these efforts 
crowned with success. In the third of the three enthusi- 
astic consecration services was begun the independent 
mission work by the church in Wachovia. 




The present year (1902) completes the century of the 
history of this school. There are many interesting 
features connected with the uninterrupted work of a 
hundred years. The school has never been closed since 
its founding in 1802. It is the third school in the United 
States, in point of age, for the higher education of young 
women. Its patronage is drawn from every portion of 
the land, and the register shows an attendance of ten 
thousand pupils, or an average of one hundred new names 
each year all through the century. It is non-sectarian in 
its principles, but deeply rehgious in its methods of work. 
State universities are identified with their particular states. 
Denominational schools are associated especially with the 
churches to which they belong. Salem Female Academy 
is looked upon as the school of the South which has done 
a work of great usefulness for the promotion of true 
womanhood. It stood alone for half a century, and now, 
at the end of a hundred years, in the period of general 
educational interest, it continues to do its work with zeal 
and energy. 

To appreciate the influences which have given this long 
and uninterrupted history to Salem Female Academy, it 
is necessary to understand the relation of the Moravian 
Church to education. More than four hundred years ago, 
in the old home lands of Moravia and Bohemia, the seed 



was sown which has borne fruit all through the succeed- 
ing generations. The ancient Moravian Church had its 
well-known schools of higher learning, which numbered 
among their leaders men like the great pioneer of modern 
education, the Moravian Bishop John Amos Comenius. 
It also had schools in every parish in Moravia, Bohemia, 
and Poland, which in excellence and numbers resembled 
the modern common school system. 

When the church was renewed nearly two centuries ago, 
after it had passed through the fires of persecution, it felt 
called upon to undertake any special work which the Lord 
would assign to it. The members believed that there was 
some particular task for it to perform. The wonderful 
preservation of the " hidden seed " and the not less wonder- 
ful renewal, in another land, indicated this. In time the 
special work was pointed out, and consisted, on the one 
hand, in beginning the great modern movement of foreign 
missions. On the other hand, the special work was educa- 
tion. These two fields of usefulness may not at first 
appear to be connected, but they are closely related. On 
the foreign mission fields the schoolhouse is often erected 
before the church. An unusual conjunction of circum- 
stances inaugurated our boarding-school system. The 
care of the children of the missionaries became a serious 
question. It was decided to organize schools in the home 
lands, where everything would be planned as nearly as 
possible after the model of the home, so that, while the 
parents were in Greenland or Labrador, Ceylon or South 
Africa, the children would be under the care of consecrated 
men and women. In other words the Moravian schools, 
as planned a century and a half ago, in the renewed 
church, were in reality Jiome schools in an especial and 
particular sense. 


This plan of work soon attracted the attention of others. 
Parents felt that what was good in the case of missionaries 
would be equally good for their children. Therefore 
applications for admission into the Moravian schools were 
made by many outside friends, and the church found that 
a second great work was the training of young people 
in the higher and nobler form of education. Schools 
increased in Germany, in Switzerland, in Holland, in Eng- 
land, and as early as 1749 the first Moravian boarding 
school was founded in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 

Before the close of the century the question was fre- 
quently asked by visitors why the church authorities of 
Wachovia did not establish schools similar to those of 
Pennsylvania and European countries. One and another 
applied for a place in the school if it were begun. One 
circumstance and another deferred the actual organization. 

October 31, 1802, the Rev. Samuel Kramsch was called 
to be the first principal, and soon after assumed his du- 
ties, the school being held in the congregation house. 
The following year active measures were inaugurated to 
erect a school building. In February, 1803, a conference 
was held, which resulted in the decision that the new build- 
ing should be placed between the congregation house and 
the sisters' house. The building was to be two stories and 
to have accommodations for sixty pupils. It was further 
decided that, if boarding pupils arrived before the build- 
ing was finished, a dozen could be accommodated in the 
congregation house. The decision was also made that 
with the utmost zeal the work of construction be pushed 

The corner-stone of this first school building was laid 
October 6, 1803. A complete account of the ceremonies 
is given in a paper in the Wachovia Historical Society, 


including an abstract of the addresses and prayers. At 
9 o'clock in the morning the congregation gathered in the 
church, and an appropriate sermon was preached, followed 
by prayer. Bishop Reichel then read the lists which were 
to be deposited in the corner-stone, and among them one 
contained the names of the forty-two girls in the congrega- 
tion, twenty-three of whom were pupils of Salem Female 
Academy. The inscription which was deposited with 
these papers is interesting, and is as follows : — 

" In the name of God, the Father, and the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost, in the year after the birth of our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ one thousand eight hundred and three, 
on the sixth day of October, in the twenty-seventh year of 
the Independence of the United States of America, when 
Thomas Jefferson was President of them, in the fiftieth 
year after the settling of the first members of the church 
of the United Brethren in North Carolina, and the begin- 
ning of building Bethabara, in the thirty-eighth year since 
the beginning of building Salem, the foundation stone of 
this house for a boarding school of girls was laid in a 
solemn manner, in the presence of the whole congregation, 
with fervent prayer to our Lord, that by this school, to be 
established in this house, his name may be glorified, his 
kingdom of grace be enlarged in this country, and the 
salvation of souls of those who shall be educated therein 
be promoted." 

The daily word was : " Believe on the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house." (Acts 

" A dying risen Jesus, 

Seen by the eye of faith, 
At once from danger frees us, 
And saves the soul from death." 


The doctrinal text was " He had done no violence, 
neither was any deceit in his mouth." (Isaiah 53 : 9.) 

" May our minds and whole behaviour 
Bear resemblance to our Saviour, 
And his sanctifying merit 
Hallow body, soul, and spirit." 

The box was then closed and returned to the presiding 
minister. Kramsch carried it as the procession moved to 
the site of the new building. The very order of the pro- 
cession and the disposition of the different portions of the 
congregation are given in the paper referred to. With the 
solemn words, " In the name of the Father, the Son, and 
Holy Ghost, we lay the corner-stone of this girls' school," 
the box was placed in position. The stone was then 
struck three times by each of the ministers, and Bishop 
Reichel, stepping upon the stone, offered the prayer. It 
was then walled in, hence it is not visible, which custom 
differs from that of the present day. 

The first boarding pupils arrived May 16, 1804. Four 
were in the first company, and four came later, and to 
these eight were added two pupils from town. The fol- 
lowing is the list of these ten boarding pupils : — 

Elizabeth Strudwick, Hillsboro, Felicia Norfleet, Gates County, 

N.C. N.C. 

Ann Kirkland, Hillsboro, N.C. Anna Staiert, Fayetteville, N.C. 

Elizabeth Kirkland, Hillsboro, Rebecca Carter, Caswell County, 

N.C. N.C. 

Mary Philips, Tarboro, N.C. Anna Pauline Shober, Salem, 
Anna Norfleet, Scotland Neck, N.C. 

N.C. Mary Steiner, Salem, N.C. 

The teachers were Sophia Dorothea Reichel, Maria 
Salome Meinung, and Johanna Elizabeth Praezel. The day 
scholars, a score or more in number, added to these, formed 
three classes. 


Another paper in the archives gives an account of the 
dedication of the new house, July i6, 1805. The day was 
made a festal occasion in which the entire congregation 

At 7 o'clock in the morning the trombone music greeted 
the village, and in this way announced the special nature 
of the day. 

At one o'clock those connected with the school gathered 
in the chapel of the congregation house. In the company 
were the trustees and visiting ministers, the teachers and 
pupils, both day scholars and boarders. Half an hour 
later they formed a procession, and accompanied by music, 
rendered by a special choir, left the house which had thus 
far been their school home, and entered the new school 
building. In the large upper room parents and friends 
had already gathered, and when the procession entered 
there was a special programme of song, including such 
hymns as " Peace be to this habitation." 

Bishop Reichel offered an earnest prayer, consecrating 
the building to the use and service of the Lord. At the 
conclusion of the prayer, they sang the New Testament 

A love-feast followed, during the serving of which a 
special ode was sung. The voices of the young people 
were particularly sweet and beautiful during this service. 

In the evening the entire congregation, as well as the 
school and visitors, gathered in the church, and an address 
was made by Benzien, with special reference to the oc- 

The close of this meeting was an open-air service. The 
procession passed from the church to the square, in front 
of the new school. The buildings were illuminated, and 
the friends and pupils were arranged in two semicircles. 








With song and prayer, in a most pleasing yet solemn man- 
ner, the exercises of the day were concluded. 

The building which was dedicated on this day, in the 
manner described, and which is shown in the accompany- 
ing picture, was in use for more than half a century, until 
in 1873 two stories were added, and it assumed the shape 
which it now has, under the name of South Hall. 

In the teachers' conference, held the next morning, at 
which the members of the Provincial Elders' Conference 
were present. Bishop Reichel, as president of the board, 
exhorted the teachers to remember the great object of our 
school work — to train the heart as well as the mind, and 
to inculcate a true and pure religion. 


I 800-1 850 

We will now advance fifty years in our narrative. The 
time from 1800 to 1850 witnessed no marked changes, 
either in Wachovia, or in any other portion of the church. 
There were many good and faithful men, and their work 
was done with earnestness and success. The missions in 
heathen lands continued to spread, and in the home lands 
liberal gifts were made both by members and friends. 
But the policy of the church in these years in Wachovia, 
and we may say all through the Unity, was conservative, 
even exclusive. At the end of the half century the mis- 
sion work had greatly increased, in numbers and in impor- 
tance. We thus advance fifty years and place ourselves 
at the middle of the century. As one topic after the other 
comes up for consideration, we will look backward over the 
field in order to gather up the historical threads, and avoid 
any break in the continuity of the story. But before so 
doing let us glance briefly at some of the events which 
took place, in order to at least outline the history of these 

In Salem the business interests were strengthened and 
enlarged, and the foundation was laid for some enterprises 
which have continued to the present day. 

In the neighbouring congregations Salem's example was 
followed, and new and improved churches were erected. 
Bethania built its large church in 1807. Friedberg built 



a new church in 1827, Friedland in 1847. Philadelphia 
and Macedonia date their organization as congregations 
to the close of the period. 

The Sunday-school work, under the influence of the 
American Sunday-school Union, assumed large propor- 
tions from 1825 to 1840. The Salem members and min- 
isters were active, and there were county gatherings of 
six hundred and more young people, in addition to the 
many friends who were present. These gatherings were 
at times held in the Salem square, on the anniversary 

Then there were festivals, and celebrations of special 
events. The jubilee of the founding of Salem was cele- 
brated in 18 16, with an elaborate programme and with 
appropriate ceremonies. The consecration of the church 
buildings were interesting and impressive days, and there 
were many other events which called the members of the 
entire Province together. 

The Academy had its changing experiences, as will be 
shown in the lists and in the autobiography of the Princi- 
pals. Sometimes the attendance fell below fifty, and at 
other times it approached two hundred. There were times 
of sickness and epidemics, but the good work went on, 
and the blessing of the Lord rested upon the labourers who 
had the school in charge. 

The details connected with these and other events will 
be gathered as we proceed, hence we will now consider 
ourselves as standing in the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, ready to go forward into new fields of study, or to 
look backward for events which have a bearing upon the 
later history of Wachovia. 



We have already seen the attitude of the Indians of 
this tribe. At times it was hostile, again it was friendly. 
Many were hospitably entertained in Bethabara, and yet 
they surrounded the town intent on its destruction. Later 
we find that the chiefs as well as the warriors invite the 
Moravians to send missionaries to their tribe. It was not 
unusual to have visits in Wachovia by Cherokee chiefs on 
their way to Washington, the national capital. 

Journeys had been made to the Indians in several sec- 
tions at earlier dates, but the work of evangelization was 
not begun until 1801. In that year the missionaries 
Steiner and Byhan settled at a place called "the springs," 
hence the name Springplace was given to the station. 
One of the veterans of this work was John Gambold, who 
spent almost all the time from 1805 to 1827 as a mission- 
ary among them. He died at Oo-yu-ge-lo-gee. Many 
other faithful workers went from Salem, and their descen- 
dants now reside in Wachovia. Reichel gives the list 
from 1 80 1 to 1855, which is as follows : — 

Abraham Steiner, 1801. H. G. Clauder, 1828-1837. 

Gottlob Byhan, 1801-1812 ; 1827- Miles Vogler, 1837-1844; 1852- 

1832. 1854. 

Jacob Wohlfart, 1 802-1 805. Gilbert Bishop, 1 841. 

John Gambold, 1805-1827. D. Z. Smith, 1841-1849. 

John R. Schmidt, 1820-1828; Edward Mock, 1847. 

1838-1839. Alanson Welfare, 1847-1855. 

George Proske, 1 822-1 826. Samuel Warner. 
Francis Eder, 1828-1829. 


Since 1855 they have been served by a number of 
brethren, among whom we mention Ward, Wesley Spaugh, 
Theodore Rights, Benjamin Lineback, and Herman Beck. 

The story of this work is worthy of being written as 
a separate history. The letters and the papers in the 
archives furnish ample material, and the hardships and 
difficulties equal those in many of the mission fields, the 
histories of which are eagerly read and studied. 

The location of the mission was in the section of country 
where North Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia join. The 
Cherokees were the first tribe to take steps toward civiliza- 
tion, yet they were utterly averse to the message of the 
Gospel. They respected the good people who came to 
them, but it was five years before the first Indian embraced 
Christianity. This convert was Margaret Van, the widow 
of James Van, one of their earliest and best friends. 
Three years later Charles Hicks, an influential man in 
his tribe, was baptized, and in time a congregation of faith- 
ful converts was gathered together, though the work was 
discouraging and surrounded with hardships. 

The government gave small grants of money, from time 
to time, for school purposes, and at a critical juncture, 
when the whites were engaged in hostilities against the 
Indians and their teachers, the only thing that saved the 
mission property was the fact that it was a government 

At the same time that the work was being carried on 
among the Cherokees, Peterson and Burkhardt began a 
similar mission among the Creeks. This was surrounded 
with even more difficulties. From the accounts given in 
the diary, it was apparently not safe to openly proclaim 
themselves missionaries. Hence they came into the coun- 
try, living as ordinary settlers, and made friends with 


the Indians who came to visit them as they were at work 
in their shop or in their garden. Occasionally they held 
religious services, and Indians were present. After a time 
the missionaries were stricken with fever, and for weeks 
and months were prostrated. They had a warm friend in 
Colonel Hawkins, the Indian agent, who supplied them 
with a home, and at times also supplied them with neces- 
sary provisions, as their sickness made it impossible to 
secure support. So great was their suffering that the 
Salem physician, Shuman, made the journey to their sta- 
tion, and spent some time with them, attending to their 
wants. Notwithstanding all this effort and suffering the 
breaking out of a struggle between the Indians and the 
whites compelled them to leave that section, and abandon 
the mission. 

The same causes which occasioned the failure of the 
mission among the Creeks completely revolutionized the 
work among the Cherokees. In 1838 Springplace and 
Oo-yu-ge-lo-gee were abandoned, and the Indians moved 
from Georgia. They tarried a time in Tennessee, and 
then continued westward to the Mississippi River, and 
thence onward to what is now the Indian Territory. Here 
the Cherokees were gathered, and the new stations received 
the names New Springplace and Caanan. 

During the war of 1861-1865 there was great suffering 
in the mission. It was during this time that Missionary 
Ward was murdered. The Indians were divided among 
themselves, and the sorrows were very great. 

Bishop Herman visited this mission in 1854, and after 
this long and fatiguing trip was taken ill with a maHgnant 
fever and died. This was on the return journey, at Mc- 
Cullah's farm. Green County, Missouri, eleven hundred 
miles from home. On this visitation he was accompanied 


by Augustus Fogle, and the latter brought the sad news to 
the relatives in Salem. Fogle later returned to Missouri, 
and brought the remains of Bishop Herman to Salem, 
making the long journey in a private conveyance. The 
labour of love involved difficulties which none save the 
brother himself ever fully realized, and to his end he never 
ceased to speak of this journey. 

Another sad incident was the death of the visitor, 
C. L. Rights, who represented the Provincial Elders' Con- 
ference. This was a generation later. After spending 
some weeks pleasantly with his son, who was in charge of 
the mission, illness seized the brother, and he died after 
a brief period of suffering. His body was brought to 
Kernersville, to the congregation which he had so faith- 
fully served for many years, and there laid to rest. 

The mission had a checkered and uncertain existence 
during the latter years of its history. The authorities of 
Wachovia continued faithfully to care for this mission, 
amid discouragements, until the year 1890, when the super- 
vision was transferred to the Northern Province. 



The interest in home missions was always strong in 
Wachovia, as is shown by the work of Utley and Soelle in 
the last century. Their efforts were always of the most 
disinterested nature, but they were hampered by Euro- 
pean ideas, to the detriment of the work here in America. 
When the converted people naturally expressed a desire to 
join the Moravian Church, they were referred to other 
churches, and were considered as " diaspora," that is, as a 
society ministered to by Moravian pastors, but not actual 
members. This state of affairs was not pleasing to the 
people, and they sought a church home in other denomi- 
nations. Hence, during the first century of the church's 
history no congregations were organized outside of Wacho- 
via. This policy has been changed, and within the half 
century following, a number of new congregations have 
been founded, and especially during the last twenty-five 
years has the church extended her borders. 

In the year 1847 Mr. Alberti, a friend living in Florida, 
came to Wachovia. He had, previous to this time, sent a 
number of requests to the Moravians to begin a mission 
on his great estate at Woodstock, in Florida. On the 
occasion of his visit in February a call was made to the 
congregation, for some one to enter the work. Jacob 
Siewers responded. He, together with his wife and their 
three sons, journeyed to Florida. Their three daughters 
remained in Salem. A church and parsonage had already 



been built, the proprietor of the estate assured them a 
support, and the work was begun. Siewers had been 
ordained a deacon. The first converts were baptized in 
1848. The difficulties which surrounded this particular 
work among the coloured people were different from those 
connected with other undertakings, but were inseparable 
from the conditions of slavery on a great estate. Siewers 
was allowed entire freedom to do religious work among the 
slaves, but his influence was limited in all other respects. 
The overseers were often harsh and cruel, and the minis- 
ter was powerless to interfere. These and other circum- 
stances caused Siewers to withdraw, after a three years' 

Friebele spent two years more in the work, but it was 
finally decided to abandon the mission. 

About the same time a special desire to bring the mes- 
sage of salvation to the mountaineers of Virginia and North 
Carolina filled the heart of Van N. Zevely. He had as- 
sisted in the erection of the large Salem church, and this 
connection with the material interests led him to study the 
spiritual work. He heard of the destitute and forsaken 
regions of the Blue Ridge, where, in the hovels and cabins, 
intemperance and profanity. Sabbath-breaking and igno- 
rance, gambling and vice, reigned supreme. In 1839 
Zevely made a visit to this section, and was welcomed by 
some, but persecuted by others. No interest had hitherto 
been taken in their spiritual life, hence it was but natural 
that he should be ridiculed and hooted at by the very per- 
sons whose welfare he was seeking. In time he won their 
affections, their hearts were softened, and he saw the fruits 
of his labours. 

In Salem, November 11, 1835, an organization was 
effected which bore the name, '* The United Brethren's 


Home Mission Society of North Carolina." This society 
increased during the succeeding years, until it reached the 
number of two hundred or more members, and they com- 
missioned Zevely to be their representative, with special 
reference to the prosecution of the work south of Salem, 
and in the mountains of Virginia. 

The mountaineers erected a log meeting-house, which 
served a number of years. Zevely was assisted by mem- 
bers of the Salem congregation, John Vogler being spe- 
cially active and interested. When the people desired to 
have their children baptized, Zevely, not being an ordained 
minister, was unable to comply with the request. Accord- 
ingly, a special visitation was arranged for Bishop Van 
Vleck, and he was accompanied by Vogler and Zevely. 
Several weeks were spent in this visitation, with preaching, 
baptizing, exhorting, encouraging, and distributing religious 
tracts. By this time the feeling of the people was greatly 
changed, and the party was received with marked kindness. 

As years passed this section was served by the ministers 
Rights, Ruede, and Hagen. A strong desire arose for the 
erection of a church, where regular services could be held, 
and the sacraments be administered. A location was 
finally selected at Ward's Gap, nine miles north of Mt. 
Airy, and fifty miles from Salem. This church was con- 
secrated, November 24, 1852. A congregation numbering 
thirty-seven was organized, and the name Mt. Bethel was 
given to it. A Sunday-school was also established. 

Jacob Siewers had returned from his work in Florida, 
and he was called to take charge of Mt. Bethel in 1854. 
He and his family found temporary shelter in the church 
building, but soon moved into the mission house, erected 
at the foot of Blue Ridge. 

The work has been continued through all the succeeding 


years, chiefly by ministers from Salem, but no resident 
minister has been stationed at Mt. Bethel for many years. 
In recent time interest has increased, and a new station 
was begun by McCuiston at Willow Hill, Virginia. Mem- 
bers of the Female Missionary Society of Salem have 
made visits on several occasions, holding normal classes to 
prepare the teachers for more efficient Sunday-school work, 
and arranging for the special celebration of the Christmas 
festival. The number connected with Mt. Bethel and 
Willow Hill at the present time (1902) is three hundred 
and thirty-six. 

The work among the coloured people in Salem dates back 
to 1822. In that year the "Salem Female Missionary 
Society " was organized, with Susannah E. Kramsch as 
president, Mary Steiner, treasurer, Louisa E. Kramsch, 
Susan E. Peterson, Hedwig E. Shober, Rebecca Holder, 
and Sarah Steiner, collectors. This society has continued 
to exist and do its quiet but important work all through the 
eighty years which have followed. Through its efforts a 
separate congregation was organized for the coloured people, 
March 24, 1822, and in 1823 a church was erected at the 
lower end of Church Street, near the old parish graveyard. 
This church served for many years, and in 1861 a large 
brick building was erected. This house has been improved 
and enlarged in recent years. 

The little congregation of coloured people has always 
remained faithful to its church, but with the abolition of 
slavery, nearly forty years ago, a change came over the 
condition of things. The manufactories attracted many 
negroes to Winston-Salem, but they were drawn to churches 
presided over by ministers of their own race. The Mora- 
vian Sunday-school was in charge of earnest and able 
workers, and as the instruction was superior to that of 


other coloured churches, large numbers of children and 
grown people attended this Sunday-school, the roll some- 
times showing from three to four hundred. In time the 
day schools for coloured people improved, and hence the 
teaching in their Sunday-schools also improved. As a 
result the situation is again changing, making the ques- 
tion of the present work of the Moravian Church among 
the negroes a difficult problem. 

After the war of 1 861-1865, the home mission cause 
assumed a different phase, and the consideration of these 
changed conditions and their results will appear in our 
study of that period. 



Stokes County was divided in 1849. The new county 
of Forsyth ^ embraced the original tract of Wachovia, and 
about an equal amount of territory in addition. The leg- 
islature appointed five county commissioners. May 12, 
1849, they purchased thirty -one acres of land from the 
Moravian Church, and this amount was later increased to 
fifty-one and one-fourth acres, the price being ^5 per acre, 
a total of 1^256.25 for the entire county town site of that 
day. This lies in its extreme limit between First and 
Seventh streets, Winston, and is bounded east and west 
by Church and Trade streets. The plot was then divided 
into seventy-one lots, one square being reserved for the 
court-house. These lots were sold at pubHc auction for 
1^883 3. 50, which was a profitable investment. Robert 
Gray bought lot No. 41, south of court-house square, for 
which he paid ^465. This was the most expensive lot. 
Thomas J. Wilson lived on lot No. 45, corner Main and 
Second streets. 

The evolution of the corporations of Salem and Winston 
is admirably shown by a plot given in *' Forsyth County," 
which we reproduce on the opposite page. 

When Salem was incorporated, in 1856, it was bounded 

1 For a complete record of the evolution of this county, see " Forsyth 
County," Fries, 1898. 


Winston and Salem Corporations 


on the south side by the middle fork of Muddy Creek 
(Salem Creek), on the north by the Winston line, and 
extended half a mile east and west from Main Street. 
The other additions are shown in the plan. 

This original purchase of fifty-one and one-fourth acres 
for the county town is shown under date of 1849, ^^^ ^^^ 
size at the date of its incorporation in 1859 was very much 
larger, as were the succeeding additions in 1877 ^^^ ^^97- 

The area of the two towns within the corporate limits in 
1900 was one and a half by two miles, but with the sub- 
urbs the towns cover a much larger space. 

The naming of the county town was the next step, and 
an attempt was made to have this done by a popular vote. 
The plan was to hold an election and take the name which 
had the largest number of votes. This plan failed, and 
January 15, 185 1, the legislature passed an act which 
declared that " hereafter the county town of Forsyth 
County shall be styled and known by the name of Win- 
ston." This name was given in honour of Major Joseph 
Winston, a prominent North Carolinian, who figured in 
the War of the Revolution, and was also active in the 
political development, both state and national. Major 
Winston was born June 17, 1766, in Virginia, and died in 
Germanton, North Carolina, April 21, 18 15. 

The courts of Forsyth were first held in the concert 
hall, Main Street, Salem, which stood on the lot now occu- 
pied by the home of Dr. J. F. Shaffner. The stipulation 
was made that the whipping-post should not be within the 
limits of the town of Salem. One of the cases tried in the 
concert hall was noted in the memorabilia of 1850. It was 
that of a certain Mc Bride, of Ohio, who had been distribut- 
ing literature calculated to incite an uprising among the 
negroes. The people remembered the untold horrors of 


the Turner uprising in Virginia, in 183 1, when the cruel- 
ties of the slaves went to the extreme of not only ruth- 
lessly murdering men and women, but even of impaling 
infants ; and we do not wonder that men who would incite 
an insurrection among the coloured people were adjudged 
guilty of one of the most dangerous of all crimes. Mc- 
Bride was placed on trial for his life ; he was given the 
very best counsel for his defence, and still was found 
guilty. The sentence imposed was that he should be 
placed in the stocks one hour, receive twenty lashes at the 
whipping-post, and be imprisoned one year. He appealed 
to a higher court, gave a one-thousand-dollar bond, and 
when released he fled from the state nevermore to return. 
The new court-house was so near completion that De- 
cember 16, 1850, it was formally opened with religious 
ceremonies. It was a two-story building, forty-four by 
sixty feet, facing south. As will be seen from the accom- 
panying illustration, the roof of the portico was supported 
by four pillars. These pillars were each thirty feet high. 
The court-room was on the second floor. The total cost 
of the building was ^9083.38. The profit on the sale of 
the land was sufficient to pay all of this expense except 
i^359-49- In other words, the last-named sum is all that 
the county had to raise to pay for town site, court-house 
site, and for the first court-house. The bill before Con- 
gress in 1902, having in view the purchase of the new 
court-house building, estimates the value of the square on 
which it stands at $40,000. This will illustrate the differ- 
ence in value in 1850 and in 1900. During a period of 
nearly fifty years, the first court-house stood in the centre 
of the town and witnessed the gradual growth of Winston. 
At first this was slow, but later it became more rapid, and 
eventually from the village was evolved the city. Around 


the old building could be woven an interesting history, for 
within its walls were held, not only the courts of justice, 
but the gatherings within the old court-room were of every 
kind and description. Church organizations were formed ; 
literary lectures were given ; there were political meetings, 
and the waiting crowds heard election returns ; there were 
war speeches and patriotic Fourth of July orations. Varied 
indeed were the gatherings held in this old court-house 
between the dates which mark Winston the village and 
Winston the city. 

The march of time does not take into consideration sen- 
timent or historical associations ; hence the old court-house 
began to appear strange and incongruous when compared 
with the more modern blocks of business houses going up 
about it, and it fell into decided disrepute when the in- 
creased business of a growing and populous county had 
to be transacted in its now too small court-room and its 
cramped offices. Accordingly, plans were made to pro- 
vide means for a new building. It was not quite as easy 
a task to secure the money for the second court-house, as 
it was for the first. There was opposition to the move- 
ment on the part of many voters in the county, but 
eventually bonds were issued to the amount of ^55,000, 
and the new structure which is shown in the illustration 
was built. The committee in charge were successful in 
carrying out their plans at a reasonable cost, and the peo- 
ple of Winston-Salem are justly proud of the results. At 
the time that this book is printed a bill is before Congress 
providing for the purchase of the court-house as a govern- 
ment building. Whether the new court-house remains a 
court-house, or whether it becomes a United States gov- 
ernment building, the following description of a recent 
writer is true : — 


" Standing on a slight eminence in the heart of a busy- 
little city, this handsome structure of granite, buff brick, 
and brownstone is as great a contrast to the modest build- 
ing whose place it took as is the present county seat with 
its widespread suburbs to the three streets and handful of 
houses of the county town of 1849, and both speak elo- 
quently of the great strides that Forsyth County has made 
during the fifty years of her existence." 




One hundred years had passed since the beginning of 
Wachovia. The Moravian Church had adhered firmly to 
the principles laid down at the outset, and the strict ad- 
herence to these had resulted in two things. The one was 
beneficial, because it enabled them to use the well-tried 
European methods in this new and undeveloped land. 
The other was not beneficial, because this conservative 
adherence to customs not suited to a new and growing 
republic caused them to miss many fine opportunities. 
The fact that changes were necessary became apparent to 
many of the best minds in Wachovia, and was universally 
recognized by the younger people. With the usual care- 
ful, methodical, and earnest manner in which all things 
were done, this matter of a transition was taken up, and 
the decade of 1 850-1 860 witnessed some important modi- 
fications in the affairs of Wachovia. The movement was 
not confined to Wachovia, but is seen in the church his- 
tory all through the Unity. 

The General Synod, at which representatives were 
present from all parts of the world, met at Herrnhut, in 
Saxony, in 1857. In this synod there were important con- 
stitutional changes. These are not of interest to the gen- 
eral reader ; suffice it to say that the result was greater 
independence for the American church in particular, and 
the abolition of those rules which had practically enforced 



the principles of exclusiveness. There were also impor- 
tant financial measures which tended to place the control 
of all remaining property in America into the hands of 
the American provinces, and to separate the local affairs 
more and more fully from the affairs of the Unity in 

One of the first results of this transition influence was 
to abolish the control of the trades and industries. The 
several boards of the church corresponded to the later 
municipal boards. These church committees planned for 
the proper care and improvement of the town, and super- 
vised its interests. In the affairs of the community this 
patriarchal supervision started with the idea that the 
church and town formed a family, and that the interests 
of each individual must be guarded. They supervised the 
organization of business enterprises, and if the field was 
not large enough to support two of a kind, only one could 
be started. If two stores could flourish, and not three, 
then two were allowed, but the third was prohibited. Up 
to a certain point this was good, but there came a time 
when the principle was no longer necessary, nay, it even 
blocked the wheels of progress ; hence after this time the 
business of Salem was no longer retained under the con- 
trol of the church, but was thrown open to the individual, 
and to the world, with all the attendant advantages and 
disadvantages of competition in trade. 

A second important change which came into this transi- 
tion time from 1850 to i860 was the abolition of the lease 
system. The object of the lease system was to retain con- 
trol of the community so that its identity as a Moravian 
town should not be lost. To insure this as a permanent 
thing, land was not sold to the members, but leased, under 
certain conditions, and in this way no one could secure 


property in Salem without the consent of the church 
boards. The plan of retaining control of the ground is 
not an uncommon thing, but is found in the so-called 
" ground rents," of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and other 
cities, and in any form of lease at the present day. Nor 
was the supervision of the trades and industries by the 
boards at that time far removed from the license system, 
in general vogue, the object being to protect one class 
over against others who might have an undue advantage. 
Both the supervision system and the lease system have 
their modified counterparts in any well-regulated city of 
our day. Still, the systems were detrimental to the growth 
and general interest of the town, and hence the former 
was abolished in 1849, the latter in 1856. 

Another change in this transition period was replacing 
the German by the English language. There was no sur- 
rounding population to support the use of the German 
language, and all the business transactions, as well as the 
social intercourse with neighbouring people, had to be in 
English, The English language had been in use to some 
extent from the very beginning, and there was always an 
English-speaking pastor resident in Wachovia ; but during 
seventy-five years the German predominated, and at this 
time English was formally adopted as the language of 
church and town. German services were thenceforth held 
only at intervals. The records were written in English 
after 1855. 

To the above points should be added the fact that the 
town was incorporated in 1S56, with Charles Brietz as the 
first mayor, the board of commissioners being R. L. Patter- 
son, F. Fries, A. Butner, J. R. Crist, E. Belo, T. F. Keehln, 
and Solomon Mickey. 

Of this transition period we may say in general that it 

In the Park, Salem Academy and College 


was a natural evolution. The previous plans had been 
good for a certain time and for certain ends. But the 
time had expired, and the ends had been gained. Later 
history shows us that new fields were opening and that 
the circumstances were changing. The building of the 
county town of Winston as a near neighbour brought 
with it new obligations and responsibilities. The changed 
conditions which followed the Civil War were approaching, 
and opportunities for enlarged spiritual work in the last 
quarter of a century were to meet the church. All these 
things, together with weighty business responsibilities which 
the future had in store for individual members, rested on 
the proper outcome of this transition in the affairs of the 
church and town. The right position was taken ; Salem 
became aggressive in principle, both in its town affairs and 
in its church matters, but the aggressive spirit was tem- 
pered with a conservatism which was calculated to produce 
the highest and best results. 



The experiment of founding a school in North Carolina 
was wise. During these early years there were no similar 
schools for girls and young women in any portion of the 
South, and very few in the North. On the other hand 
there was growing up in the South an aristocracy, accumu- 
lating wealth, with minds broadened by travel, refined by 
the experience of their well-known hospitality, only await- 
ing the founding of a proper school to embrace the oppor- 
tunity of placing their children under its care. The study 
of the register shows that from the beginning the patron- 
age extended beyond the borders of North Carolina, and 
not only were the neighbouring states of Virginia, Tennes- 
see, and South Carolina represented, but, as the years 
passed, all the southern and southwestern states sent pupils ; 
and even from the North and West they came, and during 
the century almost every state in the Union, and even 
foreign countries, have been represented. 

There are many features connected with the school life 
of the first half of the century which impress us as being 
interesting and strange. The question of how to reach 
Salem was not an easy one to answer. When a patron liv- 
ing in Tennessee wished to place his daughter in the 
Academy, his first duty was to provide horses and a con- 
veyance, using this more comfortable method of travel as 
long as it was possible to do so. Then the carriage was 
abandoned, and the party proceeded on horseback, with 

,^^>3P:^- ^ - ^vv ..^^^-^ ^^<^I^i^'^^f?!k-^S\ 


the aid of trusty guides, and in this manner the difficulties 
and even perils of the mountains were passed. When 
Salem was at last reached, the horses used by the pupils 
were sold, and a special room was provided in the school for 
the saddles which would be needed for the return journey 
when the school days were over. From some sections the 
patrons were more favoured, and could make the entire 
journey in the handsome family coaches, and the wealthy 
planters would drive up to the well-known Salem hostlery 
in a style befitting the nobility of the Old World. While 
these were frequent scenes all during the year, at com- 
mencement time the interest was increased by virtue of 
the numbers. Then it was that the yard was filled with 
the coaches, the stables with the horses, the rooms with 
guests, and the gentry of the land took possession of the 
usually quiet town, and the days were marked with stir 
and excitement. 

The friends of the school love to describe the successful 
lives of very many of these pupils, who by birth were entitled 
to prominence, and who were specially prepared within the 
school to ably fill their responsible positions. These writers 
point to the fact that many of the most successful men of 
the South have been blessed with noble wives, and are 
proud to claim that these same wives were once Salem 
pupils. They point us to the homes of statesmen, of 
foreign ministers, of distinguished professional men, of 
eminent financiers, of great generals, of governors, yes, 
they even point to the White House in more than one ad- 
ministration, and say that the ladies in these homes re- 
ceived their early training in Salem. It is a well-known 
fact that southern hospitality is proverbial; these same 
friends argue that hospitality depends largely on the cul- 
ture and nobility of the mother, the wife, the sister, and 



the daughter. As this hospitality never appeared brighter 
and clearer than in ante-bellum days, and as so many 
of the ladies of the best families of those years were edu- 
cated in Salem, this school, they say, should be given its 
due credit for the part it took in aiding to bring about this 
admirable picture of the noble type of womanhood found 
in the ante-bellum southern home. The claim of the 
alumnae seems to be borne out by the words of a distin- 
guished governor of one of the southern states which has 
sent scores, even hundreds, of pupils to Salem. This chief 
executive of the state in which he lives recently wrote to 
the president of the Alumnae Association, "I know just 
enough of the history of Salem Academy to know that 
there is no institution on this continent which has done 
more for the education and elevation of southern woman- 
hood than it has, and if official duty and Providence permit, 
it will be a pleasure and a privilege to be with you on the 
interesting occasion of the one hundredth anniversary of 
the school." 

In a recent chapter treating of the founding of the 
school we noted the completion of the first school build- 
ing. This was in 1805. As years passed, this house was 
filled, and the congregation house, just north, was occu- 
pied, room after room, till the school had taken entire 
possession. The principal's house had been finished in 
18 10, and the school continued to expand till it tempo- 
rarily drove the boys out of their school building, and some 
room companies were placed in the widows' house, and 
even in private houses in town. 

This state of affairs peremptorily called for enlarged 
accommodations, and on a generous scale. Thereupon it 
was decided to remove the congregation house and erect 
a new building in its place. It was removed in 1854, 






J>. .-I 



and the corner-stone of Main Hall laid the same year. 
March 24, 1856, the school moved into its new home. 

Main Hall was planned by Francis Fries, who also 
gave the construction his able personal supervision. The 
description given by Robert de Schweinitz, the principal, 
will convey an idea of the dimensions. 

" The dimensions of the main building are one hundred 
feet front by fifty-two deep, with a wing at the north sev- 
enty feet in length and thirty-four feet in depth, and an- 
other one at the south seventy-seven by forty-four feet. 
The main building, as well as the north wing, is four stories 
on the front, and at the rear, on account of the descent 
of the ground, five stories. The fronts of the houses are 
of pressed brick, expressly manufactured for our building, 
and are probably some of the first of the kind made in the 

" The front is ornamented by a large Doric portico, fifty 
feet in length, and thirteen feet in width. It has four 
Doric columns, with two pilasters resting against the 
house. The height of the whole, including bases, columns, 
and entablatures, is between thirty and forty feet, the cor- 
nice of the entablature extending three feet above the sills 
of the third-story windows. The whole is built strictly in 
accordance with the classical Doric order of architecture. 
The columns are of brick, stuccoed with hydraulic cement 
in imitation of brown sandstone, as is also the rest of the 
portico, excepting the bases and steps, which are of hewn 

Main Hall, with its north and south wings, forms an 
imposing pile, and east of this is the park. This park is 
a special gift of nature. It has been improved by walks 
and pavilions, bridges and fountains, but the natural beau- 


ties eclipse all the artificial additions. It is the pride of 
the school. The accompanying etchings will give a hint 
of the real attractions. The one view shows the campus 
as seen from Main Hall. In the foreground are the ma- 
jestic trees, while the lights and shadows play in and out 
on the scene, giving glimpses of gravelled walks or a 
granite memorial, the whole reminding one of an Italian 

The etching which shows us the long walk, with the 
trees of the primeval forest on either side, suggests the 
rambles which the pupils love to take in their free hours. 
The pavilion on the hill is a favourite retreat, where, on any 
pleasant day, in spring or autumn, groups of girls can be 
seen, reading some interesting book, doing a bit of fancy 
work, resting and chatting, with perchance something 
tempting from the confectioner, or perhaps with a Latin 
or geometry book. 

Then there is the spring, the spot familiar to every 
pupil. We do not know whether the coin is thrown into 
the limpid pool, as is done in the Fountain of Trevi, in 
Rome, but we do believe that every pupil wishes to return, 
to visit the old spring and taste its sweet waters. 

On the hillside, where is shown the rustic bridge, the 
romantic groups gather and recline on the soft grass, or 
promenade for exercise and the fresh air. From this 
point a view of the hillside beyond the brook is a delight to 
every lover of nature. 

One of the daily recreations in fair weather is a stroll 
through the town or into the neighbouring country. Less 
than a five minutes' walk from the school is the famous 
cedar avenue, which is shown elsewhere. All pupils love 
to walk up and down the smooth white path, with the 
velvety grass growing on either side, while the double rows 


of gigantic cedars gracefully droop their branches over 
them. They love, too, to visit the graveyard near by, 
because of the spirit of peace inspired by the sacred spot. 

Finally, we will suppose that the afternoon stroll is over, 
and the group of girls is returning. As they enter the 
square in front of the school, and pass the fountain, before 
them is the view represented by the last in this series of 
etchings. This shows us the old Salem church, the 
corner of Main Hall, and the corner of the principal's 

These views may not convey to the mind of a stranger 
the beauties of the park and the avenue, yet the former 
pupil who reads this chapter will no doubt find pleasure in 
glancing at these pictures of the old school haunts. 

The course of instruction has been good from the earli- 
est days. Specialists have often given their lives and 
talents for the good of the school. A regular graduation 
diploma was not presented to the graduates until within 
the past quarter of a century. Connected with the gradua- 
tion is associated the cap and gown, and in the " sweet girl 
graduate," shown in this group of pictures, is introduced a 
member of a recent class. Only the seniors wear the cap 
and gown, and they prize very highly the distinction which 
draws a broad line between them and the other pupils. 

As we leave the subject of the Academy, with its busy 
young people, coming and going, that which impresses us 
most, is not the age of the school, nor is it the fact that 
thousands of pupils have attended Salem, nor is it the 
size of the buildings, nor the beauty of the park ; but it is 
the standard set before the girls. Music in all its forms is 
studied ; art traces symmetrical lines, and blends beautiful 
colours ; the class room strengthens the mind ; the gym- 
nasium develops the body. All these things are good and 

A Graduate 


aid in gaining successes in life ; but that on which the 
Academy prides itself, more than all else, is the earnest 
effort which it makes to inculcate a high and noble stand- 
ard of Christian womanhood. 

This ideal it is which attracted the attention of parents 
from all sections of the Southland during the fifty years of 
which we speak, and filled the school so that one building 
after the other had to be added ; and if we cast the glance 
forward a half a century, we will find that this same ideal 
it is which is drawing the alumnas from North and South, 
from East and West, to rejoice in the celebration of a cen- 
tury's work in the history of their Alma Mater. 



The records of the latter years of what we have termed 
a transition period are filled with forebodings of the com- 
ing Civil War. The conflict seemed to be inevitable, and 
though one compromise after the other was attempted, 
they had no further effect than to cover up and temporarily 
smother the flames of war. The inhabitants of Wachovia 
felt that the third time within the century of their history 
the Province was approaching the dark days of strife and 
bloodshed, and dread and anxiety filled their minds. 

In 183 1 the opposition to bearing arms had so far dis- 
appeared that a military company was organized in Salem, 
on July 4, and the officers were chosen from among the 
Moravians, the company making its own rules. 

It is not our intention to discuss the questions relating 
to the causes and results of the Civil War. Forty years 
have passed, yet many of the participants of this great 
struggle are still living, and the growing generations hear 
the story of the war from the lips of those who were in 
the active service. 

A new generation. North and South, has grown up since 
those dark days, and in business relations, social ties, and 
in true patriotism the dividing lines between North and 
South have been broken down. The immense volume of 
capital flowing into southern enterprises proves the first ; 
the palatial trains bearing the visitors south to the genial 



climes of Florida, or North to the great centres, shows the 
second to be true ; the way in which both the North and 
the South responded and stood side by side in the late 
Spanish War makes clear the third. Hence it is not our 
desire to comment on questions long since settled, but to 
describe the experiences of Wachovia in its relation to 
these dark days of sorrow and suffering. 

South Carolina seceded December 20, i860; North 
CaroHna, May 21, 1861. North Carolina sent more than 
one hundred thousand men to the field, and, as in the days 
of the Revolution, the latter portion of the war saw many 
troops moving through the state and through Wachovia. 

Early in 1861 a day of humiliation and prayer was 
observed throughout the entire South, and the services in 
Salem were solemn and impressive. Though no actual 
battles took place in Wachovia, this Province was so inti- 
mately connected with the terrible conflicts, that a para- 
graph from the memorabilia of 1861 will bring their feelings 
vividly before us. 

"In some respects the year 1861 has been a year unex- 
ampled in the experiences of us all. Notwithstanding the 
apprehensions of the public danger, which rested like a 
gloomy cloud upon the minds of the thoughtful and observ- 
ant, at the beginning of the year, the nature and extent of 
our national troubles probably exceeded our worst anticipa- 
tions. The present year has witnessed the commencement 
of a fearful and calamitous war, between two different sec- 
tions of our once united and prosperous country. When 
and how the strife will end is known only to God. Prepa- 
rations on a gigantic scale have been made by both parties 
for the contest, which betoken an obstinate prosecution of 
the war on the one part, and an energetic and determined 


resistance on the other. Already some of the fairest por- 
tions of our country have been ravaged by the destructions 
of war ; fields have been laid waste, homes demolished, 
villages consumed, and districts that smiled as the garden 
of the Lord have been trampled down and made desolate 
by the footsteps of contending hosts. Battles have been 
fought and victories won, but sad and numerous have been 
the instances of individual suffering and distress, few of 
which have ever been published, and some of which cannot 
easily be imagined. Heart-sickening it is to contemplate, 
even in imagination, the horrors of the battle-field : the 
groans of the dying, wounds long left bleeding and un- 
dressed, loss of limbs, maimed and mangled bodies. Then 
there are the days and nights of loneliness and suffering 
in the crowded hospitals, or amid the yet greater privations 
of the camp. Mournful beyond expression is the loss of 
precious lives, every one of which is of inestimable value 
to at least some loving hearts, though the loss may not 
sensibly affect the public. How many families have been 
shrouded in mourning and gloom, how many hearts left 
desolate, now weeping over loved ones they will greet no 
more on earth." 

These were the thoughts that filled the minds of the 
Salem congregation as it gathered in the church at the 
close of the year. 

During the first months of the year 1861 the men of 
Salem and Winston and the surrounding country were 
gathered and organized, drilled and prepared for service. 
The white tents of the encampments gave a martial appear- 
ance to the towns. Companies from other sections began 
to pass as early as May, and in June three companies left 
Salem to join the army assembling in Virginia. 


It was a pleasant June morning, Monday, the 17th, when 
two of the companies marched to the Salem square, and 
were drawn up in line in front of the Academy. Bishop 
Bahnson and the Rev. Mr. Doub, a minister of the Metho- 
dist church, occupied positions on the portico of Main Hall, 
and each delivered a short address, after which Bishop 
Bahnson offered a fervent prayer. The large concourse 
of people then sang the New Testament benediction, 
" The Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ." A multitude had 
gathered to bid them farewell, and the parting scenes were 
most painful and affecting. Some of the friends accom- 
panied the soldiers as far as the Salem Creek. The entire 
scene was a strange one. The solemn service, with troops 
fully armed, drawn up in front of the ministers ; the large 
gathering of people, some sad, some curious ; the eager- 
ness of the brave boys to go to the front, to join the gather- 
ing of the army ; the songs and the hurrahs of the soldiers, 
as they passed down the main street, the tears and prayers 
of wife and mother, as with bended head they mingled their 
tears with their prayers in the silence of the lonely home. 

The church diary for the date named above says that in 
Company A, Forsyth Rifles, were the following, who are 
connected with the families of the church : William J. 
Pfohl, Samuel C. James, Henry W. Barrow, J. F. Shaffner, 
Gustavus E. Sussdorff, Benjamin Atwood, Alfred H. Belo, 
Edward A. Brietz, James A. Reich, Alexander Rights, 
P. T. Shultz. In Company B, Forsyth Grays, are the 
following who are connected with the famihes of the con- 
gregation : Captain Wharton, Francis Carmichael, Thomas 
Byron Douthit, Lewis B. Eberhard, Samuel G. Hall, 
Joseph H. Reich, James E. Shultz, Cornelius A. Shultz, 
Julius R. Vogler, David Murchison, Augustus B. But- 
ner, Reuben L. Chitty, Augustus A. Clewell, Francis E. 

George Frederick Bahnson 


Keehln, Henry Shore. In addition to these there were a 
number of men who were stated hearers in the services. 

Eight days after this the Third Company of Volunteers 
from Forsyth, Captain Miller commanding, started to the 
front. Bishop Bahnson conducted a religious service in 
the camp before the departure of the troops. The mem- 
bers of this company were largely from the country around 
Salem, some of whom were connected with the congre- 
gations of Bethabara and Bethania. No names are given 
in the diary. 

On Sunday, July 21, it was suggested by some of the 
members that a daily service of prayer be held, to inter- 
cede at the throne of grace for friends and relatives. The 
proposition met with a hearty response, and at eight 
o'clock each day the members gathered. On the second 
morning, that is, on Tuesday, immediately after the prayer 
service, news was received that a desperate battle had 
been fought at Manassas Junction, Virginia, and that the 
Confederate troops had gained the victory. It was almost 
certain that the Salem soldiers were in the battle, hence 
the suspense and anxiety were great. 

The next day the anxiety had increased to such an ex- 
tent that David Clewell was sent to Richmond with the 
hope that he would be permitted to pass through the lines 
and go to the front, in order that he could render assistance 
to our troops. 

From later information it was learned that our young 
men had not suffered. They had been exposed to severe 
cannonading, but having been intrenched they were merci- 
fully spared from shot and shell. 

This same anxiety appeared from time to time during 
the war, after the great battles, especial mention being 
made in May, 1863, after the battle of Fredericksburg. 


As the months and the years passed, the cloud of sor- 
row fell upon one and another household. We find notes 
in the diary, which, though brief, tell a story of suffering 
for many hearts, and formed a portion of the great stream 
of distress which covered the land like a flood. 

" At eleven o'clock this morning the young man, Augus- 
tine Hauser, departed this life. About six weeks ago he 
returned from the army, having by exposure in camp con- 
tracted the disease that carried him off. How many men 
in the prime of life have fallen victims to disease in this 
dreadful war." November 23, 1862. 

" To-day at one o'clock was the funeral of our brother 
Armenius Lash, whose death took place at Petersburg, 
and his remains were brought here by his brother." De- 
cember 6, 1862. 

" The funeral of Lieutenant Jacob Sheppard took place. 
He was killed in the battle of Fredericksburg. Bishop 
Bahnson preached the funeral sermon." December 22, 

"Henry C. Banner died at Petersburg, December 21, 
from a wound received at Fredericksburg, and was buried 
here to-day." December 24, 1862. 

" To-day we received the news of the death of Charles 
J. Clauder, who had fallen on the battle-field near Fred- 
ericksburg. He was found dead, by the litter bearers, 
with his Bible open on his breast." May 13, 1863. 

"About twelve o'clock to-day Frank Reich died, from 
sickness brought on by exposure in the army. His natu- 
rally strong constitution could not resist the strain. He 
leaves a wife and child." September 3, 1863. 

" Noah Lewis, a soldier, died in the hospital here, and was 
buried at four o'clock to-day." Sunday, September 27, 1863. 


This same sad record could be increased, for many a 
mournful procession passed beneath the rows of cedars, 
bearing the remains of loved ones, brave boys like Henry 
Belo and William Pfohl, who died in the struggle and the 
conflict. Or we could tell of those who fell, and whose 
friends did not even have the comfort of placing their 
remains in the home graveyard, as was the case of Wiley 
Gray, and many another. 

The development of the war changed toward the end of 
1863 and in 1864. September 10, the Twenty-First North 
CaroHna Regiment passed through Salem, as it had been 
ordered to some of the western counties to suppress certain 
hostile demonstrations. There were between three and 
four hundred men. As they passed through Salem they 
were supplied with a dinner in the public square. Many 
of these men were from Forsyth County, and their relatives 
and friends were present to greet them. It was a joyous 
meeting, only to be followed by a sad parting, as the 
troops passed on to their destination. The band connected 
with this regiment came to Salem on November 2, and 
among the members were several men from our town. 

Coupled with the movements of the troops we notice 
the feeling of desperation which was filling the minds of 
the people of the South as they felt the lines of the oppos- 
ing military power drawn closer and closer around them. 
From the North, from the South, from the West, on the 
ocean, with steady progress these forces were closing in. 
The food supply became less and less, there were no medi- 
cines, clothing could be secured in very limited quantities, 
ammunition was running short. All this will explain why, 
in 1864, we see items in the diary which point to a desper- 
ate attempt to rally all the forces possible for the final 
decisive struggle. 


The record says that the examining board met in Win- 
ston, in March, 1864, and that the treatment of many who 
had been previously exempt was severe and harsh. They 
were placed under guard, as if they had committed some 
offence, were sent under escort through the town, and 
were confined in the guard-house like prisoners. Thus 
efforts were made to increase the army by pressing into 
it those who had hitherto been exempt. 

The same thing is seen in the strong and determined 
effort made to fill the ranks by the capture of deserters. 
The desertions increased as the sufferings and privations 
increased, and August 20, 1864, the Home Guard of Salem 
was called out to hunt deserters. At a later date the 
record condemns the severity of the measures used against 
these poor fellows. Thirty of these captured deserters 
passed through Salem, October 26, 1864, from Guilford 
County. They had attempted to escape and pass the 
lines, but had been apprehended, and were heavily 
guarded as they continued their unwilling march back 
to the army. 

As a result of this special effort to increase the list 
of fighting men, a number of the older and also of the 
younger men from Salem went to the army at this time. 
The diary says that many were heads of families, and 
earnest prayers for their safety followed them. 

Toward the close of 1864, the rumours and the news 
began again to change. They heard of the fall of Atlanta, 
and the nearer approach of the invading army. In 1865 
the first rumours of possible peace reached them. Then 
came the report that Petersburg and Richmond had 
been evacuated, and finally they heard of the surrender 
of the southern army at Appomattox. 

After the surrender the army was disbanded and the 


soldiers returned to their homes. This home-comins: 
was both happy and sad. It was happy because of the 
reunion of loved ones and the return of peace. But it 
was sad because of the struggle for existence which awaited 
them. The difficulty of this struggle can scarcely be 
realized in our day. Many returned suffering from 
wounds, from exposure, from hardships, from prison life. 
The war had impoverished the land, destroyed business, 
and left no opportunities for earning a support for them- 
selves and their families. It is said that many men who 
bravely faced the foe in the field of battle shrank dis- 
couraged from the difficulties which confronted them 
after the surrender in 1865. 

This home-coming, as well as the horrors of the war 
itself, is graphically pictured in a lecture delivered in 
the Academy chapel by one who was in the thickest of 
the struggle, who tasted to the full the hardships of prison 
life, and who remembers those days by the results of the 
wounds he received. He says : — 

"We were paroled at Farmville, and begged food by 
the way, sometimes welcomed, often repulsed, and walked 
by slow stages on account of our weakness to Clover 
station, where we found a train that carried us to Dan- 
ville. Here we appropriated a construction train, and 
standing on a flat car, rode to a burned bridge ten miles 
from Greensboro. Walking on, I reached home the 
second morning thereafter. I had been mourned for 
as dead. Some of my companions had taken the descrip- 
tion given by a burying detail, of a young fellow resem- 
bling me, and marked his grave with a board on which 
they carved my name. My welcome home may be 


" I had lost thirty-eight pounds in the three weeks 
since we left Petersburg, and was so emaciated and filthy 
that my father did not at first recognize me. As I emerged 
from the nasty underclothing I had worn night and day 
for seven consecutive weeks, and enjoyed the luxury of 
a warm bath, and donned clean garments, and again sat 
in a chair, and ate with a fork, and drank water from a 
glass, and joined in the family prayers, and slept in a bed, 
all the glamour and illusions of the pomp and pride and 
circumstance of glorious war were forever dispelled. I 
certainly was not built for a soldier. I don't want to 
impugn the veracity, nor would I curtail the pleasure, of 
those old soldiers who speak and write so enthusiastically 
of the duty of patriotism and the glory of war. But I 
must express my selfish regret that they so successfully 
concealed their real feelings at the time. If any single 
one among the thousands I saw felt at all happy or con- 
tented, he failed utterly to show it. I know if I had 
been half as badly scared as everybody around me 
looked, I never would have stayed to go into a single 
battle. Speaking for myself, I have few pleasant recol- 
lections of the war. To my mind come only sad and 
grim and gloomy memories : the forms of my comrades 
and friends hurried to an untimely death by disease and 
wounds ; left a prey to the birds of the air, and the beasts 
of the field, at best hastily and unceremoniously shovelled 
into a shallow trench ; if haply surviving, maimed and 
crippled, and marred in health and usefulness ; the 
privations and sufferings from fatigue and hunger, and 
heat and cold, and filth and nakedness, in comfortless 
camp, on toilsome march, in ruthless conflict, in loath- 
some hospital, in pitiless prison ; fields deserted, home- 
steads and towns pillaged and burned, graves violated. 


sanctuaries defiled, Sabbaths desecrated ; the havoc and 
ruin, the wanton waste and destruction, the merciless 
carnage ; the unutterable agony of heartrending grief that 
hung Hke the smoke of torment over tens of thousands 
of blasted homes ; the abomination of desolation ! 

" May justice and righteousness dwell in this land; may 
mutual toleration and forbearance take the place of sec- 
tional jealousy and bitterness; may the God of love so com- 
pletely fill the hearts and minds of this people that the 
god of battles can nevermore find room in their thoughts ; 
may the reign of the Prince of Peace speedily begin and 
his blessed dominion extend over all God's beautiful 
earth," ^ 

The following is a list of some of the soldiers from 
Salem, Winston, and from some of the neighbouring Mora- 
vian congregations. There are also some names of men 
who did not enlist with the Forsyth companies, but have 
since become citizens of our towns. It is only a partial 
list, since there were many soldiers who served in other 
sections of the country, and whose names do not appear 
on any register accessible to the gentlemen who prepared 
this list. By request, an examination of the rolls of the 
companies from our county was made by Dr. J. F. Shaff- 
ner, T. B. Douthit, C. B. Brooks, W. H. White, C. B. 
Pfohl, and Captain J. C. Bessent, and the following names 
were found. It is quite certain that all names could not 
be discovered, but it is probably the most complete list of 
Winston-Salem men thus far prepared. Space has been 
left between the letters of the alphabet, and in these spaces 
additional names may be written. The writer will be glad 

1 Lecture delivered by Dr. H. T. Bahnson in chapel of Salem Female 


to receive the names of men who enlisted from Salem, 
Winston, or from any of the Moravian congregations. 

Atwood, Benjamin, killed. Atwood, Jesse, died. Atwood, J. S., 
wounded. Anderson, Elisha G. 

Brooks, C. B. Brietz, E. A. Brietz, Samuel. Barnacastle, H. F. 
Barnacastle, John. Barnacastle, Yerby. Barnacastle, E. Bahn- 
son, C. F. Bahnson, H. T., wounded. Butner, James. Butner, E. J. 
Butner, A. B. Butner, W. N. Butner, John. Butner, L. E. But- 
ner, F. A. Butner, Augustus L., killed. Butner, Augustus. Butner, 
Henry L., died. Barrow, David. Barrow, Henry W. Barrow, Will- 
iam. Boner, Edward J., wounded. Bowles, J. C, died. Bowles, Will- 
iam, died. Bowles, J. S. Bowles, J. P. Billiter, P. L. Billiter, Amos. 
Bevil, A. W. Beckel, Samuel W. Brewer, W. H. Brewer, Wesley. 
Banner, Henry C, killed. Brown, W. R. Brown, Haywood. Brown, 
David. Brown, Nathaniel, wounded. Brown, H. A. Brown, T. J. 
Byerly, J. E. Burk, J. J. Burk, H. F. Burk, W. J. Burk, Andrew. 
Burk, George. Brendle, Gottlob. Brendle, R. A. Brendle, J. P. 
Best, T. T. Belo, A. H., wounded. Belo, R. W., wounded. Belo, 
Henry, killed. Belo, C. E. Bitting, J. Walter. Blum, James. Beard, 

Carmichael, L. F. Carmichael, W. F. Chitty, Henry N. Chitty, 
Henry. Chitty, Lafayette. Chitty, Reuben. Crowder, N. Cooper, 
J. A. Cooper, W. J. Clewell, Augustus A. Clewell, Francis C. 
Grouse, Harrison. Crouse, Samuel. Grouse, Daniel. Goley, J. H. 
Creekman, G. N. Crater, L. J. Crater, R. J. Crater, Allen. Graver, 
Allen. Calhoun, J. Y., died. Conrad, Alpheus S. Conrad, John G. 
Conrad, Wiley. Conrad, J. H. Conrad, B. G. Conrad, J. Carlos. 
Conrad, G. H. Conrad, R. J. Grouch, Augustus, killed. Crouch, 
John. Clodfelter, W. C. Campbell, R. Chaffin, N. S. Crist, T. F. 
Church, Robert, died. 

Douthit, T. B. Dull, Edward C. 

Everhard, L. D. Essie, Theophilus. Essie, Valentine. Ernest, 
Henry. Ebert, Alfred. Ebert, Murchison. 


Fogle, C. H. Fogle, Samuel. Fuller, Dave. Fansler, William, 
wounded. Faircloth, W. H. Fletcher, A. Fry, David. 

Gillam, A. H. Griffin, J. A. Goslen, L. H. Goslen, J. W. Glass- 
cock, William H. Glasscock, M. V. Garboden, Lewis. Gray, S. 
Wiley, killed. Gray, James A. Gorrell, A. B. Gorrell, R. D. Gor- 
rell, Ralph, killed. Gilmer, J. E. George, Peter. 

Hunter, Thomas. Hendricks, Nicholas, died. Hendricks, Nathaniel, 
killed. Hendricks, John, killed. Hendricks, Lee. Hendricks, Mat. 
Hensdale, David, killed. Hinshaw, William. Hauser, C. H. Hauser, 
Nerva. Hauser, Augustine, died. Hauser, Francis. Hauser, C. E. 
Hauser, R. A. Hauser, William. Headley, P. D. Hughes, Henry. 
Harald, William. Holder, W. C. Holder, E. Jack. Holder, Henry A. 
Holland, L. E. Holland, E. E. Holland, Junius R., killed. Herville, 
William. Hine, W. C. Hine, L. F. Hine, E. A. Hine, J. H. Hine, 
Theodore. Hine, Lewis. Hine, L. L Hege, Daniel. Hege, Edward. 
Hege, Z. G. Hunter, J. W. Hall, S. G. Hall, W. H. Hall, J. O. 

Ingram, Clint. Ingram, John. 

James, Samuel C., killed. Jenkins, Robert M. Jenkins, R. A. 
Joyner, Elias. Jarvis, John, killed. 

Keehln, T. F. Keehln, F. E. Kessler, Samuel. Kennedy, Joel. 
Kiger, Alexander W. Kreeger, James. Knott, William R. Kimel, 
Lewis, wounded. Kapp, William. Kapp, Alexander. Knott, George. 
Knott, R. W. Koonce, M. Kennedy, T. Van. 

Lineback, Phil, killed. Lineback, J. A. Lineback, J. H., wounded. 
Lineback, J. W. Lineback, R. C, killed. Lineback, Edgar. Line- 
back, L. W. Lineback, P. T., killed. Lineback, Emmanuel. Line- 
back, J. B. Lineback, Allen, died. Lineback, Timothy. Lineback, 
W. H. Lewis, Isaac. Lewis, Noah, died. Lehman, O. J. Lehman, 
P. T. Loderick, John. Livengood, Henry. Lash, Armenius, killed. 
Lash, Augustus. Lash, Henry. Lemly, W. A. Lemly, I. T. Lumly, 
David. Landquist, John. Lowman, William. 


Mickey, F. W. Mickey, S. T. Murchison, D. B. Miller, D. B. 
Miller, Alex., killed. Miller, John, killed. Miller, Samuel E. Miller, 
Carlos W. Miller, E. Miller, F. P., killed. Miller, G. L. Miller, 
V. B. Miller, F. W. Merritt, John. Moss, S., wounded. Mock, 
Christian S. Mock, Nathaniel. Mendenhall, Frank. Meinung, Ed- 
win. Meinung, Alexander. Mann, J. E. Mastin, J. H. Mast, D. P., 

Nissen, G. E. Newsom, Green. Newsom, John. Nelson, W. F. 
Nading, John. Nading, N. W. Nading, F. A. Norfleet, M. W. 

Owens, Larkin, killed. Ogburn, M. L. Ogburn, William. Ogburn, 
C. J., wounded. Ogburn, J. W. Ogburn, S. A. 

Porter, John H. Porter, F. M. Porter, G. W. Phillips, C. T. 
Pack, David. Pack, Calvin, died. Pfohl, W. J., killed. Pfohl, W. 
Thomas. Pfohl, E. A. Pfohl, A. F. Pfohl, C. B. Parsons, William. 
Pratt, J. L. Painter, William, wounded. Padget, Charles A. Pitts, 
Harrison. Pfaflf, Philip. Peterson, William. Peterson, Edward. 
Pratt, T. J. Pratt, Francis. Pratt, Wm., Jr. Petree, W. W. 

Reich, J. E., died. Reich, W. A. Reich, Lewis (Salem), died. 
Reich, Lewis (Old Town), died. Reich, John. Reich, G. A. Reich, 
J. H. Reich, James. Reich, Parmenio, died. Reich, Constantine, 
killed. Reich, B. F., died. Reich, William. Reich, John L. Reich, 
L., killed. Reich, H., killed. Rothrock, J. M. Rothrock, Charles, 
wounded. Rothrock, John. Reed, James L. Reed, D. S. Reed, 
John. Reitzel, Christian, died. Rights, J. A. Rempson, John. 
Rominger, W. J. Rominger, J. A., died. Rank, Eugene, killed. 
Robertson, David. Riggs, Jesse. 

Shultz, James. Shultz, C. A. Shultz, P. T. Shultz, J. P., killed. 
Shultz, J. A. Spear, Solomon. Shepperd, W. H., wounded. Shep- 
perd, Frank. Shepperd, Hambleton. Shepperd, Jacob, killed. Shouse, 
C. A. Shouse, Wiley, wounded. Shouse, Edwin. Shouse, Christian. 
Shore, H. L. Shore, Augustus. Shore, N. T. Shore, Sanders. Shore, 
John H. Shore, J. H., killed. Shore, W., killed. Shore, Isaac, killed. 


Swaim, Eli, killed. Swaim, W. F. Spaugh, W. E. Spaugh, Frank. 
Spaugh, Obadiah. Spaugh, J. E. Spaugh, Simon, wounded. Spaugh, 
E. J. Spaugh, Jonas, wounded. Spaugh, B. A. Spaugh, William. 
Spaugh, W. J. Spaugh, D. A. Siewers, N. S. Siewers, J. B. Suss- 
dorff, G. E. Samuels, James A. Sites, George W., wounded. Stephens, 
Alfred. Styers, Jesse J., killed. Styers, Edward J. Styers, N. R., 
killed. Starr, A. Shaffner, J.F. Snyder, Sanford. Snider, William P. 
Strupe, L. J. Strupe, Eugene. Strupe, Ephraim. Stauber, J. C, died. 
Stafford, J. C, killed. Shober, Charles E. Sides, Sandford. Shutt, 
Lewis. Swink, George. Siddall, H. A. 

Thomas, W. H. H., wounded. Thomas, Columbus, died. Transou, 
Julius. Transou, Reuben, died. Transou, A. E. Transou, Lewis. 
Transou, O. C, died. Tise, Jacob. 

Vogler, J. R. Vawter, A. L., died. 

Winkler, J. C. Wharton, R. W. Webb, A. H. Webb, J. C, 
wounded. White, W. H. White, Tandy. Wright, L. D., killed. 
Wright, Silas. Waugh, Samuel, wounded. Woolsey, William, wounded. 
Woolsey, Franklin. Wren, Calvin T. Wren, Jerry. Wimmer, John, 
wounded. Whitfield, Nicholas. Wheeler, W. H. Wheeler, Henry, 
wounded. Watson, C. B. Watkins, C. J. Warner, J. A. Winchester, 
Luther. Welfare, Edward, wounded. Welch, J. J. Welch, Henry, 

Young, J. G. 
Zimmerman, Martin. 

We turn now to another phase of the war. The Indian 
foe invaded Wachovia in 1759, the British during the 
Revolution, and in the Civil War the Federal troops passed 
through Wachovia, and even encamped for a season in 

April 2, 1865, an alarm was sounded, and preparations 


were made for the dreaded invasion. News of the severity 
of the Union army in Tennessee, in Georgia, and in Vir- 
ginia had reached them, and they feared the worst. The 
clerk of the court distributed his books and papers in pri- 
vate houses, so that, if one house was burned or looted, 
another would probably be spared. Cotton and cloth were 
also stored in private houses with the same object in view. 
Horses were taken to unfrequented spots, and there teth- 
ered till the army had passed. In the vaulted cellar of the 
principal's house is a sunken place in the floor, where an 
excavation had been made ; in this the money and jewellery 
of the pupils and the valuable property of the school had 
been placed. In the large space under the Main Hall of 
the Academy Mr. Fogle put the two fine black horses of the 
school, and thus saved them. In every possible way prepa- 
rations were made for the approaching foe. 

The first report was false, but April lo they did arrive. 
During one of the Easter services in Bethania, while the 
congregation was assembled in the church, the Federal 
troops, under General Stoneman, suddenly entered and took 
possession of the town. It was an astonished congrega- 
tion that left the church that night. Houses that had been 
locked were broken open and drawers and closets were 
ransacked. No resistance was offered, hence no overt 
act, such as burning buildings, occurred. But there was 
so much plundering and thieving that the inhabitants of 
modern Bethania felt, after Stoneman's troops had gone, 
as did the inhabitants of Bethania of old when Cornwallis 
and his army took their departure. 

Before the troops entered Salem, April lo, 1865, there 
was some excitement, attended with pursuit and capture 
of the scouts, but, in the end, the mayor of the town, 
Joshua Boner, the principal of the academy, Robert de 

RoBERi William de Schweinitz 


Schweinitz, and some others, met General Palmer, sur- 
rendered the town, and requested protection for the school 
and the citizens. This protection was accorded in a thor- 
ough and satisfactory manner. The government building 
on Marshall Street contained a large store of suppHes, 
and these satisfied the wants of the troops, hence little 
damage was done to the town, though there was some 
breaking down of barriers in one direction and another. 

General Palmer had his headquarters in Joshua Boner's 
house, and the soldiers encamped below the creek. With 
the exception of the clatter of the hoofs of the horses 
as they filed down Main Street, no one would have been 
able to realize that a body of three thousand troops were 
passing through. During this occupation of the town by 
the raiders, one body of troops by some error entered 
Cedar Avenue and the graveyard, but many dismounted 
and walked through the enclosure, and in some instances 
hats were removed as a mark of respect for the dead. 

The next month a body of cavalry arrived, and remained 
in camp several weeks. They were in the town from 
May 10 until July 13. They belonged to the Tenth 
Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. By this time Lee had sur- 
rendered (April 9, 1865), hence hostilities had ceased, 
and the soldiers were no longer hostile, as in time of 
war. They were awaiting the orders to be mustered out. 
Hence they fraternized with the people, and were hos- 
pitably received into many of the homes. 

The camp was on the plot of ground now occupied by 
the steel tank of the Salem Water Supply Company, and 
the officers had their headquarters in the house now occu- 
pied by Dr. J. W. Hunter. 

The chaplain at one time addressed the Salem Home 
Sunday-school, and at another time he visited and 


preached in the coloured church, exhorting the negroes 
to settle down and become honest and industrious citizens. 
The Fourth of July was signalized by a celebration in 
the square, and many people came expecting to witness 
remarkable things, but they returned to their homes dis- 
appointed. On pay days there was much drunkenness 
and rowdyism, and in one or two instances men were 
killed. The soldiers treated the negroes very harshly, as 
they were strung up by the thumbs, and maltreated in 
other ways. The diary closes the account of this two 
months' stay with the following emphatic words, " Every- 
body, or at least the vast majority, rejoiced that they left 
this morning." 

In April an unusual scene was witnessed in the town. 
The church bell was rung, but it was not a fire alarm. 
All the citizens and the soldiers who had returned from 
the army responded, and gathered in groups at the hotel 
or in the square. This unusual sight was necessitated by 
the presence of a number of Confederate troops, who evi- 
dently were on a foraging expedition, and under plea of 
searching for government cloth, which they claimed was 
secreted in the homes of the citizens, they proposed to 
forcibly enter and search the houses. Knowing that 
robbery was the real object, the citizens determined to 
resist; and when the strangers saw the arms and the 
determination, they withdrew, though with many a dread- 
ful threat of what they would do when they returned with 
a larger force of men. 

The confusion which followed the surrender of Lee was 
widespread. The governor of the state declared that he 
had no further authority ; the town officials took the same 
position ; the country was filled with a reckless class of 
men, many of whom were bad, bent on plunder, as is 


shown in the preceding paragraph. This state of affairs 
lasted nearly a month, till the arrival of the Union troops 
in May. During these weeks, when Salem was without 
a government, the citizens organized a vigilance com- 
mittee, composed of the citizens and the soldiers who 
were now returning from the war, and patrolled the 
streets day and night, holding in custody all who could 
not give a satisfactory account of themselves. The 
work of this vigilance committee was no Hght task, but 
order was maintained and property and lives protected 
till the organization of the new government was ef- 

It is not necessary to add much to what we have 
already given of the daily life of the people, but it will be 
in place before closing the subject to allude to the great 
privations which the community suffered. Many articles, 
common in our day, were unknown to the people in those 
years. Principal de Schweinitz rejoiced when on one 
occasion Governor Vance sent two barrels of sugar for 
his school family. Prices made the articles prohibitory, 
even if they could have been obtained. Salt sold for 
;^20 per sack, corn was $10 per bushel, bacon $2 to $3 
per pound. In estimating the cost of a love-feast it was 
stated that with the smallest size cake, and without coffee, 
the expense of the service would be ^125. Later the 
terrible depreciation in money added to the confusion. A 
certain collection in the church amounted to $500. On 
the collection plate was placed a silver dollar, and the 
diary says that the silver dollar was worth as much as 
$40 in the depreciated currency. 

A pleasing feature of these years of hardship appears 
in the earnest and self-sacrificing manner in which the 
church and community laboured to ameliorate the suffer- 


ings of the soldiers, especially in the latter portion of 
the struggle. The residents of Salem, in 1863 and 1864, 
will recall the long lines of cloth tacked to the fences, 
in the avenue, or around the private lots in the town. 
These long strips were being painted and made into 
"oilcloth," to protect the soldiers from the weather, and 
to serve them in other ways. The Fries mills were run- 
ning day and night to weave the famous gray cloth used 
in the army. The clatter of the wooden shoes was heard, 
as the boys and girls came and went from school ; and 
while the children rather liked them, because they did 
make so much noise, the real object of this use of wood 
instead of leather was to send so much more leather to 
the soldiers. Even the little folks picked quantities of 
lint for the wounded, while their elders wound numberless 
rolls of bandages for the surgeons' use. 

One of the heroic acts of the war was the journey of a 
number of our ladies to the hospitals, to act as "red cross" 
nurses, even at that early day. Among those who went 
to Blantyre Hospital were Mrs. Eliza Kremer, and Misses 
Lizetta Stewart, L. Shaub, Laura Vogler, and Margaret 

The experiences within the Academy were interesting, 
and leave a bright spot in this dark history. The school 
was a place of refuge in this time of storm. Parents sent 
their daughters from various motives. Some came for the 
sake of the education only ; others came from sections 
which were not safe because of hostilities in those por- 
tions of the country ; still others came because they were 
refugees, driven out of home by fire and sword. All dur- 
ing these years the school sheltered two hundred or more 
of these young people, and no harm came to this precious 


The details of how provisions were supplied are inter- 
esting, as told by those who lived through the years 1861- 
1865. It was not an uncommon thing to see the principal 
ride up to his office after a long journey, mud-bespattered 
and weary; and when the object of his journey was ascer- 
tained, it was found that he had heard of the possible pur- 
chase of a few bushels of corn, or a little bacon, ten or 
fifteen miles away, and had ridden thither to secure it. 
Or his assistant in this difficult task, Augustus Fogle, 
would arrive at midnight, after a most difficult ride to 
secure a beef, and was informed that a score of miles away 
two pigs might be bought ; having taken an hour or two 
of rest, he would be off again at three o'clock in the morn- 
ing. It was no light task to feed and shelter a family like 
this during the days of the Civil War. 

One bright and happy event occurred at the close of this 
period. It was the celebration of the centennial of the 
founding of Salem. This was in 1866. The relief which 
came with the return of peace had enabled the congrega- 
tion to rally and to begin to lay plans for the future, and 
it was determined to celebrate the occasion in a worthy 
manner. The church was beautifully and elaborately 
decorated. At that time the pulpit was on the north side, 
with galleries on the three remaining sides. The exercises 
were carefully arranged, the music was fine, and in this 
celebration the congregation seemed to gain strength and 
encouragement for the future, and to realize that the Lord 
who had guided them thus far would continue to hold his 
protecting hand over them. 




Wachovia's trial, after the War of the Revolution, was 
the prevalence of smallpox. Wachovia's burden after the 
Civil War was the time of reconstruction. This is the 
name applied to the series of errors made by the Federal 
authorities after the assassination of Lincoln. It is be- 
lieved by many that when Lincoln was shot the South lost 
the friend who could have done the stricken land the great- 
est amount of good. As it was, the President was shot, 
and the men who assumed the reins of government were 
not fair, nor were they just, toward the southern people. 
It may not have been intentional ruin of the country, but 
such it was. Millions of slaves were freed and given the 
ballot; miUions of white men who were able, and were 
again loyal citizens of the land, were disfranchised. The 
whites were able to govern, but they could not vote. The 
blacks were unable to govern, and they assumed the power. 
At this juncture a company of adventurers came in, made 
their way into the highest offices, bought or controlled the 
entire negro vote, robbed and plundered, and what the war 
left these men finished. State after state was brought 
face to face with utter ruin. Then the whites took the 
next step ; they determined to drive these men out by 
force. These things brought about the reconstruction 
days, with the unrest and violence attending them. 



Wachovia did not feel these evils as much as many other 
sections. The church work seemed to stagnate. There 
were fewer accessions than usual. The ministers were 
discouraged. The little money reserve which the Province 
had, after the settlement with the Unity's conference, was 
steadily diminishing. The church services were not 
attended as they should have been, and everything seemed 
to be at a standstill. 

In the Academy the patronage was growing less and 
less. The old, tried, and true friends were not able to send 
their children to school. Their slaves liberated, their 
plantations devasted, their homes burned, these things 
left the friends of the school in abject poverty, in very 
many cases. 

This picture shows us the decade following the war, — 
business dull, opportunities few, services poorly attended, 
school interests depreciated, everything moving feebly. 

Then there came a time when the crisis was passed. 
As the new fresh blood sends the life and strength through 
the body, after a severe illness, so the pulsation of public 
affairs began to show renewed life and health. The 
disfranchised men were given the right to vote. The 
obnoxious leaders had been driven out of the land, or had 
come into sympathy with the interests of the state, and 
North Carolina awoke to a day of better things. 

It became apparent that there must be a revolution in 
methods in Wachovia, both in school and church. The 
plans worked slowly at first, but there was a steady 
advancement of all interests. The marked changes ap- 
peared later. 

The renovation of the Salem church was one of these 
indications. The congregation, with an effort, raised a 
sum of money, to make material internal improvements. 


The pulpit was placed at the east end, and a gallery was 
added on the north side; pews replaced the old-time 

In the town one of the steps of far-reaching importance 
was the prohibiting of the sale of intoxicating drinks, by 
an almost unanimous vote, and since then the sale of 
liquor has not been allowed. 

The Academy added the two upper stories to South 

These and other things indicated that the period of 
prosperity was steadily advancing. 



About the year 1875 a new era began to dawn. Win- 
ston received a business impetus which sent it forward on 
the road to prosperity. The railroad between Greensboro 
and Winston-Salem was finished. The old houses were 
replaced by new and better buildings ; the blocks of stores 
around the court-house were remodelled, or new ones 
erected. The tobacco interests, which have since become 
such an important feature, attracted the attention of a 
new class of people. The population rapidly increased, 
and the value of real estate was greatly enhanced. 

In Salem the growth was less rapid, but none the less 
real and permanent The young men took hold of the 
new state of affairs and entered upon the task of building 
up the town. In former years almost every line of busi- 
ness was represented on a small scale. There was one 
man with a comfortable salesroom and a small workshop 
manufacturing hats; another conducted a cooper shop, 
and to this day his genial face can be remembered as he 
stood in the doorway and had a pleasant word for each 
passer ; still another had a bookbindery, in which he did 
work for customers all over this section of the state ; then 
there was the locksmith, the confectioner, the saddler, the 
silversmith, the carpenter, and the carriage maker, in fact 
almost every line of manufacture was represented on a 
small scale. With the dawn of the new era it became 



apparent that the business enterprises must be planned on 
a larger scale, and hence we see the modest carpenter 
shop exchanged for the more pretentious planing-mill, 
with improved machinery, ready to build the new young 
city ; the blacksmith shop is replaced by the large iron 
works, destined to send their manufactures all over the 
world ; the most pretentious business enterprise of the town, 
the cotton and woollen mills, were increased by the 
erection of a large modern mill. Thus at the beginning 
of this last period, which we have termed a new era, the 
business pulse of the two chief towns of Wachovia was 
beating in harmony with the beginning of that wave of 
enterprise which, at the end of twenty-five years, has 
covered the entire South and is marvellous in its extent and 

Within the church equally marked changes were taking 
place, or we may better say, were being prepared. 

In 1880 negotiations were begun with a view to the 
organic union of the Northern and Southern Provinces, 
with the government in the hands of one board. Com- 
missions were appointed and for three years the details 
were studied and plans considered. The effort was finally 
abandoned, in 1883, and this action of the commissions 
was approved by the synods of both provinces. The two 
sections of the Moravian Church in America have the most 
friendly feelings for each other, and at the present time 
calls can be extended to ministers, directly, from one prov- 
ince to the other. In all respects, except in actual admin- 
istrative functions, the two provinces are really one. 

The men who had faithfully carried the church through 
the time of war, and through the reconstruction period, 
were beginning to feel the weight of years ; De Schweinitz, 
Grunert, Leinbach, and Rights had given the service of a 


A NEW ERA 261 

lifetime to the upholding of the church and Province, and 
will always be held in loving remembrance. They lived to 
see the beginning of brighter days. 

It was at this time that Rondthaler was called to the 
pastorate of the Moravian Church in Salem, and began a 
service which has now reached a quarter of a century, and 
during this time has been a wise and successful leader, 
retaining all that is good in the old, and reaching out to 
adopt all that is wise and desirable in the new. During 
this quarter of a century the church and Sunday-school 
work has expanded, the congregation has enlarged, and 
the provincial interests have reached out into many new 
fields of usefulness. 


I 766-1 902 

A RECENT writer is responsible for the statement that in 
locating a home a German first asks for a spring of water, 
and then locates the home near the spring. An English- 
man will first select an elevated point, locate his home, and 
then consider the question of bringing the water to the 
home. Be this as it may, the builders of Salem first 
searched for springs, discovered them in the grove (south 
of the present site of Calvary Church), and having run 
the level, then located the principal buildings of the town 
at a place where the water could be brought from the 
springs into the houses, by gravity. The distance from 
the springs to the Salem square is a mile and more, hence 
the task of piping the water from that point was a difficult 

In 1774 the first steps were taken to provide the town 
with a water supply. In that year the plot of ground was 
fenced and a cover was placed over the spring. Then the 
matter was left until the way should be opened for further 

Early in 1778 active operations were begun. The best 
heart-pine timber was brought from the surrounding coun- 
try, and these logs were bored their full length, thus being 
made into pipes. The ends were trimmed and fitted into 
each other. The water was brought to the main street of 
the town by gravity, and thence distributed to five stations. 



February 26, 1778, the laying of the pipes from the 
spring to the upper cistern was finished. 

March 18, the pipes were laid to the ironing room of 
the Sisters' House. 

March 21, pipes laid to the hotel. 

March 25, the work was finished when the pipes had 
been laid to the Brethren's House. 

Thus the first water supply was completed March 25, 

This system furnished the needed water for the town 
during a period of fifty years. 

In 1827 work upon a new system was inaugurated, 
and in 1828 it was completed. The method employed to 
supply the town in this second system was both ingenious 
and efficient. In the ravine, east of the terminus of Bank 
Street, is a spring of clear, cold water. Here it was 
determined to erect a house, install a triple pump, and 
use a large overshot wheel as the power to run the pump. 
The water was forced up the hill, perhaps one hundred 
feet, to a supply cistern at the south end of Cedar Avenue. 
Thence by gravity it was distributed to a dozen or more 
cisterns. The pipes used in this system were glazed 
terra-cotta pipes. This was before the day of steam 
pumping, and the power was procured in the following 
manner : — 

Starting at " bath branch," above the present railroad 
culvert, the water to turn the wheel was conducted along 
the hillside in a wooden trough, a distance of two miles. 
In crossing the ravine east of Park Avenue, it was neces- 
sary to support the trough on a high trestle. Thence the 
water passed through the Academy Park, and when it 
reached the wheel-house, it had sufficient elevation to fall 
upon the great fifteen-foot wheel, which revolved ceaselessly 


day and night. This second water-supply system served 
the town a full half century, from 1828 to 1878. 

The third system, which is now in use, though supple- 
mented by later additions, was begun by the Salem Water 
Supply Company. This company was organized in 1878, 
with J. F. Shaffner, Sr., as president. It secured all the 
rights and privileges of the old company, and at once pro- 
ceeded to the preparation of a reservoir on the Fogle lot, 
on Belews Creek Street. This reservoir had a capacity of 
sixty-five thousand gallons. A well was dug near " bath 
branch," not far from the point at which it empties into 
Salem Creek. The pump was operated by an overshot 
wheel, with water brought from the same stream which 
turned the wheel in 1828, though the supply trough, or race, 
in this case is only a few hundred feet in length. Reuben 
Chitty was a familiar figure in his attention to this wheel, 
as well as to the property of the earlier system. 

Seven years later a second well was dug, the pump 
being worked by an overshot wheel, with water from " bath 
branch." This is a few hundred yards north of the first 
well. The pipes from these two wells join, and feed the 
common reservoir. 

A large steel reservoir, with a capacity of half a million 
gallons, was constructed in 1887, near the site of the first 
reservoir, and this is still in service in 1902. Arrangements 
were made about this time to connect the Winston and 
Salem systems, so that in case of a widespread conflagra- 
tion, the firemen could draw from the supply of both 

In 1890 the Salem Water Supply Company bought 
what is known as the Reynolds Spring, about a mile south- 
east of Salem, and erected a steam pump, connection 
having been made with the general system of mains. 


Previous to 1890, the enterprise was strictly a private 
concern, supplying the town with fire protection, but without 
compensation. In the above year a contract was entered 
into between the town and the water company by which 
the company received ^25 per year hydrant rent, on about 
fifty hydrants, located on the eight miles of mains. 

A year or two later work was begun on the new reser- 
voir, near the Reynolds Spring, and this is now completed 
with a capacity of a million and a half gallons, giving the 
town of Salem a reservoir capacity of two million gallons. 

A very important development in the history of the 
Salem Water Supply Company occurred in 1901. The 
company. Colonel F. H. Fries, president, purchased in fee 
simple, or secured the water rights, to about two hundred 
acres of land, in what is known as the Butner or Fogle 
bottom, and thence eastward. This is the basin of a large 
watershed, with a water-bearing gravel substratum. This 
gravel stratum will supply a million gallons per day, 
of the purest water. This can be increased to five mill- 
ion gallons per day by the use of the creek water, the 
purest stream in this section, and the supply will then 
be sufficient for a city of fifty thousand inhabitants. A 
pumping station has been erected at this point and con- 
nection made with the reservoir. The value of the plant 
at the present time is ;^6o,ooo. 

The men who have been most energetic in this work, 
since 1878, are Dr. J. F. Shaffner, Colonel F. H. Fries, 
Charles Fogle, C. H. Fogle, and Henry F. Shaffner. The 
first-named gentleman furnished the above facts concern- 
ing the Salem Water Supply Company. 

The Winston Water Company was organized in 1880, 
G. W. Hinshaw, superintendent, and Thomas J. Wilson, 
president. The supply well is near " Belo's Pond," and 


the reservoir, with a capacity of one million gallons, is 
located at the upper end of Trade Street. The well which 
suppHes the water has a diameter of thirty feet, to a depth 
of thirty-two feet, and a twelve-foot diameter for a dis- 
tance of twenty feet more. Its supply is from seventy- 
five to one hundred gallons per minute. 

The company was a private corporation from 1880 to 
1894, when it was sold to the city of Winston. 

At present, nearly ten miles of mains have been laid, 
and the value of the plant is ^i 10,000. The present supply 
pumped into the reservoir is between four and five hun- 
dred thousand gallons per day. The pumps have a capac- 
ity of two million gallons per day. An automatic filter 
purifies the creek water that is used, and there is at the 
pumping station a storage reservoir, with a capacity equal 
to the one on the hill. The pumping station is so ar- 
ranged that the pressure can be thrown directly on the 
pipes, thus gaining any amount of pressure for throwing 
water from the hydrants. 

The above information was kindly furnished by G. W. 
Hinshaw, former superintendent, and J. O. McGruder, 
present engineer. 

Thus we see that the Twin City has a combined reser- 
voir capacity, including the Winston storage reservoir, of 
four million gallons. 

We note the marked contrast between the little rivulet 
of spring water trickling through the wooden pipes in 1778, 
and the steam and electric pumps, ready to force two 
million gallons daily into the reservoirs. 

Logically connected with the water supply is that of the 
history of the protection against destruction of property by 
fire. A detailed history of the Salem Fire Department is 
given in a pamphlet entitled " Fiftieth Anniversary of 


Salem Fire Department," by W. S. Pfohl. Fire inspectors 
were appointed whose business it was to examine the con- 
dition of affairs in the buildings, and to have corrected that 
which in any way threatened the safety of the property. 
This inspection of the buildings has been continued all 
through the one hundred and thirty years, and no doubt 
this is one of the reasons why fires have been so rare. 
The regulations are quaint but effective. If perchance 
the reader is tempted to smile at this old document which 
we reproduce, let him remind himself that it was these 
regulations which gave to the towns practical freedom from 
fires, there having been only one fire each twenty-five years 
during the first century of the town's history ; and as two 
of these were insignificant, it is right and proper to state 
that Salem had one building destroyed during the first 
fifty years of its history, and a second dwelling was burned 
during the second half century. Hence the following 
regulations call for our respect and interest : — 

"At a meeting of the Fire Inspectors, held January 25, 
1 773 J the following observations were made: — 

" I St. It would seem necessary that in the larger kitch- 
ens, as the hotel, the Sisters' house and the Brethren's 
house, the chimneys should be swept out five times during 
the year, whereas in family houses, twice or three times 
might be sufficient. But, as in the burning of dry wood, 
in stoves as well as in fireplaces, less soot is formed than 
where green wood is used, the fire master should consider 
the necessities of each case, rather than confine himself to 
stated periods. 

" 2d. It is desirable that a young man be selected, who 
should be instructed in the business of chimney sweeping, 
who could relieve the regular sweeper from time to time. 


Chimneys that measure i6x i8 inches, also 14X i8 inches, 
are most convenient to be swept. The latter, however, if 
not straight, will present some difficulties. 

" 3d. In reference to log houses it was resolved and 
ordered that all pipe openings in the chimney must cer- 
tainly be examined once a year, and even if no special flaw 
be found, the plastering must be renewed. In this connec- 
tion an instance was recalled, when a fire would no doubt 
have occurred, if this precaution had not been taken. 

" 4th. It was agreed that the compensation of the 
sweeper be the same as that paid for the same service in 
the congregations in Pennsylvania. 

" 5th. The question of the number of times of sweeping 
the chimneys was referred to again, and it was unanimously 
decided that in family dwellings chimneys should be swept 
once during the summer and twice during the winter. The 
sweeper was cautioned, when ascending the chimney, not 
to rest on top of it when his work is done, lest he fall with 
the chimney to the ground, as the brick are not laid in 
lime mortar. 

"6th. In conclusion it was suggested that it be made 
a rule that all chimneys be swept in the future, and that 
' burning out ' chimneys be entirely discontinued." 

Twelve years later, when the two engines arrived, the 
following regulations were made, and read at stated intervals 
to the citizens of the town : — 

" 1st. Precautions which may be taken to avoid danger 
of fire. 

"(rt) That no method of building be adopted whereby 
the community is endangered. This may happen if the 
foundation of the chimney is not carefully laid ; if 
the chimney is not sufficiently large to admit of its 


being swept ; if it is not strong enough, nor plastered ; if 
it is not provided with at least one damper, or does not 
extend high enough above the shingle roof. 

"(<^) That no chimneys be 'burned out.' 

" (f) That in front of each fireplace a sufficiently broad 
and plastered hearth be laid, so that the flooring is not 
placed too near the fire. 

"(^) That tile stoves be not placed too near to joists 
or wooden partitions, and that provision be made against 
the possibility of coals falUng out of the stoves. 

"{e) That no dangerous practices be allowed, such as 
drying wood on the stove, or piling it up between the stove 
and the wall ; wood which is too long for the stove is a 
menace, because when it burns in two pieces, one may fall 
out of the stove door, which of course cannot be closed ; 
rags should not be hung upon the stove to dry, nor should 
any other combustible material be placed on the stove. 

" (/) That bake ovens should be carefully located, and 
the coals which come from the oven should be carefully 
provided for. 

"(.§') That no smoke chambers be constructed at chim- 
neys in dwelling houses, unless they are entirely fireproof. 

"{h) That lighted candles and coal pans be not allowed 
to stand where they will imperil property ; that no open 
light be taken into stables, lofts, or any place where hay, 
straw, tow, or other combustibles are kept, but that lanterns 
be used. Neither shall any one enter such places with 
lighted tobacco pipes. It is even doubtful if smoking in 
the yards and streets is wise. 

"(i) That spittoons be not filled with sawdust. 

" (2d.) The fire inspectors are to meet four times a year 
and shall carefully consider the following matters. They 
shall look after the Institutions, which in times of danger 


are to be carefully guarded. In their meetings they shall 
see if any one intrusted with special duties has been un- 
faithful, and how soon they can be replaced. They are to 
decide how often inspections are to be made. They are to 
examine the engines, the hooks, and the ladders, and see 
that the buckets are in place and in sufficient quantities. 
They are to provide the necessary supplies to the respon- 
sible parties, such as keys for the houses, buckets when 
needed, and they are to recommend localities where cisterns 
may be located, and report to the wardens' college, calling 
attention to the special needs. 

" 3d. How to act in case of fire, and what arrange- 
ments to make therefor : — 

"(^) Any one discovering fire, whether by day or by 
night, shall first notify the inmates of the house ; then they 
shall notify the men in the single brethren's house and 
then the fire overseers. Whenever the night watchman 
suspects the presence of fire he must immediately examine 
into the matter, and communicate with the watchman in 
the single brethren's house, in order that he may be ready 
to aid him. In case of actual fire, the alarm bell shall be 
rung, and the watchman shall go from house to house 
to alarm the citizens. 

"(<^) The fire overseers shall hasten to the fire, and 
shall have the entire control, no one having any right to 

"(c) The engine masters and their allotted helpers shall 
take the engines to the scene of the fire, twelve persons 
for the large, and four for the small engine. They shall 
remain with the engines till the danger is at an end, and 
shall not intrust them to the care of any one else. 

" (d) In Hke manner the four who attend to the 
ladders, the three with the hooks, and the three who 


have the axes, shall all be under the direction of the 
chief overseer." 

The paper from which the above rules have been taken 
gives a number of more exphcit directions, so that all the 
inhabitants in the village had a place assigned to them. 

The first of the two disastrous fires occurred in 1781. 
It was then that the hotel burned, and the lives of the 
inmates were in great peril. This loss, as well as the 
danger to life, no doubt had its influence in causing 
the authorities to take steps to purchase the fire engines. 
Two were ordered from Germany and were received in 1785. 
The one was a large engine on wheels, while the smaller 
one was carried by handles. It was to be used either inside 
the house, or outside, as occasion required. This smaller 
engine has been preserved, and is now in the rooms of the 
Wachovia Historical Society. These two engines were 
tested May 25, 1785, and it was found that both the large 
and the small one threw water over the highest buildings in 
the village, though the diary says " one objection is that 
the stream of water scatters too soon." 

The list of engines used in Salem are the following : — 

1785, the larger engine on wheels. 

1785, the smaller hand engine, now in the Wachovia 
Historical Society rooms. These two were housed in the 
building on the west side of the square. 

1832, the Vigilant, bought in Philadelphia, at a total 
cost of about six hundred dollars. Housed west of Tar 
Branch, on Academy Street. This engine is now in 

1855, the hose carriage, now in Bethania. 

1858, the Rough and Ready, or Fries engine, housed 
near the wool mill. Used until 1884. 


1884, a Button hand engine, housed north of Meinung's 
shop, Main Street. Later exchanged for a steamer. 

1886, a Button steamer, in use at the present time, and 
housed on the first floor of Commissioners' Hall, Liberty 

In 1843 a fire company was organized in lieu of a 
military company, and was named the " Salem Vigilant 
Fire Company." This did duty till 1861, a period of 
eighteen years. 

May 13, 1868, the "Rough and Ready Fire Company" 
was organized and chartered, and is still in control of the 
engine and hose. 

A new hose wagon was added in recent years, and a 
hose carriage which is controlled by the Eagle Hose 
Company, in West Salem. 

The number of fires in Salem have been very few : — 

The hotel burned in 1781. 

Siewers' shop in 1845. 

Foltz's kitchen, in 1853. 

Shaffner's dwelling house in 1864. 

The total number of fires and false alarms during the 
first hundred years in Salem were ten. 

The Winston Fire Department purchased their first 
steamer in 1882, a La France, which is in charge of Vol- 
unteer Company No. i. Some years later the large 
steamer was purchased and also a hook and ladder wagon. 
A second hook and ladder company is made up of coloured 
people. Eight horses are kept by the town, and the entire 
eighty men receive some compensation, though only six 
are paid full salaries. 

The two towns are supplied with the Gamewell fire 
alarm telegraph system, with twelve boxes in Winston, 
and five in Salem. 


The water supply and three steam fire engines, with the 
auxiliary companies, afford fine protection. Since this 
excellent system has been in existence, there have been 
few disastrous conflagrations. 

As great as was the contrast between the wood pipes 
of the early days, and the steam pumps with a two-mill- 
ion-gallon capacity, so great is the contrast between the 
little hand engine of 1785, shown in the illustration, and 
the powerful steamers as they pass swiftly over our 
streets, leaving behind a train of steam and smoke, on 
their errand of protection. 



The population of Winston-Salem at this date is uncer- 
tain, as is the case with any growing town at any fixed 
date. The census is not always reliable, since there are 
suburbs, with street car and telephone connections, and 
with people who find employment in the town, but who 
would not be included in the list of the census taker, as 
they live outside the corporate limits. A conservative 
estimate would probably place the number of inhabitants 
at fifteen thousand, while many claim that, with the sub- 
urbs added, and also with the many workmen who spend 
much of their time here, but register elsewhere, the sum 
will approximate twenty thousand. 

There are at the present time railroads from four points 
entering Winston-Salem, — from Charlotte, from Wilkes- 
boro, from Roanoke, and from Greensboro, that is, from 
the south, the west, the north, and the east. Three of 
these are under the control of the Southern Railway, and 
the Norfolk and Western Railroad has control of the other. 
The first railroad was built about thirty years ago, between 
Greensboro and Winston-Salem, Edward Belo, president. 
It was then known as the Northwestern North Carolina 

A number of years later the citizens of the Twin City 
decided that the interests of the town demanded certain 
railroad connections north to gain needed business preroga- 



tives. Colonel Fries was chosen president, and the capi- 
tal was supplied in part by home men, and the 120 miles 
of road were built. Later it was sold to the Norfolk and 
Western, and the name which it had borne previous to 
this time, the Roanoke and Southern, was exchanged for 
that of the new owner. Then the Wilkesboro road was 
constructed by the Southern Railway. A road to Moores- 
ville completed the connection with Charlotte. Winston- 
Salem has become a centre as a freight-distributing point. 

At this time an impetus was given to the tobacco inter- 
ests of Winston. There were certain advantages which 
commanded the attention of experts, and the town grew 
into one of the larger markets of the world for the sale 
and manufacture of tobacco. The extent to which this 
interest has grown will be shown by the fact that last year 
the sales of leaf tobacco in the warehouses approximated 
twenty million pounds, with a value of $2,000,000. The 
factories shipped about the same quantity of manufac- 
tured tobacco, which was sold for $8,000,000. The num- 
ber of persons employed in this business is five thousand. 
The tax paid to the United States government through 
the Winston office, largely on tobacco, is almost $3,000,000 
a year. 

The earliest mention of an attempt to engage in manu- 
facturing on a large scale in Salem was in 1837. This 
was a cotton factory organized and operated by a company. 
It was conducted on a scale of some magnitude, but did 
not pay, and was finally sold. 

In 1840 the Fries wool mill was begun. To this was 
later added a cotton factory, and at a still later date the 
large Arista cotton mill. In more recent years the South 
Side cotton mill began work, with H. E. Fries, president. 
The large mills at Mayodan, and Avalon, and at Fries, 


Virginia, are all under the direction of Colonel F. H. Fries 
as president. 

The wood and iron works of Fogle Brothers, Vance and 
Hege, in Salem, and the South Side chair and iron bed- 
stead factories, under the direction of Charles S. Siewers, 
and the Spach and Nissen wagon works, add to the impor- 
tance which Salem is assuming as a manufacturing centre. 

In Winston, in addition to the tobacco business, are the 
chemical works, the knitting mills, the furniture factories, 
and others that might be mentioned. 

One of the interesting and marked improvements of 
recent years was the erection of the Fries power plant at 
the Yadkin River, by means of which electricity is gener- 
ated and sent over the wires thirteen miles, to furnish the 
motive power for nearly all the factories, to run the street 
cars, and to hght the streets and houses. 

The street car line has nine miles of track, with good 
service, both for the pleasure and the use of the people of 
the city. 

There are two telephone companies in Winston-Salem, 
with long distance connection, and with about seven hun- 
dred phones in use in the two communities. 

Both the Western Union and the Postal Telegraph 
Companies have offices in the Twin City. 

There are perhaps a score of churches in Winston-Sa- 
lem, representing almost all the denominations, and some 
of these congregations have handsome places of worship. 
The schools have also kept pace with the times, and as we 
have shown elsewhere, there are at this time thirty-seven 
hundred children under instruction in Winston-Salem. 

A brief chapter can only imperfectly outline the material 
growth. Perhaps the best way to impress the contrast 
between the past and the present is to state the pur- 


chase price then and the present value. Wachovia, which 
was about half the size of Forsyth County, was purchased 
for a little more than ^3 2,000, interest, quit rents, and 
principal. The tax valuation of Forsyth County is nearly 
^10,000,000. Winston site, original size, was purchased of 
the Moravian Church for 1^255. The present tax list valua- 
tion is nearly 1^5,000,000. 


l8l 7-1902 

In 18 17, we are told by the writer of the memorabilia 
that a Sunday-school was organized for the young people 
of the neighbourhood, which was in charge of some of the 
ladies from the Sisters' House. The character of the work 
was to give intellectual training, in reading and writing, but 
of course the religious training had its important place in 
the hour. This is not the beginning of the Sunday-school 
work in the Province, since in the same paragraph which 
mentions the beginning of the work in Salem, it is said 
that the already existing Sunday-school work some four 
miles from Salem is regularly conducted by the teachers of 
Salem Female Academy. 

Several notices of the Sunday-school work are given 
during the following years, indicating that it had become 
one of the accepted means of grace in the Province. 

A decade later, that is, in 1828, we find a notice of the 
influence of the American Sunday-school Union. We are 
told of Sunday-schools all through Stokes County, and the 
names of some around Salem are given, for example. 
Brushy Fork, Pleasant Fork, and Liberty or Calahan. 
The following year, 1829, a great celebration in the Salem 
church and the Salem square is described. Six hundred 
children were present, besides the strangers and the mem- 
bers of the Salem congregation. The Salem church was 
not large enough to hold the company, so the service was 



conducted in the Salem square. Shober was the president 
of this interesting work, and made an earnest address. 
Reichel preached the sermon, and love-feast was served in 
the afternoon. The weather was fine, and the day was a 
blessed one. On this occasion the Salem Sunday-school 
(probably the mission school) joined the American Sunday- 
school Union. At a later celebration there were present 
twelve hundred children, and a total attendance of parents 
and children of two thousand. 

A few years later the work of this Union declined, and 
the individual churches assumed the responsibilities. 

The first mention of organized effort at what is termed 
Sunday-school work in the Salem congregation is found in 
the diary and memorabilia of 1828 : — 

" Sunday, November 23, Sister Fredericka Boehler 
organized a school among the older girls, as she felt her- 
self called upon to do some special work for those com- 
mitted to her care. She decided to hold the sessions of 
the school each Sunday afternoon from two to four o'clock, 
and her object was to assist them to retain and remember 
the instructions of the week. Her plans were endorsed 
by her parents, and sanctioned by the Provincial Elders' 
Conference. Brother Schaff was present on this first 
occasion, and formally began the work, by a service of 
song and prayer, especially commending this labour of love 
to the blessing of the Lord." 

This Sunday-school seems to have been continued with- 
out interruption during the following years, until all the 
several lines of work were gathered together and moved 
into the church in 1849. We find that at the beginning 
this school gave attention to reading and writing, though 
we have no reason to suppose that the religious instruction 


was in any respect overlooked. There are notices of the 
addition of a Hbrary, of the distribution of Sunday-school 
papers, of anniversary days when the mission box was 
opened, and donations made to the Cherokee schools ; thus 
the Sunday-school among the girls appears to have been 
successful and continuous from 1828. 

The work among the boys was less regular, though the 
effort was never finally abandoned, either among the young 
men or the boys. In 1828 the remark is made that, as the 
Sunday-school work was so successful among the girls, it 
was the desire of the congregation to have similar advan- 
tages for the boys, and that during the year this wish was 
realized. Mention is frequently made of the Sunday- 
school work among the boys, and the Sunday Bible classes 
among the young men, but the remarks from time to time 
bearing upon the " reorganization " of the work seem to 
indicate that the success was not as great as in the case of 
the girls. From this, however, it must not be inferred that 
the spiritual work among the boys and young men was 
neglected. On the contrary, there was regular instruction 
in the day school, there were special week-night hours for 
reading, and lectures on church history for them, and the 
missionary and other societies flourished. 

Twenty-one years later, almost to the day (November 
25, 1849), the children were all gathered in the chapel of 
the church, and the work was thoroughly organized, and 
thenceforward the sessions were held in the church. The 
diary for that date says : — 

" Bishop Bahnson began, in the chapel, a Sunday-school, 
especially for our own young people, whom we hope to 
incite to a better observance of the Lord's day. There 
were present thirty-six boys and twenty-one girls, which 
was a happy beginning." 


The Sunday-school was later transferred from the chapel 
to the church. Under the superintendency of James T. 
Lineback it grew in numbers and efficiency. As the 
number of Moravian schools in Salem increased, it was 
necessary to give this one a special name, so that in later 
years it has been called the " Salem Home Sunday-school." 
It is now and has been for many years in charge of Colonel 
F. H. Fries. In addition to the members of the age 
included in the list named in 1849, there have been added 
other departments, — the infant class department, the 
men's Bible class, the woman's Bible class, and the home 
department, — and the entire school now numbers 364. 

The Sunday-school work among the Moravian churches 
in Winston-Salem has continued to increase as the towns 
have grown, and the following schools are within the 
Twin City limits or its immediate suburbs : Home Sunday- 
school, Elm Street, East Salem, South Side, Calvary, 
Christ church, Fairview, Academy, Cotton Mill ; and if to 
these we add the number on the roll of the coloured Sun- 
day-school, we have a list of almost two thousand in 
attendance at the beginning of the year 1902, 

During the earlier years of the Sunday-school activity 
in Salem and in Stokes County, we find that great zeal 
was displayed in the cause by Friedberg and Friedland in 
the neighbouring country. In the former congregation, 
Henry Shultz was particularly active, and the work at Cool 
Spring met with marked results. One of the first small 
buildings used for Sunday-school by Shultz was on the 
identical lot later purchased for Advent congregation, and 
on which this church now stands. At Friedland, Pfohl 
and Vogler laboured with success, aided by other members 
from Salem. 

After 1850 the influence of the county Sunday-school 


organization departed, and the schools became thoroughly i 
identified with the individual congregations, and came 
under their control. Previous to this time they were sup- 
ported by the members from Salem, Friedberg, Friedland, 
and other congregations, but they owed allegiance to the 
Stokes County Sunday-school Union, and this in turn to 
the American Sunday-school Union. This uncertain and 
indefinite relation was changed to a certain and definite 
and organic connection with the several congregations of 

During the last quarter of a century the Sunday-school 
work has assumed still another phase. Under the general 
direction of the veteran Sunday-school worker, James T. 
Lineback, it again became the plan of the church to or- 
ganize new Sunday-schools, but this time as direct feeders 
to the church. The Sunday-school was begun with the 
intention of soon establishing a congregation. This was 
the case at Oak Grove, Providence, Fulp, Wachovia 
Arbour, Bluff, and other places that could be mentioned. 

Every one recognizes the encouraging growth of the 
church in this period, and it is quite plain that the Spirit 
of God has used the Sunday-school as one of the chief 
means to bring about this happy result. The present 
aggressive period in our history could appropriately be 
called the Sunday-school period. 



The beginning of the twentieth century shows to even 
a casual observer that the church in Wachovia has wit- 
nessed a growth and expansion, and in this chapter we 
will study a few features as we see them in the several 

The old mother congregation at Bethabara still claims 
the sympathetic interest of the Province and of visiting 
strangers. The church building has been renovated in 
recent years, and is picturesquely situated, as the view 
given in this book will show. The graveyard, on its 
beautiful hilltop, is faithfully cared for by the congrega- 
tion, and it can be truly said that " Old Town " is a favour- 
ite spot. A number of celebrations have taken place, at 
which the members from all the congregations have been 
present, notably that of 1853, the centennial of the found- 
ing of the Province. C. D. Crouch has the pastoral charge, 
and the work is doing well, though the membership, by 
force of circumstances, is small. 

Bethania continues its good work, and will soon think 
of celebrating its sesquicentennial. The town has not 
lost in size and numbers, though business has been di- 
verted to the line of the railroad, some two miles away. 
The church has been very active in recent years, and has 
surrounded itself with a circle of affiliated chapels, Alpha, 
Mizpah, and Olivet. All these have done much to keep 



alive the spiritual work, and the Bethania pastor, F. W. 
Grabs, has five hundred names on the church register. 

Of Salem much has already been said. The Old Home 
church followed the plan of locating the chapels where 
the people live, hence we find in addition to the Elm 
Street chapel, and the church for coloured people, the 
East Salem church, about a mile eastward, and the South 
Side church, a mile or more south, and near this the Cot- 
ton Mill school. To these have been added Calvary- 
church in Winston, and Christ church in Salem, westward 
half a mile. Edward Crosland lives in the comfortable 
parsonage which adjoins Calvary, and Howard E. Rond- 
thaler occupies the equally attractive parsonage at Christ 
church. Fairview, a comfortable brick church three miles 
north, has recently been built. Bishop Rondthaler, with 
his assistants, Howard Rondthaler and Edward Crosland, 
minister to a membership of about eighteen hundred. The 
coloured church is under the care of W. E. Spaugh, and 
the South Side work of C. D. Crouch. Eden and Wach- 
ovia Arbour, two smaller congregations, each about three 
miles from Salem, are usually served from the latter 

Friedberg has followed the plan adopted by the others, 
and her membership has actively taken hold of the work 
in the neighbourhood, and on one side has erected a chapel 
to which has been given the name Enterprise, and on the 
other side has built a place of worship which they have 
called Advent. This congregation, with its six hundred 
and more members, has J. F. McCuiston as its pastor. 
The church and newly finished parsonage stand in a 
beautiful grove in the country. It is a conservative con- 
gregation, earnest and devoted, and clings closely to the 
traditions of the Unity. 

Edward Rondthaler 


Friedland still occupies its quiet location, with church im- 
proved, and graveyard recently neatly fenced. Union Cross 
is affiliated with it, and the membership is about 250. 
The work is in charge of C. D. Crouch. 

In this same general section is Kernersville, with its 
neatly decorated brick church, and with the graveyard 
recently improved. Kernersville congregation is in a 
town of some twelve or fifteen hundred inhabitants, and 
the members have established a flourishing branch church 
a mile or two away — Carmel by name. E. S. Crosland 
is in ^charge, and the lists show 134 members. 

Not far from Oak Ridge, in Guilford County, is a newly 
organized church, Moravia, which is served by Howard 
E. Rondthaler. 

New Philadelphia has one affiliated church, Bethesda, 
and its membership is 333, wich F. W. Grabs in charge. 
This congregation recently celebrated the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the consecration of the church, which occasion 
was largely attended, and was greatly blessed. 

Mt. Bethel in Virginia has received new life and energy, 
within the last few years, and though it is considered a 
home mission field, it is an active congregation, and on 
the side of the Blue Ridge has established another con- 
gregation, Willo\y Hill, C. D. Crouch, pastor. 

Along the hne of the Norfolk and Western Railway 
have been established a series of congregations ; the 
nearest are Oak Grove and Providence, some eight miles 
from Salem. Then we find Fulp, about fifteen miles, 
and Mayodan and Avalon, thirty-five miles. The last 
two are in the villages which have grown up around the 
cotton mills, and the resident pastor is W. E. Spaugh. 

Hope and Macedonia are near to the new Clemmons- 
ville work, and are under the care of James E. Hall. 


Hope has erected a new and attractive place of worship, 
and registers its membership with Clemmonsville. Mace- 
donia is the only church beyond the Yadkin River, and 
has a list of 274. 

The Clemmonsville work is one of the more recent 
enterprises of the church and calls for special mention. 
The following sketch has been prepared by the pastor, 
James E. Hall. 

Edwin Thomas Clemmons died December 20, 1896, 
seventy years of age. He was born in Clemmonsville, 
eleven miles southwest from Salem. By his will a gen- 
erous sum of money was left for the founding of a 
Moravian church and school at his native place. The 
actual beginning of the work was in 1899. The first 
service was held in the second story of Strupe and 
Son's store building, in the village of Clemmonsville, 
October 27, 1899. I^ November James E. Hall was 
called to take charge of the work, and regular services 
were continued as they had been in the past, before the 
official call had been given. 

In the spring of 1900 land for the new enterprise was 
purchased, and the location for the buildings was decided 
upon. It was the Kinney-Bradshaw plot. On the 29th 
of March the centre of the plot of ground was marked, 
and an iron rod was driven deep in the ground. In the 
latter part of the year 1900 the neat and attractive par- 
sonage was erected. August 13, 1900, the congregation 
was formally organized. The sermon was preached by 
Bishop Rondthaler, and in the two services which were 
held, the pastor, James E. Hall, was assisted by McCuiston, 
Pfohl, and Sheets. Before the second service, those who 
were to form the group of charter members assembled 
in the Strupe home, the same building in which Clem- 


mons had lived years ago, and after a brief religious 
service, the procession proceeded to the Methodist church, 
and after the reception of forty-four members, by the 
right hand of fellowship, the Holy Communion was cele- 

During the summer of 1900 preliminary steps were 
taken to begin the school work also. J. Kenneth Pfohl 
was called to this work, and he spent a number of weeks 
in visiting the homes of the people and attending to other 
necessary preparations. He was joined by the pastor of 
the church in these efforts. The school was opened 
October 9, 1900, in what is known as the Douthit store 
building, the property of H. W. Fries. The house had 
been carefully prepared for school use during the year, 
and with its fresh coat of paint, and with the new furni- 
ture, was very inviting and attractive. The principal 
was assisted by Misses Bessent and Whittington. The 
scholars, seventy or more in number, assembled at the 
school building in the morning, and went to the Meth- 
odist church in a procession. Here the formal exercises 
took place. These were participated in by Bishop Rond- 
thaler, and the ministers. Hall, Clewell, and Wood. The 
opening was very encouraging, both in numbers and 

The parsonage at Clemmonsville was so far completed 
that it could be occupied February 22, 1901. In April 
the first love-feast was celebrated, with an attendance of 
one hundred. May 15, 1901, the first brick for the new 
school building was laid, by James E. Hall, and on the 
next day the corner-stone was laid by Bishop Rondthaler, 
in the presence of a large congregation, with appropriate 
ceremonies. Among the visitors was Mrs. Clemmons, 
widow of E. T. Clemmons, and also G. F. Bahnson, pastor 


of the congregation of Schoeneck, Pennsylvania. The 
Salem church band was present on this occasion. 

The school took possession of the new building Octo- 
ber 8, 1 90 1, with appropriate exercises. It is a large, 
modern building, with a capacity of 200 or more scholars, 
and with an assembly room seating 250. 

A church building, similar in size to the schoolhouse, 
will be erected in the future, but for the present the 
auditorium of the school will be used for preaching and 
Sunday-school purposes. The first sermon was preached 
October 13, 1901, and the Sunday-school was organized 
a week later. 

The graveyard is on Clemmons Hill, a short distance 
from the church, and roads have been laid out and the 
entire plot of ground around the church prepared so as 
to gain the best results in the future. 

The founding of the church and school at Clemmons- 
ville is an important event in the history of Wachovia. 
The plans, as they have been made, contemplate the 
organization of a " Place Congregation " {Orts Gemein). 
All the work thus far points to this : the selection of a 
plot of ground to be sold to members at a low rate ; the 
establishment of a good school and a substantial church 
building ; the erection of adjoining homes for those who 
will have the work in charge. 

The conduct of affairs has been in charge of the follow- 
ing officials : Bishop Rondthaler, James E. Hall, J. W. Fries, 
C. T. Pfohl, W. T. Vogler, E. F. Strickland, and J. K. Pfohl. 
Their zeal is equal to that of the Moravians in the early 
days of Wachovia. They have done their work well. 
The money left by Clemmons has been used as he wished 
it to be. The sum left is generous, but it requires careful 
management to carry out his will. Every dollar in the 


hands of this committee seems to have gained three times 
the result it would have gained in the hands of many 
another committee. The site is ideal ; the buildings 
erected thus far are both attractive and satisfactory ; 
the church enrolment already shows 140 names; the 
young but excellent school has long since passed the 
one hundred mark ; and the entire work forms one of 
the most encouraging features of this period, which is 
altogether so bright and promising. 



In 1900 the Salem church building attained an age of 
one hundred years. It was decided to celebrate this 
event in a fitting manner, and during the weeks preceding 
the dates, committees were busy making preparations. 

Friday morning, November 9, between eight and nine 
o'clock, the congregation gathered in the church. As the 
clock struck nine the assembly was notified that the old 
century had closed and a new century had begun, and 
voices and instruments blended in a happy thanksgiving 
hymn. The special feature was a strict adherence to the 
programme of the dedicatory exercises of a hundred years 
ago. The same form of service was followed, the same 
Scripture passages were read, the same hymns were 
sung, the same tunes used. The record of the consecra- 
tion service of 1800 was communicated to the audience. 
The weather was cold, the time early, yet the church 
was filled and the hour was very impressive. 

Friday night was given to the reading of papers on the 
subject of " Woman's Work during the Century," and these 
papers have been published in the Wachovia Moravian 
and the Academy. 

Saturday, November 10, the service in the evening was 
given to the young people's work in the congregation. 
It was found that there are more than a score of active 
societies. The " one minute reports " were listened to 



with marked attention as they set forth the various lines 
of work. 

Centennial Sunday presented a full programme. The 
weather was not promising in the morning, but the sun 
made all things bright before the day was done. The 
pastor, Bishop Rondthaler, preached the centennial ser- 
mon, the text being, " O Lord, thou hast been our dwell- 
ing-place in all generations." The sermon has been 
printed in full in the Wachovia Moravian. 

The love-feast brought together a large congregation. 
The auditorium was filled, the galleries, the rooms front 
and back ; all together more than a thousand people were 

In this meeting were read greetings from the various 
boards in this and other lands ; also a paper giving an 
account of the love-feast and Communion of one hundred 
years ago. 

The Holy Communion followed the love-feast, and the 
pastor, Bishop Rondthaler, was assisted by the ministers. 
Hall, Clewell, Thaeler, and H. Rondthaler. There were 
present many communicant members of other churches. 

In the evening the closing service partook of the 
nature of a Sunday-school rally. The attendance sur- 
passed that of all the other meetings. More than twelve 
hundred people were within the walls of the church. 
The names of the various Sunday-schools of the Province 
were called, and the members of the schools responded 
by rising in the audience. It was found that all the 
Sunday-schools were represented. 

The plans for the celebration had in view more per- 
manent blessings than those which were connected with 
the exercises of the three days. It was proposed to 
establish memorials to signahze the happy event. Hence 


committees were appointed to devise preliminary measures 
for improving the surroundings of the graveyard, for 
adding wider facihties to the Salem Boys' School, and for 
providing permanent endowment for Salem Academy and 
College. These plans were discussed and enlarged dur- 
ing the following weeks, and iinally resulted in the 
selection of a committee of eight members, representing 
a Centennial Society, the latter made up of all those who 
contributed any sum to any of the funds. 

The committee has done a very important work during 
the nearly two years since the centennial celebration. A 
stone wall has been built of huge granite blocks, on the 
west and north sides of the graveyard and avenue, at a cost 
(when completed) of ^3000. A thousand dollars has been 
secured to strengthen and improve the Salem Boys' 
School. An equal sum has been raised for the Acad- 
emy, and with it improvements have been added, the 
committee working with the school authorities to assist 
particularly in those things which were needed, but which 
would probably not have been undertaken by the trustees 
without this special outside interest. Of as much, or even 
more, importance is the influence the committee has had 
in enlisting the special support of the community in the 
work of the Academy. 

Before leaving the subject of the celebration of the 
centennial of the Salem church we will allude to the deco- 
rations. The Wachovia Moravian of December, 1900, 
gives the following description of the tasty and elaborate 
work done inside and outside the venerable building : — 

" Clustered about the pulpit and lower platform were 
eight tall and graceful Gothic arches, rising well toward 
the ceiling, and covered with cedar and laurel. Cedar 


festoons draped the gallery front and pillars, while from 
the central chandelier broad folds of the Moravian colours 
(red and white) were swung to various portions of the 
church. Studding the arches, like diamond points, were 
lines of tiny electric lights, half hidden in the foliage. 
Suspended in the arches, in letters of red and white, were 
festal texts of special appropriateness to the occasion. 

" For the first time the exterior of the church was elec- 
trically decorated; lines of coloured lights depending from 
the belfry made brilliant the scene, and the old belfry 
itself shone out with the two sets of figures, indicating the 
beginning of the first and of the second century. The 
electrical decorations were a beautiful feature of the cele- 

The second centennial to which allusion is made by 
the heading of the chapter is still a future event. It is 
that of the Salem Female Academy, or, as it is some- 
times called since the introduction of the collegiate de- 
partment, Salem Academy and College. October 31 of 
this year, 1902, the full century since the calling of the 
first principal will be rounded out. The friends in Win- 
ston-Salem and the pupils all over the country have 
decided to signalize the event in a proper manner, by a 
week of festivities, and in other ways. This event will 
be celebrated about a month after the publication of this 
" History of Wachovia," hence what is said will be based 
upon the plans which are under discussion, and will not 
be a history of the event itself. 

Preliminary work leading up to this celebration has 
been done during the past 'years. It appears directly or 
indirectly, in many ways. The work of the Alumnae 
Association has always had this in view. So too the gifts 


of the class memorials showed the same spirit of perma- 
nent interest in the school home. These memorials have 
been erected or are being prepared, and we note the 
Vance window, the organ, the granite entrance to the 
park, the iron grillwork entrance north of Main Hall, 
the proposed electric chandelier, the bust of Comenius, the 
chairs, the painting, the Emma Moore memorial. 

The plans of the committees as they have been de- 
veloped in March, 1902, for the celebration are as fol- 
lows : — 

The evenings of May 22 to 24 will treat of historical 
subjects, school and general. Essays will be read by the 
graduating class, bearing upon these topics, and addresses 
will be made by distinguished men. The music is being 
prepared with the greatest care, and a number of the suc- 
cessful musicians, pupils and teachers, of former days 
will unite with the present musical portion of the school, 
and to this will be added the local talent. All together the 
music promises to be a special feature of the centennial 

Sunday will be the day for the centennial sermon. 

Monday will be Senior Class day, with the grand concert 
in the evening. 

Tuesday will be a day for receptions, class reunions, art 
exhibits, and at night a series of historical tableaux in 
front of Main Hall. 

Wednesday will be given over to the alumnae. It is 
proposed to give a banquet, and at night to have a special 
programme to commemorate the great work done by the 
school in sheltering and protecting so many young people 
during the Civil War. 

Thursday morning. May 29, the diplomas will be pre- 
sented to the graduates, and the comer-stone of the Cen- 


tennial Memorial building will be laid, and there will be 
addresses by a number of the distinguished visitors. 

The lot selected for the Alumnae Centennial Memorial 
building is the one in front of the Salem church, now 
occupied by the principal's house. If the present general 
plans are carried out, the building will provide for the 
accommodation of two thousand people. 

Whether the plans develop as expected, or whether 
modifications will be introduced, will be known soon after 
the publication of this book ; in fact the publication has 
been hastened in order that it could be used in connection 
with this occasion, so that, in one sense, " History of Wacho- 
via in North Carolina " may be considered as associated 
with the centennial celebration of Salem Female Academy. 




As we conclude our historical review of a century and a 
half we naturally ask, " What is the condition of the Mora- 
vian Church after the lapse of these many years ; what 
relation does it bear to the world about it ; what is its 
special call at this time ; and what are its prospects for the 
future ? " 

We beheve the best reply to this question will be to 
institute a comparison between the two periods, then and 
now, and when this has been done the deductions will not 
be difficult. 

The honest comparison shows well for the church of 

The church is true to the cause of the Master in all the 
details of life. 

The spirit of its members is the spirit which shines in 
the life of the Prince of Peace. 

As faithful stewards of the talents intrusted to them the 
members believe that to the talents given, other talents 
should be added : they beheve this is true in the profes- 
sional life, in the business Hf e, in the humblest calling ; 
and by following this pathway the scope of the responsi- 
bilities are being widened and increased in our day. 

" Feed my lambs " was the command of the Master to 
his disciples, and the church in Wachovia to-day finds that 



it has more young people under its care than was the case 
a generation ago. 

" Preach the Gospel " is another great command, and 
this is being done with zeal and success and to the salva- 
tion of many souls. 

The past is sometimes emphasized at the expense of the 
present. This is an error. The true student will find 
that the day of enlarged work for the Master is now dawn- 
ing for the Moravian Church of Wachovia. Its pure 
doctrine, its beautiful customs, its inspiring history, its suc- 
cesses in the past and in the present, its consecrated minis- 
try, its devoted membership ; all these things point forward 
to a bright and successful future which will not only bring 
bright jewels of success to the church here on earth, but 
will gain for it the smile of approval of the King of 
kinoes and the Lord of lords. 








The Church of the Unitas Fratrum, or the Moravian 
Church, as i'c is usually called, separated itself at a very- 
early date from the Romish Communion. It was in the 
ten years between 1457 and 1467 that this separation was 
consummated. The reasons for the establishment of the 
Unitas Fratrum so long before the Lutheran, Reformed, 
and Anglican churches came into being, were not, in the 
main, doctrinal ones. Our fathers were, by no means, so 
widely separated at first from the Romish creed as was 
afterward the case with them and the other Protestant 
churches. The question of pure, earnest, and united 
Christian living was what pressed heavily on the con- 
sciences of these Moravians. We see this very distinctly 
in the first document of the Moravian Church, still extant, 
"The Statutes agreed upon by the Brethren in the Moun- 
tains of Reichenau, 1464." In this venerable paper the 
stress is laid on Scriptural obedience, kindness toward 
one another, mutual encouragement, good Christian ex- 
ample, charity toward the orphan, the widow, and the 
destitute, correctness of conduct between masters and ser- 
vants, and honesty in business dealings. 

But it turned out as the Saviour said (John 7:17), 
" If any man will do his will he shall know of the doc- 
trine." Each of the published Confessions of the young 



Unitas Fratrum became clearer, more Scriptural, and 
more evangelical. At the same time their freedom from 
any original doctrinal bias enabled them more readily to 
appropriate light from whatever quarter it might reach 
them. Because they were always seeking for a better 
Christian life and only using doctrine as a help toward 
this, their main end, they were not ashamed to acknowl- 
edge the greater clearness which had come to them on 
the subject of justification, through the teachings of Mar- 
tin Luther, and their equal indebtedness to the Reformers 
at Strasburg and Geneva, with whom they stood in the 
most intimate and fraternal relations. 

When after the wonderful and gracious renewal of the 
Moravian Church, in the early part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, the brethren were brought into Providential connection 
with Zinzendorf and his friends, the same spirit mani- 
fested itself among them as had been shown by their 
spiritual fathers in old Moravia and Bohemia. Christian 
life was their first consideration, and its doctrinal expres- 
sion took the second place. In the former respect, they 
did not allow Zinzendorf to divert them from their stand- 
point, and make Lutherans out of them. On the contrary 
they stoutly declared, even to him, their self-denying 
patron, that they already were exiles on account of their 
faith, and would wander still farther on into the wide 
world, if he could not reconcile himself to the Moravian 
Church and its apostolic practices. But when Zinzen- 
dorf yielded generously to their Moravian principles of 
Christian life they very heartily allowed themselves to 
be influenced by his doctrinal views. Sometimes, indeed, 
as a poet-theologian, he led them into vagaries for which 
both they and he were afterward sorry. But these di- 
vergencies were unessential and temporary. The main 


drift of his teaching was sound and salutary. It is con- 
tained in his famous dictum, " I have but one passion 
and that is Christ." It is set forth in his stanza which is 
sung both in our baptismal and in our burial service : — 

" The Saviour's blood and righteousness, 
My beauty is, my glorious dress, 
Thus well arrayed I need not fear 
When in his presence I appear." 

The love of a sin-forgiving Saviour, through Zinzendorf 's 
influence, became the centre of Moravian practice and the 
light in which its doctrines and regulations were under- 
stood and interpreted. From this point of view they could 
cordially accept the Augsburg Confession, and, with equal 
cordiality, the confessions of the Reformed churches. The 
main thing with these Moravians was to cling to Christ 
and to enjoy the power of his atonement, and both these 
truths they found in what they called the Lutheran trope 
(or manner) and the Reformed trope, to either of which 
a Moravian may attach himself to this day. 

The Zinzendorfian view of the Saviour's love has per- 
vaded the school training for which the church is famous 
both in the Old and the New World. It centres around 
the question, "My child, do you love the Saviour.'"' and 
from this point of view are settled the various problems 
that arise in school ethics. 

With the same message the Moravians have gone con- 
fidently to the most degraded heathen. Beside the Indian 
who a few minutes before had tried to drive his axe into 
Zeisberger's brain, the missionary sat calmly down and 
told him, " God loves you and has died to save you from 
your sins," and then and there won him for the Lord Jesus 


The Moravians, therefore, were and still remain pro- 
foundly grateful to Count Zinzendorf for his spiritual 
guidance. It transfused their old and somewhat sombre 
Christian ethics with the genial light of a Saviour's love, so 
that the merest child or the most ungifted heathen could 
simply and happily respond to the teaching and blend his 
doctrine and his ethics in the one statement of our Lord, 
" If ye love me, keep my commandments." 

With this central position firmly established, and made 
paramount, Moravians could gradually, if not at once, 
shake off any minor eccentricities into which Zinzendorf 
or others might have persuaded them. This was done 
most effectually in the treatise published by Zinzendorf's 
spiritual successor, the learned, devout, and intensely 
practical Bishop Spangenberg, the chief founder of the 
Moravian Church in America, and especially of its 
Wachovian district in North CaroHna. His work was 
issued in 1778, and is called "Idea Fidei Fratrum" (Ab- 
stract of the Faith of the Brethren), and which, without 
special enactment of the church, is still regarded by 
Moravians as the best exposition of their doctrine. 

The Moravian Church, throughout the world, is gov- 
erned, in the last instance, by the General Synod, which 
convenes once in ten years. One of the chief duties of 
this representative body is to watch over the doctrine of 
the church. The last utterance which the General Synod 
made upon the doctrine was in 1879. This statement has 
been unanimously reasserted by the General Synods of 
1889 and 1899. It is contained in Sections 5, 6, 7, 8, and 
9 of Chapter 2, " Synodal Results." 

We make the following quotations : — 

" The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments 


are and shall remain our only rule of faith and practice. 
We venerate them as God's Word, which he spake to all 
mankind of old time in the prophets, and at last in his 
Son and by his Apostles, to instruct us unto salvation, 
through faith in Christ Jesus. We are convinced that all 
truths that declare the will of God for our salvation are 
fully contained therein." 

"The Standard of Doctrine," Chapter 2, Section 5, 
"Synodal Results of 1899": — 

" We esteem every truth revealed by God as a precious 
treasure, and sincerely believe that such a treasure dare 
not be let go, even though we thereby save our body or 
our life (Luke 9 : 24). But most especially do we affirm 
this of that doctrine which the Renewed Church has from 
the beginning regarded as her chief doctrine, and over 
which she has hitherto, by God's grace, kept guard as a 
priceless jewel, 'That Jesus Christ is the propitiation for 
our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the whole 
world' (i John 2 : 2). For 'Him who knew no sin God 
made to be sin on our behalf ; that we might become the 
righteousness of God in Him' (2 Cor. 5 :2i), or, as we 
sing in one of our hymns : — 

" * Whosoever believeth in Christ's redemption. 
Will find free grace and a complete exemption 
From serving sin.' " 

With this our leading doctrine, the following facts and 
truths, clearly attested by Holy Scripture, are linked in 
essential connection, and therefore constitute, with that 
leading doctrine, the main features in our view and proc- 
lamation of the way of salvation : — 

{a) The doctrine of the total depravity of human nature, 


that since the fall, there is no health in man, and that he 
has no strength to save himself (John 3:6; Rom. 3:23; 
7:18; I : 18-32 ; 3 : 9-18 ; Eph. 2 : 8-13). 

{b) The doctrine of the love of God the Father, who 
" has chosen us in Christ before the foundation of the 
world," " so loved the world that he gave his only begot- 
ten Son, that whosoever believeth on Him, should not per- 
ish but have everlasting life" (John 3 : 16; Eph. i : 3, 4; 
I John 4:9; Eph. 2 : 4). 

{c) The doctrine of the real Godhead and the real hu- 
manity of Jesus Christ, that the only begotten Son of God, 
by whom all things in heaven and earth were created, for- 
sook the glory which He had with His Father, before the 
world was, and took on Him our flesh and blood, that He 
might be made like unto His brethren in all things, yet 
without sin (John i : 1-3, 14; John 17:5; i John 5 : 20; 
Col. I : 17-19; Phil. 2:6, 7; Heb. 2 : 14, 17; 4:15). 

{d^ The doctrine of our Reconciliation unto God and 
our Justification before Him through the sacrifice of Jesus 
Christ, that " Christ was delivered for our offences, and 
was raised for justification," and that by faith in Him 
alone, we obtain through His blood forgiveness of sin, 
peace with God, and freedom from the bondage of sin 
(Rom. 3 : 24, 25 ; 5:1; i Cor. i : 30 ; Heb. 2:17; 9:12; 
I Peter i : 18, 19; i John i 19; 2 Cor. 5 : 18, 19). 

{e) The doctrine of the Holy Ghost and the operations 
of His Grace, that without Him we are unable to know 
the truth ; that it is He that leads us to Christ by working 
in us the knowledge of sin and faith in Jesus, and " who 
beareth witness with our spirit that we are the children of 
God " (John 16 : 8-1 1, 13, 14 ; i Cor. 12:3; Rom. 8 : 16). 

(/) The doctrine of Good Works as the fruit of the 
Spirit, inasmuch as faith manifests itself as a living and 


active principle, by a willing obedience to the command- 
ments of God, prompted by love and gratitude to Him 
who died for us (John 14:15; Rom. 6:11-14; i Cor. 
6:20; Gal. 5:6, 22-24; I John 5:3-5; Eph. 2:8-10; 
James 2:17). 

(g) The doctrine of the fellowship of believers one with 
another in Christ Jesus, that they are all one in Him who 
is the Head of the body, and all members one of another 
(John 17:21; Matt. 23 : 8 ; Eph. 4 : 4). 

{h) The doctrine of the Second Coming of the Lord in 
glory, and of the Resurrection of the Dead unto life, or 
unto condemnation (Acts i:ii; John 6:40; 11:25, 
26; 3:36; 5:25-29; 2 Thes. 4:14-17). 

These truths and our adherence to them we do not hold 
as a rigidly formulated confession, but as our conception 
of the main contents of Christian doctrine, as it has found 
expression especially in that body of truth which our 
church has professed to hold for more than one hundred 
years, when annually praying the Easter Morning Litany 
(" The Chief Substance of our Doctrine," Chapter 2, 
Section 7, "Synodal Results of 1899"). 



The Moravian Church — Unitas Fratrum — is an an- 
cient Episcopal church, antedating the German Refor- 
mation by more than half a century. During the years 
from 1402 to 141 5, the kingdom of Bohemia was stirred 
from end to end by the earnest and eloquent preaching of 
John Hus, a native of the village of Husinec, Professor in 
the University of Prague, and pastor of the Bethlehem 
Chapel of that city. When he had sealed his faith with a 
martyr's death, the nationahsts of Bohemia could be held 
in check no longer, and took up arms in a violent protest 
against the tyranny of Rome. But the revolutionists were 
not at one among themselves, the Taborites demanding a 
thorough reformation of the church and clergy, while the 
Calixtines sought little more than the recognition of a 
Bohemian National Church and the restoration of the Cup 
to the laity in the Lord's Supper. In the struggle that 
ensued the Taborites were completely crushed, while the 
Calixtines, in a large measure, attained their end. Many, 
however, felt that the conflict had come to be mainly a 
political one, and that the principles of Hus were as far 
as ever from general acceptance. In 1456, therefore, a 
company of these more spiritually minded men gathered 
on the estate of Lititz, about eighty miles from Prague, 
their object being to found a society, within the National 
Church, which should carry out the reformation begun by 
Hus, accepting the Bible as their standard of faith and 



practice, and maintaining a strict Scriptural discipline. 
This society assumed the name of Unitas Fratrum — the 
Unity of Brethren. It was carefully organized, and a 
body of principles, adopted by a general convocation in 
1464, is still preserved in the Lissa Folios. 

But the Unitas Fratrum could not long remain simply a 
society within a church from which it differed on many 
radical points, and after much consultation and prayer it 
was resolved to separate altogether from the National 
Church ; and that there might be no question as to the 
validity of the ordination of their ministers, they resolved 
to secure the apostolic succession. At that time there was 
a colony of Waldensians living on the borders of Moravia, 
which had been on very friendly terms with the Calixtines 
during the Hussite War, and had renewed its ministry 
through them when it was in danger of dying out. In 1434 
two Waldensian priests, ordained the preceding year by 
Bishop Nicholas, in Prague, had been sent to the Council 
of Basle, and were there consecrated bishops by bishops 
of the Roman CathoHc Church. To these Waldensians 
the Unitas Fratrum turned, and finding two surviving 
bishops who were favorably disposed toward them, the 
deputation of three priests received the episcopate at their 
hands, with power to transmit it to their church. 

The sources from which the Unitas Fratrum drew its 
membership were strangely varied. There were Calix- 
tines and Taborites, priests ordained in the National 
Church, and others from the Church of Rome, noblemen, 
Masters of Arts, and " men of humble origin," and that 
this composite mass should have been welded into one 
harmonious whole argues much for the needs of the time, 
and the soundness of the Unity's doctrine. 

Gathering strength by large accessions from every part 


of Bohemia and Moravia, and spreading into Prussia and 
Poland under the influence of various sharp persecutions, 
the Unitas Fratrum came to be an important factor in the 
national as well as the religious life of these kingdoms. 
Schools were established in all their numerous parishes, 
with several higher institutions of learning and theological 
seminaries ; their printing-presses were used with diligence 
for the dissemination of evangelical truth ; a translation of 
the Bible into the Bohemian language was undertaken, 
and after fifteen years of labor the so-called " Kralitz " 
Bible — still the authorized version in Bohemia — was 
given to the public. A Catechism, Hymn Book, nine 
successive Confessions of Faith, and many other theologi- 
cal works were pubhshed. When Luther, Calvin, and the 
other Reformers of the sixteenth century became promi- 
nent, the Unitas Fratrum established pleasant and mutu- 
ally beneficial intercourse with them. The Unity had 
more than four hundred churches in Bohemia and Mora- 
via alone, where its ministers preached the Word to a 
membership of not less than one hundred and fifty thou- 
sand souls; and when, in 1609, the Emperor Rudolf II 
was forced to confirm the liberties of the evangelical party, 
"the Unitas Fratrum became a legally acknowledged 
church of the land, held as its own the Bethlehem Chapel 
at Prague, where John Hus, its forerunner, had proclaimed 
the Gospel, and had a bishop associated with the adminis- 
trator of the Evangehcal Consistory." 

And then, when the Unitas Fratrum had reached a posi- 
tion of prosperity and widespread influence, there came a 
sudden and disastrous fall. The succession to the crown 
of Bohemia fell on Ferdinand of Tyrol, a bigoted Roman- 
ist ; the evangelical party attempted to set him aside, and 
elected Frederick of the Palatinate, a Protestant, as their 


king. Obliged to defend their action on the field of battle, 
they met with a crushing defeat, and Ferdinand, with the 
Jesuits, set his heel upon Bohemia and Moravia. All 
Protestant churches and schools were forcibly closed, or 
given to the Jesuits, all the ministers of the Unitas Fra- 
trum, Lutherans and Reformed, were ordered to leave the 
country in eight days. Then, after a cessation of pressure 
had lulled the people into a hope that the worst was over, 
suddenly and by craft a number of the most prominent 
members of the evangelical party were seized, tried, and 
condemned to imprisonment, torture, or death. On the 
2 1st of June, 162 1, — "the day of blood," — twenty-seven 
noblemen, many of whom belonged to the Unity of 
Brethren, met death on the scaffold; and by 1627 the 
Bohemian-Moravian branch of the Unitas Fratrum had 
apparently ceased to exist. The Polish branch continued 
longer, but was gradually absorbed by the Reformed 
Church of Poland. 

The period which followed this blotting out of the Unity 
is often called the time of the " Hidden Seed." Here and 
there throughout the two kingdoms there were whole 
families, nominally yielding obedience to the Romish 
authorities, but secretly holding fast the faith and practice 
of the Brethren's Unity, and speaking to their children of 
a day which they believed was yet to come, when the 
Unitas Fratrum would again lift up its head among the 
churches. And for the preservation of the doctrine and 
rules of the Ancient Church, and the perpetuation of its 
organization, there was raised up a man, who not only 
made possible the resurrection of the Unitas Fratrum, but 
whose scholarly attainments and progressive spirit won 
him recognition as the foremost educator of his day, while 
later generations honor him as the originator of modern 


methods of teaching. John Amos Comenius was born 
March 28, 1592, in Moravia, the child of wealthy members 
of the Unitas Fratrum. Having finished his education, he 
entered into the service of that church as minister, and 
rector of the school at Prerau. When the downfall came, 
he joined the other exiles, and took up his abode in Lissa, 
Poland, where he was consecrated bishop in 1632. The 
publication of several works on education won him instant 
appreciation abroad, and he received numerous invitations 
to go to various countries, reorganize the schools, and estab- 
lish colleges. Some of these invitations he accepted, others 
he declined, among the latter being the offer of the presi- 
dency of Harvard College in Massachusetts. But always 
and ever his church was his first consideration, and even 
when things looked utterly hopeless he prophesied its res- 
toration. He republished the " Ratio Disciplinae Ordinisque 
Ecclesiastici in Unitate Fratrum Bohemorum,"- by which 
the Renewed Church was modelled more than half a century 
later ; and lest the episcopate be lost he took measures for 
the consecration of two new bishops, by whom the succes- 
sion was carefully preserved until it was transferred to the 
Renewed Church at Herrnhut. 

Fifty years after the eyes of Comenius were closed in 
death, the things for which he had longed and labored 
began to come to pass. And here again, as in the first 
founding of the Unitas Fratrum, there was no preconceived 
plan, no concerted action, but the agents were, so to speak, 
led blindfold to the task assigned them. On the estate of 
Hennersdorf, in Upper Lusatia, in Saxony, on the 26th of 
May, 1700, Nicholas Lewis, Count Zinzendorf, was born. 
Brought up by his pious grandmother, he early gave his 
heart to the Lord Jesus, and as he grew to manhood his 
one desire was to serve Him. On attaining his majority, 


the Count purchased the estate of Berthelsdorf, not far 
from Hennersdorf, installed Andrew Rothe, a devoted 
young Lutheran clergyman, as parish minister, and a few- 
months later married Erdmuth Dorothea, Countess Reuss, 
who proved to be a consecrated and efficient helpmeet for 
him. About this time, through Rothe's suggestion, Zin- 
zendorf had an interview with Christian David, a native of 
Moravia and a carpenter by trade, who had been born a 
Roman Catholic, but after much agony and long search- 
ing had found peace in the Protestant faith and had 
united with the Lutheran Church in Germany. Inspired 
with a longing to take back to his benighted countrymen 
the light that he had received. Christian David had made 
a number of visits to Moravia, and had formed an acquaint- 
ance with the Neissers, descendants of warm adherents of 
the ancient Unity of Brethren. The Neissers, and others 
with them, were very anxious to find a home in some Prot- 
estant country where they might have religious liberty, and 
Zinzendorf promised to try to find them a suitable place, 
meanwhile to receive them on his estate of Berthelsdorf. 
Armed with this assurance Christian David returned to 
Moravia, and on the 27th of May, 1722, led the first body 
of emigrants across the border. Zinzendorf was not at 
home when they reached Berthelsdorf, but his steward 
allowed them to begin a little village a mile or so away. 
For some time the young nobleman paid little attention to 
them ; but as their numbers increased by more arrivals 
from Moravia and Bohemia, and by Protestants from vari- 
ous other points, his notice was attracted to the pitiable 
religious tangle into which the settlement was growing, 
and with characteristic zeal he set to work to help them. 
Having established certain rules, according to the tradi- 
tions brought by the Moravian descendants of the Unitas 


Fratrum, harmony was gained, and soon after, to the great 
joy of the emigrants, the Count found a copy of the "Ratio 
DiscipHnae " pubUshed by Comenius, and the ancient disci- 
pUne was fully restored. On August 13, 1727, in connec- 
tion with the Lord's Supper, the Holy Spirit was poured 
out upon the communicants in an especial manner, the day 
being celebrated ever since as the birthday of the Renewed 
Church, now often called " Moravian," because so many 
members were from Moravia. For several years longer 
the settlement at Herrnhut' remained nominally a part of 
the Lutheran Church, Zinzendorf himself accepting ordi- 
nation as a Lutheran clergyman, that he might the better 
serve them. At last, however, he was forced to admit 
that the Lord intended the full restoration of the Unitas 
Fratrum as a separate church, and on March 13, 1735, 
David Nitchmann was consecrated the first bishop of the 
Renewed Church by the two surviving bishops of the 
ancient succession. 

The history of the Renewed Church was not one of 
undimmed prosperity. Time and again the hand of oppo- 
sition, even of persecution, was raised against it, but 
always with the effect of making it more widely and 
favorably known. 

In 1732 the characteristic work of the Unitas Fratrum 
was undertaken — the work of foreign missions. While 
on a visit to Copenhagen, Zinzendorf became greatly 
impressed with the needs of the negroes in the West 
Indies, and the Esquimaux in Greenland. On his return 
he told the congregation of Herrnhut what he had heard, 
and their hearts, already fired with desire for some special 
service of God, rose in ready response. On the 8th of 
October two of them set sail for St. Thomas, ready to sell 
themselves as slaves if they could gain access to the slaves 


in no other way, and the next year missionaries to the 
Esquimaux were sent out. 

In 1735 a settlement of Moravians was begun in Savan- 
nah, Georgia, being the first on the American continent. 
The intention was to estabHsh a retreat in case of persecu- 
tion in Germany, and a centre from which to reach the 
Indians. Owing to various causes the colony was broken 
up within a few years, but in 1741 a permanent organiza- 
tion was effected in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and from 
there missionaries were sent among the Indians ; and in 
the course of years the church spread into other sections 
of the country. That the Moravian Church in America 
did not increase numerically as rapidly as might have been 
expected was owing to Zinzendorf's peculiar tenet that 
the business of the Unity was to preach Christ and con- 
vert the souls of men, but receive them into the Unitas 
Fratrum only when it could not well be avoided. This 
theory had good ground in Germany, where proselyting 
would have aroused a fierce antagonism from the State 
Church, but was a mistake in America, where the exten- 
sion of a thoroughly organized church would have been a 
great boon to the scattered, un-shepherded members of 
many sects. 

In 1742 the first British congregation was formally 
organized, though the church had been practically estab- 
lished in England for several years previously. 

These three, the German, American, and English, now 
(1902) constitute the "Home Provinces" of the Unitas 
Fratrum or Moravian Church, with a membership respec- 
tively of 7734, 23,467, 5955. In America, within the 
past few years, the Moravian Church has radically changed 
its position as to Zinzendorf's theory of exclusiveness, and 
has recognized that, when properly guided, church exten- 


sion is an essential of church life. In Germany, on the 
other hand, there is the peculiar service of the "Diaspora," 
whereby some 70,000 Lutherans, members of the State 
Church, are formed into "Societies" cared for by Mora- 
vian ministers, and giving the Moravian Church their 
interest and their pecuniary aid. It is largely owing to 
these Diaspora associates that the Unitas Fratrum has 
been able to carry on a mission work so out of all proportion 
to its size and means. Men and women willing to devote 
their lives to Christ's service the Unity has always had, but 
were it not for the liberality of these and other friends, it 
could never have gained or held its enviable position as the 
foremost missionary church in Christendom. To-day there 
are Moravian missions in Labrador and Alaska, among the 
North American Indians, in the West Indies, Central and 
South America, South and East Africa, Australia, and 
the Himalaya Mountains, with a membership of ()6,B77. 
Mission work has also been carried on for a number of 
years in the old home land of Bohemia and Moravia ; and 
the Unity maintains a home for lepers at Jerusalem. 
Including all who belong to the Moravian Church or its 
" Societies," the Unitas Fratrum now numbers about 
205,565 souls, representing all portions of the globe and 
races of men, differing each from each in every possible 
way except a common love for Christ, and the " unity of 



Rev. Samiiel Kramsch 

As we look upon the portraits of the eleven principals 
who have guided Salem Female Academy and College, 
during one hundred years, we are struck by the strongly 
marked individuality of each face, each one in turn, to a 
certain extent, leaving the stamp of his individuality upon 
the school during his term of office ; yet the Academy 
during all these years has formulated a character, an indi- 
viduality, all her own, independent of what one man might 
do or not do. As one after the other passes from the scene 
of action, we realize more strongly than ever that "the 
Lord buries his workmen, but his work goes on." 

On October 31, 1802, still celebrated as founder's day, 
a call was extended by the governing board of the South- 
ern Province to Rev. Samuel Kramsch, then pastor of 
Hope, North Carolina, to take charge of Salem Female 
Academy, a new educational enterprise, the first in the 
South, and the third in America for the higher education 
of young women and girls. Rev. Mr. Kramsch was a 
native of Silesia, Prussia, born in 1758, the son of a Lu- 
theran minister, who died leaving a large family, when this 
boy was still a child. He was sent to Gnadenberg, to a 
Moravian school, to be educated, where he was for seven 



years a diligent student, especially in the languages. 
Like his father he wished to become a minister, and later 
cheerfully accepted a call to America to become princi- 
pal of a boys' school in Bethlehem, in Pennsylvania, 
landing at Philadelphia in 1783. He also taught at 
Nazareth Hall, being specially fitted for educational work. 
In 1792 he received a call to North Carolina, and married 
Susanna Ehzabeth Langgaard, daughter of Rev. A. Lang- 
gaard, a professor in Bethlehem Seminary. His first 
charge was that of Hope, North Carolina, from which he 
was called to be the first principal of the Academy. 

He was well educated, a fine linguist, an accomplished 
botanist and artist. His gifted wife, well acquainted with 
the internal economy of the best boarding-schools of the 
day, also brought all her talents to the work. Former 
pupils who have passed away often referred in their let- 
ters to the delightful walks of those early days, when rare 
wild flowers still abounded, and Mr. and Mrs. Kramsch 
strove to implant some of their botanical enthusiasm in the 
forming minds of their charges. On one of these walks, 
just beyond the Salem limits, where Winston now stands, 
the girls surprised two little fawns, caught one of them in 
an apron, brought it home, and took great pleasure in their 
pet until later, like most pets, it became unmanageable, 
and had to be killed. Both of Mr. Kramsch's daughters, 
talented women, became teachers in the Academy ; the 
elder eventually became Mrs. Judge Blickensderfer, of 
Ohio, and the younger married Rev. Charles A. Van 
Vleck, of Salem. In 1806 Mr. Kramsch retired from the 
service of the Academy, and after a short residence in 
town returned to the pastorate of Hope. Here a great 
cross was laid upon him in approaching blindness, and 
though kept in abeyance by noted oculists, he at length 


became totally blind. Returning to Salem, he died here 
in 1824, being a little over 6"] years old, and lies buried in 
the Salem graveyard. 

Rev. Abraham Steiner 

The decade in the history of the Academy from 1806 
to 18 16 was a time of changes and improvements of dif- 
ferent kinds. Bishop Reichel, the power behind the 
throne, administered the affairs in the interval between 
Mr. Kramsch's retirement, and the installation of Rev. 
Abraham Steiner, the Academy's second principal. Mr. 
Steiner lived at the corner of Academy and Main streets, 
north of the Widows' House, until a new house was built 
for him, the one at present occupied as Principal's House. 
The number of pupils increased so that a third room was 
opened in 1807, and a fourth in 181 1. There was still not 
room enough in the Academy buildings, so a number 
of pupils lodged in private families in town, which 
arrangement continued some years until more house room 
was gained by additions to the old buildings. 

Mr. Steiner was born in Bethlehem in 1758, and edu- 
cated in Nazareth, where he spoke with great affection of 
the faithful teaching of Rev. Paul Tiersch, later the first 
minister of Salem. He went to Bethlehem, after he had 
attained his majority, and was soon employed as teacher 
in the Boys' Day School. Then he was called to Hope, 
New Jersey, to take charge of the church store for several 

Mr. Steiner had from childhood been greatly interested 
in the Indians, so to his great joy he was allowed to 
accompany Rev. J. Heckewelder, the Moravian Apostle 
to the Indians, on a missionary tour along the Musk- 


ingum, in 1789. After this, Mr. Steiner was called to 
Bethabara, North Carolina, to take charge of the church 
store there. Arriving in Salem in 1789 he married his first 
wife, Christina Fisher, who died after a short married life 
of sixteen months ; his second wife, Catherine Sehner, was 
also of Salem. They had four children, one son and three 
daughters. One of the daughters was one of the first 
pupils of the Academy, and later served as teacher before 
her marriage to Rev. C. F. Denke, and again did faithful 
service for twenty years in her widowhood, as teacher of 
the select class. 

In 1799 a society was formed to reach the southern 
Indians, the Creeks and Cherokees, and Rev. Frederick 
Christian de Schweinitz visited the Cherokee country; 
after a second visit, a mission was established at Spring 
Place, the name being retained when the missionaries and 
their flock removed to the Indian Territory. Mr. Steiner's 
health gave way and he returned to Salem, leaving the 
work to other hands. In 1801 he was ordained by Bishop 
Reichel and took charge of the congregation of Hope, 
North Carolina, from which place he was called to be 
principal of the Academy, a position which he filled with 
ability for ten years. His clear insight, good sense, and 
practical knowledge made his term of office a prosperous 
one. He was a man of marked individuality, with a de- 
cided vein of humor in his composition, that tempered 
what would otherwise have been brusqueness. He laid 
out a fine large garden, some little distance below the 
Academy on Church Street, as a place where the recrea- 
tion hours of the girls could be spent. Each room com- 
pany had a large space assigned, and each girl had her 
separate little plot, where she could experiment at will. 

Mr. Steiner's health declining, he resigned his position 


in 1 8 16, but he still assisted in various capacities. In 
1822 he began to attend to the negro congregation of 
Salem, and held the first sermon for some sixty hearers. 
He was active in important duties in church and commu- 
nity, wherever friendly or social oflEices were required. In 
1829 his wife died; his own health slowly declined, dropsy 
of the heart set in, and in 1833 his active, laborious life 
drew to a close. He was seventy-five years of age, and, 
like his predecessor, lies buried here in Salem, under the 
cedars in our graveyard. 

Rev. Gotthold Benjamin Reichel 

The third principal of the Academy was a gifted, schol- 
arly man, who filled the position for seventeen years. 
The early part of his administration was a time of pros- 
perity, but later, when his health greatly declined, and a 
severe money pressure affected the country, the number 
of pupils was considerably reduced. In 1824 an addition 
was made to the Academy building; some schoolrooms 
and a chapel were built : this last being consecrated Sep- 
tember 24 gave rise to the well-known Chapel Festival, 
which was kept up many years. 

Mr. Reichel was born in Nazareth, Pennsylvania, and 
there educated. His father. Bishop Reichel, then minis- 
ter at Nazareth, and principal of the Boys' Boarding 
School, was appointed in 1802 to succeed Rev. J. D. Koeh- 
ler as minister of Salem, North Carolina. The son accom- 
panied his parents and sister south, two brothers being 
absent in Europe. It was largely owing to the influence 
and educational zeal of Bishop Reichel, the father, that 
the Academy was founded, and members of his family 
were identified with it for many years. When young Mr. 


Reichel first came to Salem, he assisted Mr. Dalman in the 
Boys' School, but soon took the entire charge. In 1811 
he was ordained by Bishop Herbst, and was soon after 
married to Frederika Henrietta Vierling. In 18 16 he 
became principal of the Academy ; he was an accom- 
plished scholar, a zealous botanist, tall in person, dignified 
in manner. He introduced new studies, himself teaching 
and training teachers. From 18 19 to 1829 he was assist- 
ant pastor of the congregation in Salem, and from 1829 
to 1833 had sole charge in addition to his other duties. 
In 1829 his wife died almost suddenly, leaving him in 
declining health with a family of seven children. In 1830, 
while on a visit to Bethlehem, he married again, Mary 
Parsons, the accomplished sister of his brother's wife. In 
1833 he died, at the early age of 48, and, like his two prede- 
cessors, rests in the quiet Salem God's Acre. 

Rev. John Christian Jacobson 

Upon Mr. Reichel's death, near the close of 1833, Rev. 
John Christian Jacobson was appointed the fourth princi- 
pal of the Academy. He had been minister of Bethania 
seven years, and early in January, 1834, he assumed the 
duties of the new position with a characteristic zeal and 
energy, which were crowned with success. The financial 
depression throughout the South was over, and a period of 
general prosperity followed. The number of pupils, which 
had been very small, ran up to JJ the first year, to 137 the 
second, until in 1838 the school numbered 195 boarders, 
and 19 teachers. More room was urgently demanded, so 
in 1835 3- riGw chapel was built, a frame building on the 
east side of South Hall. It became necessary to take 
possession of one room after the other in the old congre- 


gation house for school uses. One room company lived 
for a time in the present Widows' House. Accordingly, in 
1 84 1, the school built a new chapel for the congregation, 
and also a minister's house, the brick building now occu- 
pied by the bishop. 

Mr. Jacobson was born in 1795 at Burkall, near Ton- 
dern, in the duchy of Schleswig, in Denmark. His father 
was a missionary in the Diaspora service, and soon after- 
ward removed to the village of Skiern, on the west coast of 
Jutland, where the boy spent the first six years of his life. 
He was then placed in the church boarding-school at 
Christiansfeld, and after eight years was transferred to 
the higher school at Niesky. Having finished his theolog- 
ical course, his whole future was changed by a call which 
came as a great surprise, to go to America. In 18 16 he 
entered Nazareth Hall, where as teacher and professor 
he spent the next ten years of his life. In 1826 he was 
married to Lisetta Schnall, and at the close of the year 
they came to their first charge, Bethania, North Caro- 
lina. In 1834 he assumed the duties of principal of 
the Academy, where his ability and scholarly training 
found an appropriate sphere. His ten years of labor 
were marked by the most gratifying upbuilding of the 

In 1844 his academic labors were continued by a call" to 
Nazareth Hall in Pennsylvania. He had seven children, 
one of whom, Mrs. Edward Rondthaler, is living in the 
house built by her father sixty years ago. In 1849 Mr. 
Jacobson was called to Bethlehem as a member of the 
Provincial Elders' Conference, over which board he pre- 
sided eighteen years. During this time his history was 
closely identified with that of the church. His patience in 
counsel, his energy in protracted journeys, and his habits 


of thorough and systematic work, gave him fitness and 
acceptance in his high office. 

In 1854 he was ordained bishop at Lititz, and in 1867, 
under the weight of old age, he retired from the active 
work of the church, after a service of nearly fifty-one 
years. The last three years of his life were beautiful in 
their restfulness ; it was the calm, cheerful tarrying of the 
pilgrim in the land of Beulah, almost within sight and 
hearing of the other shore. His strength gradually de- 
clined, and on Thanksgiving afternoon of 1870 he received 
the summons to come home at the ripe age of seventy-five 

Rev. Charles Adolphns Bleck 

Mr. Bleck was duly installed as the fifth principal in 
1844. He was born near Lebanon, Pennsylvania, in 1804, 
and at seven years of age he went to Nazareth Hall. 
Later he entered the theological class, and from 1823 to 
1 83 1 served as teacher in the Hall, and professor in the 

During the summer of 1832, the dreadful cholera year, 
he assisted the Rev. W. H. Van Vleck in the church ser- 
vice in New York. He married Sophia Krause of Bethle- 
hem Seminary, and soon after moved to Camden Valley, 
Washington County, New York, where he organized a 
Moravian congregation, himself securing funds with which 
to build a church and parsonage. During a part of his 
residence there he instructed a class of young men and 
boys, who were for the time members of his household. 
In the autumn of 1838 Mr. Bleck moved to New York 
City, where he served as pastor till 1842, when the call 
to Salem, North Carolina, reached him. Once more he 
assisted Bishop W, H. Van Vleck, his particular duties 


being to conduct services at several outposts, and to visit 
members living out of town. 

In 1844 he assumed the position of principal of the 
Academy, where his financial abilities were marked. He 
taught the Latin and French classes in the school, but in 
the natural sciences he was in his element, and succeeded 
in arousing enthusiastic interest where many teachers find 
simple indifference. In March, 1846, Mrs. Bleck died, 
leaving six children ; her duties were then assumed by her 
sister-in-law. Miss Caroline Bleck, who was known and 
loved by many. In the autumn of 1848 Mr. Bleck's second 
marriage took place, in Alabama, to Mary Harrison, Mr. 
Bleck was then superseded by Rev. Emil A. de Schweinitz, 
and early in 1849 he removed to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 
In August he was appointed to take charge of the congre- 
gation of Gnadenhutten and Sharon, Ohio. He died sud- 
denly in Gnadenhutten, on January 17, 1850, aged about 
forty-six years, and was buried in the Moravian graveyard 
in the town made memorable by the Indian massacre of 
1782. About the time that Mr. Bleck's term of office 
closed in the Academy, important changes were being 
considered in the outward affairs of Salem itself, but they 
were not brought about till some years later. 

Rt. Rev. Adolphus de Schweinitz 

The Academy pursued the even tenor of its way with- 
out any special occurrences during the next term of 
five years, that of Rev. Emil A. de Schweinitz. He was 
born in Salem in 18 16, and spent a large portion of 
his life here, so that he was thoroughly identified with 
the best interests of the town. His family is directly 
descended from Count Zinzendorf ; Mr. de Schweinitz 


was on his father's side the great-great-grandson and 
oldest lineal descendant of Zinzendorf. His father, 
Rev. Lewis David de Schweinitz, in 1816 filled the office 
of administrator of the church estates, and was a member 
of the Provincial Board. He was likewise known as 
one of the foremost botanists of the age, and his collec- 
tions have greatly enriched botanical science. It is not 
often that we find such a family where father and four 
sons are regularly ordained ministers. Two of the sons, 
Emil and Edmund, were bishops, Robert the well-known 
principal of the Academy of years ago, and the fourth, 
Bernard, died while on a visit to Salem, in the first flush 
of a promising manhood. 

Bishop de Schweinitz received his early education at 
Nazareth Hall, and in Gnadenfeld, Germany. Return- 
ing to America, he taught in the Hall and in the Seminary, 
was ordained by Bishop Benade, and married Sophia, 
eldest daughter of the late Bishop Herman. Five of his 
eight children are living at the present time. In 1848 
he returned to his native place, Salem, and took charge 
of the Academy, but in 1853 he was appointed to the 
same office which his father had previously held, that of 
administrator of the church estates and member of the 
Provincial Board. His work lay largely in the financial 
interests of the Southern Province in which his clear 
insight and sound judgment added much to the pros- 
perity of the Province. Through the troubled times of 
the late Civil War, he was able faithfully to hold the 
trust committed to him. His special work was not 
originally that of preacher or pastor, but in later years he 
entered upon both, from a desire to work more especially 
for Christ. 

In 1874 he was consecrated bishop here in Salem, by 


Bishops Shultz, Bigler, and his brother, Edmund de 
Schweinitz. Though holding the highest office in the 
Province he chose the service of a small congregation, 
that of New Philadelphia, and was one of the warmest 
friends of the mission work of the colored church. His 
failing health led among other things to a European 
voyage, but he came home to die, in November, 1879, at 
the age of sixty-three years, having served the church 
forty-two years. He was one of the strong, powerful 
figures in the church in Wachovia during the middle of 
the past century, — a faithful, judicious leader in the 
church he loved. 

Rev. Robert William de Schweinitz 

The name of the seventh principal of the Academy 
awakens tender recollections in the hearts of our alumnae 
all over the country. His death in the latter part of 1901 
came with the force of a personal bereavement to hundreds 
of our middle-aged alumnae, and his name is a household 
word in numberless families in our Southland. 

Mr. de Schweinitz was born in Salem, North Carolina, 
September 20, 18 19; his father. Rev. Lewis de Schwei- 
nitz, in 1 82 1 removed with his family to Bethlehem, 
where the father died thirteen years later. In 1830 Mr. 
de Schweinitz entered Nazareth Hall, and later the 
Theological Seminary. When his course was completed, 
he spent six years as teacher in the Hall, and then set 
out on a visit to Europe. Here he met his life compan- 
ion, and in 1846 he was married to Marie Louise von 
Tschirschky, at Herrnhut, Saxony. In November of the 
same year he returned to America with his bride, after 
a most unpleasant, stormy voyage, lasting from Septem- 


ber to November. In 1847 he became a professor in 
the Theological Seminary, and later was ordained by 
Bishop Benade. He was thence called to a pastorate 
in Graceham, Maryland, and to Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 
In February, 1853, he assumed the position of principal 
of the Academy, by which he is best known among us. 
He was at the helm at a time which required more 
than ordinary ability and good judgment, and his genial, 
kindly manner attracted all those who came in personal con- 
tact with him. During his term of thirteen years the school 
was numerically more prosperous than ever before. 
Many changes were introduced. The old congregation 
house, which had been used exclusively by the school, 
was torn down, and in 1854 the corner-stone of our 
present Main Hall was laid, and its walls arose on the 
old site. The present Academy Chapel, the third, was 
also erected. Our fine park, which goes by the unpre- 
tentious name " playgrounds," was laid out at the same 

Then came the Civil War, when it was no light task 
to feed, clothe, and protect two hundred and more pupils, 
in this establishment, many of them refugees from more 
exposed sections. While other institutions of learning 
were compelled to close their doors, the Academy went 
on, never suspending its work one single day during 
those years of trouble. When at length Stoneman's 
raiders approached Salem in April, 1865, Mr. de Schwei- 
nitz, with the mayor of Salem, and other influential 
citizens, went out to meet them, to surrender the town, 
and ask protection for the Academy, which was granted. 
Sentinels were posted to protect us from the stragglers 
that are always found in the rear, and while neighbor- 
ing towns were plundered of everything worth taking, 


not a single act of lawlessness occurred about the 
Academy premises. 

In July, 1866, Mr, de Schweinitz accepted the principal- 
ship of Nazareth Hall, but this service was cut short by 
his election in 1867 as president of the Provincial Elders' 
Conference, which position he retained eleven years. He 
then removed to West Bethlehem, and though entitled by 
his long service to a place among retired ministers, he 
accepted one position of trust after another. Failing 
health at length led to the resignation of his various 
duties in 1899. ^^ i^^i his wife died. He had six 
children, three sons and three daughters, of whom one, 
Bertha, preceded him to the heavenly land. 

The Academy always held a warm place in his affec- 
tions, and at the commencement of 1886 he paid a visit 
to his relatives and warm friends in Salem. His presence 
seemed to be a magnetic force in the organization of the 
Alumnae Association, and held the members together in 
closer union. The feebleness of advancing age grew 
upon him, bowing his tall, commanding figure, and he 
became totally blind. After much suffering he fell asleep 
in Jesus October 29, 1901, aged eighty-two years. 

Rev. Maximilian Eus'ene Grunert 

The Academy's eighth principal took the school at a 
time when the prospect was gloomy; the war was just 
well over, there was Httle or no money in the country, 
and universal bankruptcy and ruin overspread the South. 
Then came the reconstruction period, when a struggle 
for existence absorbed the minds of all, and educational 
interests received little attention. The faithfulness and 
economy of Mr. Grunert enabled the school to continue 


when almost every other institution had to suspend. 
When things began to brighten up somewhat, the financial 
depression of 1873 came on, and all those difficulties had 
to be met. 

Mr. Grunert was a ripe European scholar and deep 
thinker, trained in our best German schools. He was 
born at Niesky, April 26, 1826, his father being a mer- 
chant. Coming to this country as a young man, he filled 
different positions, being teacher of the boys' school in 
Salem for a time. He then accepted the pastorate of 
Bethania in 185 1, to which he came with his first wife, 
daughter of the Rev. S. T. Pfohl, warden of the Salem 
congregation. Of the five children of this marriage, one 
daughter, Anna, died in childhood. In 1858 he removed 
to Salem, where he served in many capacities, professor 
in the Academy, assistant pastor, and assistant principal 
from 1858 to 1866. When Mr. de Schweinitz resigned, 
he accepted the office of principal, which he held till 
1877, being closely connected with the school for twenty 

It was during his term in 1873 that South Hall was 
renovated, its height increased, the old steep roof replaced 
by a modern one, until it became a fair companion for its 
imposing sister. Main Hall. He was married three times, 
his second wife, Maria Butner, of Bethania, dying while 
he was principal; his third marriage, in 1871, was to 
Martha Smythe, a teacher in Bethlehem Seminary, who 
survived him fourteen years. 

When he left Salem, in 1877, he served as pastor of 
Emmaus, Pennsylvania, then professor in the Theological 
Seminary in Bethlehem, filling different positions till, in 
1886, he retired from the service. He lived in Nazareth, 
where he died suddenly of apoplexy June 4, 1887. His 


work was always characterized by the utmost faithfulness, 
thoroughness, and conscientiousness. 

Rev. Joseph Theophilus Zor7i 

With the accession of Mr. Zorn, in 1877, it became evi- 
dent that the old order of things must give place to the 
new. The South was recovering from its desolating war ; 
good schools were springing up everywhere. It was a 
transition time in business, in education, in every interest 
in life, and prepared the way for the advancement we see 
at the opening of the twentieth century. 

Mr. Zorn came to his new office from the mission field 
of the West Indies. He was born at Fairfield, Jamaica, 
in 1 841, of noted missionary parentage. After passing 
through Nazareth Hall and the Theological Seminary, he 
taught for a time at the Hall, and thence entered upon the 
mission work in Jamaica. Taking charge of the Academy, 
he inaugurated many changes ; a course of graduation was 
laid out, and the Senior Class of 1878 was the first to 
receive diplomas, at the close of the regular graduating 
exercises. A course of musical graduation was also 
arranged ; Professor Agthe, and later Professor d'Anna, 
completely revolutionized former systems, both in vocal 
and instrumental music. Many necessary changes were 
likewise made in material things. He placed the art 
department on a more assured footing, and established a 
handsome studio, as well as a large and commodious read- 
ing room, which has become such an important factor in 
the academy work. 

In 1884 Mr. Zorn resigned, and going North with his 
wife and family of one son and three daughters, he was 
for a time associate principal of Nazareth Hall, with his 


brother-in-law, Rev. Eugene Leibert. Thence Mr. Zorn 
took charge of a boys' school near Saratoga, New York ; 
having left the Moravian Church, he took orders as an 
Episcopal minister, and is now living in Ticonderoga, 
New York. 

Rt. Rev. Edward Rondthaler, D.D. 

In September, 1884, Dr. Rondthaler, pastor of the con- 
gregation of Salem, took up the work as the tenth princi- 
pal of the Academy, when Mr. Zorn left. A strong sense 
of duty and the urgent needs of the case caused him to 
assume this responsibility, in addition to his other work. 
At the same time Rev. John H. Clewell was called from 
Ohio to become assistant principal, and with his family 
moved into the principal's house. 

Dr. Rondthaler went to his work with characteristic 
energy and whole-heartedness. Necessary changes were 
made ; class and dwelling rooms were separated ; the 
classes were relegated to South Hall and other localities, 
while the dwelling rooms became cosey, homelike study 
parlors with carpets, lace curtains, pictures, easy chairs, 
and the many little touches that go to make up an inviting 

The dormitory arrangements were revolutionized : Dr. 
Rondthaler introduced the system, of alcoves, nicely cur- 
tained, and so arranged as to solve the problem of privacy 
without isolation. Many other improvements were intro- 
duced, and in May, 1888, he thought he might hand over the 
office entirely to Mr. Clewell, and devote himself exclu- 
sively to his special work, the ministry. He had infused 
new life into every department of the school. Visiting 
New England centres of learning, such as Wellesley, Hoi- 


yoke, and Smith, he detected what was best suited to us in 
them, and returning, by his strong personal influence he 
engrafted them into our system ; he likewise visited friends 
and patrons, all over the South, leaving a cheery entente 
cordiale wherever he went. 

In 1880 the degree of Doctor of Divinity was bestowed 
upon him by the University of North Carolina. In 1891 
he was consecrated Bishop of the Unity, by Bishops 
Levering, Bachman, and Van Vleck. Dr. Rondthaler was 
born at Schoeneck, Pennsylvania, in 1842, while his father, 
Rev. Edward Ronthaler, Sr., was pastor there. Educated in 
our northern schools, his intellect has been further cultivated 
by study in European universities and by travel, visiting 
noted places in Europe, while in 1889 he journeyed to 
Egypt and Palestine, where the steps of the Master's 
career were reverently studied. He was pastor first in 
Brooklyn, and later in Philadelphia, when the call to Salem 
was accepted in 1877, and now for a quarter of a century 
his influence has pervaded and guided the work of the 
whole Southern Province. Though no longer principal of 
the Academy, he is still an integral part of its life, both as 
president of the Board of Trustees, and superintendent of 
the linguistic department. 

Mrs. Rondthaler, as the daughter of Bishop Jacobson, a 
former noted principal of the Academy, has a double claim 
upon the affectionate regard of the school. 

Rev. John Hetiry Clewell, Ph.D. 

The present incumbent and the eleventh principal of the 
Academy is a native of Salem, born in 1855. After pass- 
ing through the Theological Seminary in Bethlehem, he 
taught in the Salem Boys' School one year, and later took 


a further course of study in Union Theological Seminary, 
New York City. In 1900 the Moravian College at Beth- 
lehem conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Philoso- 
phy. He has travelled extensively in the West and South, 
going also to Europe in 1899, at our last General Synod. 
He has been a regular contributor to a number of periodi- 
cals, and is especially interested in the line of historical 

His first pastorate was that of Urichsville and Port Wash- 
ington, Ohio, where he raised a large sum of money for 
these church buildings. From thence he came to Salem 
as assistant principal in 1884, and in 1888 took entire 
charge of the work. 

Mrs. Clewell is on one side a member of the Wolle 
family, notably known in our church history, while on the 
other side she is connected with the Lineback family of 
Salem. Her position has been made increasingly respon- 
sible and active in the school, by the Board of Trustees, 
and she has entered into the work more intimately than 
was the case in former administrations. Her faithful ser- 
vice and good taste have been specially noticeable in the 
various social occasions of late years, in which our outside 
friends have been brought into closer sympathy with the 
Academy and its work. 

Dr. Clewell's term has been one of improvement and 
advancement ; numerous large buildings have been erected, 
and older ones remodelled and beautified. In 1888 the 
number of pupils seemed to demand more room, so August 
28 work was begun east of the church, and though Annex 
Hall did not go up like the Temple of old without the 
" sound of hammer or of axe," it arose with astonishing 
celerity, and was finished November 17 of the same year, 
and occupied by the 9th and lOth room companies. The 


space under the dining room was converted into a gym- 
nasium, and first used for an informal entertainment of the 
Euterpean Society December 9, 1889. 

The old parsonage north of the church was purchased 
by the school, and rolled back slowly, with many a creak 
and groan in its timbers, until it was drawn up alongside 
of Annex Hall, and connected therewith. It was fitted up 
in 1890 as Park Hall, primarily for the use of the domes- 
tic science department, senior class room, laboratory, 
etc. It has been renovated and improved in 1901, a 
piazza and various other attractions added, as the new 
infirmary, and it forms a handsome addition to our group 
of buildings. 

The Academy buildings thus far have been South Hall, 
1805; Main Hall, 1856; Annex Hall, 1888; Park Hall, 
1890. To this handsome group Society Hall was added 
just in the rear of the chapel, and erected from August till 
November 4, 1892. Electric lights, improved modern 
plumbing, new furniture, beautified rooms and chapel, 
class memorials, are a few of the many desirable improve- 
ments of this administration. 

The scholastic work has kept pace with these material 
changes : a commercial course has been established, and 
also a post graduate course. The elocution work has been 
systematized for graduation ; the department of domestic 
science, a course in the care of the sick, or instruction in 
elementary trained nursing, and other departments have 
been established. 

The erection of the proposed Alumnae Centennial 
Memorial Building will be a fitting monument to signalize 
the completed hundred years of the school's history. 


Who have served in the Southern Province 

1. John Michael Graff, consecrated 1773, died . . 1782 

2. John Daniel Koehler, consecrated 1790, transferred . 1800 

3. Charles G. Reichel, consecrated 1801, transferred to 

Pennsylvania 181 1 

4. John Herbst, consecrated 181 1, died . . . . 181 2 

5. Jacob Van Vleck, consecrated 181 5, retired . . 1822 

6. Andrew Benade, consecrated 1822, transferred to 

Pennsylvania ........ 1829 

7. John C. Bechler, consecrated 1835, transferred to 

Europe ......... 1836 

8. William H. Van Vleck, consecrated 1836, transferred 

to Pennsylvania ....... 1849 

9. John G. Herman, consecrated 1846, died . . . 1854 

10. George F. Bahnson, consecrated i860, died . . 1869 

11. Emil A. de Schweinitz, consecrated 1874, died . . 1879 

12. Edward Rondthaler, consecrated .... 1891 


I . Frederick William de Marshall, President 


2. John M. Graff 


3. Paul Tiersch .... 


4. Richard Utley .... 

1 772-1 775 

5. John Daniel Koehler . 


6. Gottfried Praezel 


7. Christian Lewis Benzien 


8. Charles G. Reichel, President 

1 802-1 811 

9. Simon Peter .... 


10. John Herbst, President 


1 1 . Lewis David de Schweinitz . 


12. John Jacob Van Vleck, President 


13. Christian Frederick Schaaf . 


14. Theodore Shultz 


15. Andrew Benade, President . 


16. John C. Bechler, President . 

1 829- 1 836 

17. William H. Van Vleck, President 

1 836-1 849 

18. John C. Jacobson 

1 841 -1 844 

19. Charles F. Kluge 





20. John G. Herman. President 

21. George F. Bahnson, 1849, President . 

22. Emil A. de Schweinitz, 1853, President 

23. Levin T. Reichel, President 

24. Robert de Scliweinitz .... 

25. C. Lewis Rights, 1865, President. 

26. Samuel Tliomas Pfohl 

27. Max. Eugene Grunert 

28. E. P. Greider 

29. Edward Rondthaler, i88o, President . 

30. R. P. Leinbach 

31. Dr. N. S. Siewers .... 

32. James E. Hall . . . . . 

33. John W. Fries 

I 849- I 854 





1 880- 1 890 

1 869- 1 873 




1884- I 892 

1 890- 1 899 








Paul Tiersch 

John M. Graff . 

John Frederick Peter 

John Daniel Koehler 

Christian Benzien 

Charles G. Reichel 

John Herbst 

Simon Peter 

Jacob Van Vleck 

G. Benjamin Reichel, assistant 

Andrew Benade . 

G. Benjamin Reichel 

John C. Bechler 

William H. Van Vleck 

Henry A. Shultz, assistant 

Charles A. Bleck, assistant 

Samuel R. Huebner, assistant 

A. A. Reinke, assistant 

George F. Bahnson 

Francis Holland 

Albert Oerter 

Edward Rondthaler 

John F. McCuiston 

Arthur D. Thaeler 

Howard E. Rondthaler 

Edward S. Crosland . 













During the Time of the Bethabara Economy 

1. Bernard H. Grube I753-I754 

2. Jacob Lash, business manager 1753-1769 

3. John Jacob Fries I7S4-I755 

4. Gottlob Hoffman 175 5- 1764 

5. Christian Henry Ranch 1755-1756 

6. David Bishop 1756-1760 

7. Christian Seidel, German minister .... 1756-1759 

8. J. M. Sauter 1757-1760 

9. Jacob Rogers. English minister of Dobbs Parish . 1 758-1 762 

10. John Ettwein, German minister ..... 1759-1766 

11. John Michael Graff 1762-1773 

12. Abraham de Gammern 1762- 1765 

13. Lawrence Bagge 1 764-1 769 

14. Matthew Schropp 1766-1767 

15. Richard Utley, English minister of Dobbs Parish . 1 766-1 770 

16. F. W. de Marshall 

Bethabara after the Government was removed to Sale.m 

1. Lawrence Bagge 1773-1784 

2. John Jacob Ernst 1784-1791, 1800-1802 

3. Abraham Hessler ....... 1791-1800 

4. C. D. Buchhoiz 1802-1802 

5. Simon Peter 1802-1811 

6. J. P. Kluge 1811-1813 

7. J. L. Strohle 1813-1827 

8. Gottlob Byhan 1 832-1 837 

9. J. R. Schmidt 1839-1847 

10. L. T. Oerter 1849-1854 

11. M. E. Grunert 1854-1857 

12. Jacob Siewers 1857-1865 

13. C. L. Rights 1865-1873 

14. E. P. Greider 1873-1875 

15. J. B. Lineback 1875-1877 

16. R. P. Leinbach ' . . . 1877-1892 

17. J. F. McCuiston 1892-1901 

18. C. D. Crouch 1901- 
















David Bishop 1760- 

L. G. Bachhof 1761- 

John J. Ernst ........ 1770- 

Valentine Beck 1784- 

Simon Peter ........ 1791- 

Christian Thomas Pfohl 1802- 

J. P. Kluge, assistant 1813- 

Peter Wolle, assistant 18 19- 

Charles A. Van Vleck 1822- 

J. C. Jacobson . 1820- 

G. F. Bahnson 1834- 

Julius T. Bechler 1838- 

F. F. Hagen 1844- 

M. E. Grunert 1851- 

Jacob Siewers 1857- 

C. L. Rights 1865- 

E. P. Greider 1873- 

R. P. Leinbach 1877- 

Edward Crosland ....... 1892- 

F. Walter Grabs 1901- 








L. G. Bachhof 
Valentine Beck 
Simon Peter 
Martin Schneider 
John Gambold 
C. D. Buchholz 
C. D. Ruede 
C. F. Denke 
H. A. Shultz 

10. S. R. Huebner 

I 784- I 79 I 
1 804-1 805 
I 839-1 844 


E. T. Senseman 




F. F. Hagen 




Lewis Rights 




R. P. Leinbach 




A. Lichtenthaeler 




D. Z. Smith 




J. B. Lineback 




J. E. Hall . 




J. F. McCuiston 




1. Toege Nissen 1775-1780 

2. John Casper Heinzman 1780-1783 

3. Peter Goetje 1785-1786 

4. J. Martin Schneider 1786-1791 

5. J. J. Ernst 1791-1800 

6. J. J. Wohlfert 1801-1802, 1805-1806 

7. C. D. Buchholz 1802-1805, 1807-1823 

8. S. R. Huebner 1823-1827, 1843-1847 

9. S. Thomas Pfohl 1827-1837 

10. G. Byhan 1837-1841 

11. Adam Haman 1841-1843 

15. Lewis Rights 1846-1854, 1873-1889 

16. J. C. Cook 1856-1859 

17. Thomas Frye 1859-1859 

18. R. P. Leinbach 1859-1865 

19. Henry Cooper 1865-1868 

20. J. A. Friebele 1 868-1 870 

21. Isaac Prince 1870-1872 

22. Samuel Woosley 1889-1896 

23. F. W. Grabs 1896-1901 

24. C. D. Crouch 1902- 


1. J. C. Fritz 1780-1791 

2. J. C. Wohlfert 1791-1792 

3. Samuel Kramsch 1792-1802, 1813-1819 

4. Abraham Steiner 1803-1806 

5. J. L. Strohle 1808-1813 

Served from Friedberg 1 820-1 900 

Affiliated with Clemmonsville, August 13, 1900. 

There were three temporary pastorates as follows : — 

C. F. Denke . 1820-1821 

H. G. Clauder 1838-1839 

Adam Haman 1839-1841 



1. S. R. Huebner 1846-1849 

2. E. T. Senseman 1846-1849 

3. Lawrence Oerter 1849-1852 

4. Jacob Siewers 1852-1854 

5. Lewis Rights 1854-1854, 1880-1889 

Served from Salem 1854-1858 

6. Thomas Frye 1858-1864 

7. E. A. de Schweinitz 1864-1873 

8. A. Lichtenthaeler 1873-1877 

9. D. Z. Smith . . . . ' 1877-1880 

ID. Samuel Woosley 1889-1896 

II. F. W. Grabs 1896- 


1. Isaac Prince . . 1870-1872 2. C. L. Rights . . 1873-1889 
3. Edward Crosland . . 1892- 


1. C. L. Rights . . 1880-1^ 

2. Samuel Woosley . 1889-1^ 

3. F. Walter Grabs . 1 896-1 901 

4. C. D. Crouch . . 1901. 


I. C.L. Rights . . 1887-1889 2. Samuel Woosley . 1889-1896 
3. F. Walter Grabs . 1 896-1 901 

I. James E. Hall 1899- 


1. H. E. Rondthaler 1896-1901 

2. W. E. Spaugh 1902- 


1. H. E. Rondthaler 1901-1901 

2. W. E. Spaugh 1902- 



The Congregations, Chapels, and Sunday-schools, and the Ministers 
and Sunday-school Superintendents, and also the numerical strength 
of the Province, will be shown by the following two lists for January 
1,1902: — 







F. W. Grabs 

Bethabara . 


C. D. Crouch 



F. W. Grabs 



J. E. Hall 



E. S. Crosland 

Christ Church 


H. E. Rondthaler 



E. S. Crosland 

Colored Church . 


W. E. Spaugh 

East Salem . 


E. S. Crosland 

Eden . 


W. E. Spaugh 



J. F. McCuiston 



C. D. Crouch 





E. S. Crosland 



F. W. Grabs 

Macedonia . 


J. E. Hall 



W. E. Spaugh 



H. E. Rondthaler 

Mt. Bethel, Va. . 


C. D. Crouch 

New Philadelphia 


F. W. Grabs 

Oak Grove . 


Providence . 


Salem Home Church 


Edward Rondthaler 

South Side . 


C. D. Crouch 

Wachovia Arbor . 


H. E. Rondthaler 

Willow Hill, Va. . 


C. D. Crouch 

Total, 26 . 


Ministers in the Prov- 

ince, 10 








E. T. Strupe 



N. W. Shore 

Academy .... 


J. H. CleweU 

Avalon .... 


Edgar Hege 

Bethabara .... 


D. T. Hine 



Edgar Lineback 



Julius Slater 



J. E. Hall 

Carmel .... 


John Marshall 

Christ Church 


L. A. Brietz 



A. C. Hege 

Colored Church . 


Emory Knause 

Enterprise . 


D. A. Tesh 

East Salem . 


H. E. Fries 

Elm Street . 


E. A. Ebert 

Eden .... 


William Hege 

Friedberg . 


J. F. McCuiston 



Noah Hine 

Fulp .... 


Mrs. E. E. Fulp 



H. W. Foltz 

Hope .... 


Frank Spaugh 

Kernersville . 


J. P. Adkins 



F. H. Lash 

Macedonia . 


Walter Butner 



S. P. Tesh 



Henry Sutton 

Mt. Bethel, Va. . 


Mrs. John Clark 

New Philadelphia 


Columbus Reich 

Olivet .... 


E. A. Conrad 

Oak Grove . 


Marion Smith 

Providence . 


J. L. Walker 

Salem Home Sunday-school 


F. H. Fries 

South Side . 


R. A. Spaugh 

Union Cross 


Daniel Hine 

Wachovia Arbor . 


W. A. Walker 

Willow Hill, Va. . 


Henry Woods 

Cotton Mill School 


C. E. Crist 

Total, 37 . 


Total, 2,7 


Provincial Boards. 

Provincial Elders^ Conference. 

Edward Rond thaler, Chairman. James E. Hall, J. W. Fries. 

Associate Financial Board. 

C. T. Pfohl, E. F. Strickland, W. T. Vogler. 

Salem Congregation Boards. 

Board of Elders. 

Edward Rondthaler, Chairman. C. T. Pfohl, H. W. Shore, 
F. H. Fries, J. H. Clewell. 

Board of Trustees. 

J. W. Fries, Chairman. H. F. ShafFner, W. A. Lemly, W. T. 
Vogler, H. A. Pfohl, W. C. Crist. 

Boys'' School Board. 

Ex-officio members : Edward Rondthaler, J. W. Fries, J. T. Line- 
back. Elected members: C. E. Crist, F. H. Vogler, and 
B. J. Pfohl. 

Centennial Board. 

H. E. Fries, Chairman. W. S. Pfohl, Secretary and Treasurer. 
L. B. Brickenstein, Jacob Crouse, J. A. Vance, C. D. Ogburn, 
Charles S. Siewers, J. F. ShafFner, Jr. 

Teachers in Salem Boys' School. 

Edward Rondthaler, Principal. J. F. Brower, Head Master. 
K. B. Thigpen, Howard Rondthaler, W. S. Pfohl, Miss 
Nannie Sheets. 

Salem Primary Schools. 

Miss Amelia Steiner, Miss Sallie Vogler, Miss Donna Smith. 

Kindergarten School. 

Miss Lothman, Miss Alma Tise. 

Clemmons School Teachers. 

J. K. Pfohl, Principal. Mrs. J. K. Pfohl, William Davis, Miss 
Nannie Bessent, Miss Clara Warner, J. E. Hall. 


Superintendent Winston City Schools. 
Charles F. Tomlinson. 

Total number of scholars in attendance in the Twin City of Winston- 
Salem, in 1902, including both races, nearly 3700. Teachers, no. 

Municipal Government. 


J. A. Vance, Mayor. H. E. Fries, S. E. Butner, H. S. Crist, 
Charles Siewers, L. B. Brickenstein, H. F. Shaffner, G. H. 
Rights, Commissioners. 


0. B. Eaton, Mayor. E. H. Wilson, Joe Jacobs, J. K. Norfleet, 
J. W. Byerly, W. G. Cranford, W. H. Marler, F. J. Liipfert, 
Frank C. Brown, J. W. Hill. 

ALUMNiE Association Officers. 
Former Presidents. 

1. Mrs. J. D. Graham. 

2. Miss M. E. Vogler. 

3. Miss E. A. Lehman. 

4. Mrs. Ellen Starbuck. 

Present Officers. 

President, Mrs. Lindsay Patterson. 

Vice-Presidents, Mrs. W. N. Reynolds. 
Mrs. E. A. Ebert. 
Mrs. H. Montague. 
Mrs. Nelson Henry. 
Mrs. Isaac Emerson. 
Secretary, Miss Adelaide Fries. 

Treasurer, Miss L. C. Shaffner, 

Executive Committee, 

Mrs. F. H. Fries. Miss Gertrude Siewers. 

Mrs. J. H. Clewell. Miss Kate Jones. 

Mrs. P. H. Hanes. Miss Bessie Pfohl. 

Mrs. J. D. Laugenour. Miss May Barber. 

Mrs. Cicero Ogburn. Miss Ida Miller. 

Mrs. W. T. Brown. Miss Bess Gray. 

Miss Laura Lemly (deceased). Miss Pamela Bynum. 





The List was prepared by Miss Louisa Shaffner 

1. Kramsch, Samuel G 1802-1806 

2. Steiner, Abraham G. 1806-1816 

3. Reichel, G. Benjamin 1816-1834 

4. Jacobson, John C 1834-1844 

5. Bleck, Charles A 1844-1848 

6. De Schweinitz, Emil A 1848-1853 

7. De Schweinitz, Robert 1853-1866 

8. Grunert, Maximilian E 1866-1877 

9. Zorn, Theophilus 1877-1884 

10. Rondthaler, Edward 1 884-1 888 

11. Clewell, JohnH 1888- 

With the Date when they entered upon their Duties 

Grunert, Maximilian E. 
Lineback, Edward W. 
Meinung, Alexander . 
Agthe, Frederick . . 
D'Anna, Sig. Saverio 


6. Markgraff, George . . . 1886 

7. Schmolk, Paul .... 1891 

8. Skilton, Charles . . . 1893 

9. Shirley, H. A 1896 


1. Steiner, Abraham. 

2. Boner, Joshua. 

3. Lineback, James. 

4. Wurreschke, L. B. 

5. Pfohl, C. B. 

6. Thaeler, Clarence. 




When two names are given, the second is the married name of the lady. 











Meinung, Maria Saloma. Mrs. Ebbeke 

Praezel, Johanna Elizabeth. Mrs. F. C. Meinung 

Reichel, Sophia Dorothea. Mrs. Seidel 

Shober, Johanna Sophia. Mrs. Van Zevely 

Praezel, Mrs. M. E. . 

Reuz, Johanna Elizabeth. Mrs. Oehmen 

Praezel, Agnes Susanna. Mrs. C. Peterson 

Lineback, Barbara 

Walk, Mary. Mrs. Curtis . 

Christman, Philpina. Mrs. Summers 

Hartman, Rebecca 

Danz, Elizabeth. Mrs. Winkler 

Peter, Susanna Elizabeth. Mrs. Van Zevely 

Nissen, Johanna Elizabeth. Mrs. Fries 

Fetter, Salome. Mrs. Friday 

Vierling, Henrietta F. Mrs. Reichel . 

Steiner, Maria. Mrs. Denke 

Shober, Anna Paulina. Mrs. J. G. Herman 

Kummer, Maria Elizabeth . 

Transou, Elizabeth. Mrs. Senseman . 

Christman, Christina 

Holder, Anna Rebecca. Mrs. Van Zevely 

Kramsch, Charlotte Louisa. Mrs. Blickensderfer 

Christman, Johanna Salome. Mrs. Welfare 

Fetter, Maria 

Transou, Maria Catharine . 
Shober, Maria Theresa. Mrs. Wolle . 
Rhea, Ruth Montgomery. Mrs. Levering 
Schneider, Christina C. Mrs. Benzien 
Lash, Susanna Elizabeth. Mrs. Crouse 
Kluge, Henrietta. Mrs. Moore . 
Belling, Maria .... 
Towle, Mary. Mrs. Welfare 
Boehler, Wilhelmina. Mrs. Lash 
Gambold, Maria. Mrs. Copeland 
Dull, Sibylla. Mrs. Philip Reich 




37. Towie, Sarah Louisa. Mrs. Vierling 

38. Eberhard, Caroline. Mrs. Eder . 

39. Reich, Catharine. Mrs. D. Clewell 

40. Shuhz, Johanna Ehzabeth . 

41. Shultz, CaroHne. Mrs. Steiner 

42. Bagge, EHza 

43. Lineback, Regina 

44. Stauber, Lydia . 

45. Kitschelt, Sophia Christina 

46. Renade, Mariam Ernestine . 

47. Belo, Henrietta. Mrs. Christman 

48. Vierling, Eliza W. Mrs. C. Kremer 

49. Pfohl, Charlotte F. . . . 

50. Lineback, Anna A. . . . 

51. Spach, Gertrude. Mrs. Mickey . 

52. Benade, Lucia T. . . . 

53. Byhan, Sophia D. Mrs. Van Boner 

54. Crist, Anna E. Mrs. J. Boner . 

55. Ruede, Dorothea Sophia. Mrs. M. Vogler 

56. Shultz, Lisetta .... 

57. Reich, Louisa. Mrs. George Vogler 

58. Blum, Martha. Mrs. Griffin 

59. Meinung, Lisetta C. . 

60. Reichel, Clara. Mrs. Hagen 

61. Belo, Theresa W. Mrs. Siddall 

62. Shultz, Dorothea M. Mrs. Clewell 

63. Blum, Maria Lavinia . 

64. Schnall, Henrietta 

65. Hagen, Louisa. Mrs. Sussdorff 

66. Shober, Henrietta 

67. Ruede, Louisa. Mrs. Rogers 

68. Belo, Louisa. Mrs. G. F. Bahnson 

69. Byhan, Rachel. Mrs. L. Lineback 

70. Peterson, Theresa 

71. Blum, Lucinda. Mrs. A. Zevely 

72. Reich, Henrietta. Mrs. Louis Belo 

73. Rights, Susan. Mrs. T. Keehln 

74. Senseman, Melinda. Mrs. Ragland 

75. Zevely, Johanna Sophia. Mrs. A.iButner 

76. Herbst, Anna Aurelia. Mrs. E. Reich 

77. Keehln, Rosalie. Mrs. R. Crist 

78. Hege, Theresa. Mrs. H. Meinung 



















































79. Bagge, Antoinette. Mrs. E. Brietz , 

80. Vogler, Louisa. Mrs. Senseman 

81. Lineback, Sarah Ann. Mrs. Fulkerson 

82. Peterson, Henrietta. Mrs. Frebele . 

83. Senseman, Emma. Mrs. Stewart 

84. Bagge, Lucinda 

85. Blum, Julia. Mrs. Anthony 

86. Levering, Caroline. Mrs. Henry Ruede 

87. Brietz, Lisetta 

88. Vogler, Pauline 

89. Smith, Charlotte. Mrs. E. Reinke 

90. Burkhardt, Caroline. Mrs. Herman Ruede 

91. Reichel, Angelica. Mrs. Warman 

92. Warner, Olivia 

93. Lineback, Emma .... 

94. Hagen, Augusta 

95. Haman, Maria. Mrs. T. Crist . 

96. Benzien, Francisca. Mrs. James Fisher 

97. Reichel, Amelia. Mrs. Kummer 

98. Butner, Harriet. Mrs. E. Clemmons 

99. Pfohl, Clementine. Mrs. E. Meinung 
100. Hall, Augusta. Mrs. L. Winkler 
loi. Foltz, Sophia. Mrs. P. Leinbach 

102. Senseman, Eliza. Mrs. Senseman 

103. Reichel, Ernestine .... 

104. Welfare, Ellen 

105. Haines, Elizabeth. Mrs. C. Rights . 

106. Pfohl, Emma. Mrs. M. E. Grunert . 

107. Benzien, Hermina. Mrs. C. Hauser . 

108. Welfare, Jane 

109. Hennan, Louisa. Mrs. James Lineback 

1 10. Herman, Adelaide .... 

111. Banner, Adelaide. Mrs. Everhardt . 

112. Kremer, Sophia. Mrs. Kernan . 

113. Morrow, Margaret. Mrs. C. Brietz . 

114. Van Vleck, Lisetta. Mrs. A. Meinung 

115. Welfare, Theophila .... 

116. Van Vleck, Louisa .... 

117. Blickensderfer, Ellen. Mrs. Starbuck 

1 18. Siewers, Caroline .... 

119. Vogler, Maria 

120. Demuth, Anna. Mrs. Regenas . 


1 842-; 
















































[21. Siewers, Elizabeth. Mrs. A. F. Pfohl 

122. Fant, Gertrude. Mrs. H. Shepherd 
23. Chitty, Elizabeth 

[24. Gibbons, Annie. Mrs. Lardner 

[25. Gibbons, Jennie . 

[26. Gibbons, Kate 
i-j. Peterson, Maria. Mrs. Transou 
j8. Stoltzenbach, Augusta. Mrs. C. Reinke 

[29. Smith, Louisa. Mrs. Joseph Hall 

[30. Heisler, Maria .... 

[31. Fries, Caroline. Mrs. J. F. ShaflFner 

[32. Chitty, Adelaide .... 

[33. Kremer, Catherine 

[34. Siewers, Margaret. Mrs. C. T. Pfohl 

[35. Blum, Sarah A. Mrs. P. Leinbach 

[36. Van Vleck, Amelia 

[37. Steiner, Amelia .... 

[38. Shultz, Caroline. Mrs.' Greer . 

[39. Service, Caroline 

140. Siddall, Josephine. Mrs. J. W. Hunter 

141. Boner, Maria 

142. Butner, Sophia . 
[43. Clewell, Margaret. 
[44. Lange, Addie. 
[45. Hege, Paulina 
[46. Kremer, Mary. 
147. Zevely, Mary .... 

. Blum, Sophia .... 
149. Sussdorff, Addie. Mrs. WoUe . 
[50. Pfohl, Julia. Mrs. J. Stockton . 
[51. Mack, Joanna. Mrs. W. T. Vogler 
[52. Pfohl, Mary. Mrs. J. Landquist 
153. Lehman, Emma . 
[54. Vogler, Mary 
[55. Brietz, Mary. Mrs. S. Mickey 
[56. Shaffner, Louisa . 
[57. Clauder, Otelia. Mrs. Borheck 
[58. Siddall, Mary. Mrs. C. Stockton 
159. Vogler, Martha. Mrs. E. Peterson 
r6o. Vogler, Sarah .... 

r6i. Fogle, Mary A 

[62. Everhardt, Mary. 
163. Sussdorff, Mary. 

Mrs. R. Jenkins 
Mrs. Cortelyou . 
Mrs. S. Mickey 
Mrs. D. Headly 

Mrs. C. B. Pfohl 
Mrs. Prather . 


I- 1 860, 

I 866-1 876, 




















164. Vogler, Mrs. S. D. . 

165. Shaffner, Sarah E. 

166. Meinung, Mary E. 

167. De Schweinitz, Adelaide. Mrs. H. Bahnson 

168. Senseman, Mary. Mrs. S. Patterson 

169. Belo, Ellen. Mrs. Shelton 

170. Boner, Lavinia. Mrs. Johnston 

171. Chitty, Ella. Mrs. E. Strupe . 

172. Belo, Annie. Mrs. Holman 

173. Crist, Annie. Mrs. Earnhardt . 

174. Bahnson, Carrie. Mrs. Norwood 

175. Belo, Bertha. Mrs. W. Lemly 

176. Blum, Hannah. Mrs. Anthony 

177. Meinung, Adelaide . 

178. Chitty, Emma .... 

179. Bahnson, Lizzie. Mrs. G. Pond 

180. De Schweinitz, Eleanor. Mrs. N. T. Siewers 

181. Belo, Agnes. Mrs. C. Buxton . 

182. Grunert, Louisa. Mrs. C. Smyth 

183. Smith, Lizzie. Mrs. Benson . 

184. Smith, Emma .... 

185. Heberhard, Mary 

186. McOrn, Mary .... 

187. Meller, Emma. Mrs. Thompson 

188. Meinung, Cornelia. Mrs. Hilton 

189. Patterson, Caroline. Mrs. Coble 

190. Mack, Mary .... 

191. Lott, Flora .... 

192. Wurreschke, Mrs. Josephine 

193. Greider, Emma. Mrs. E. Lehman 

194. De Schweinitz, Anna. Mrs. F. Fries 

195. Vest, Sarah .... 

196. Pittman, Annie L. Mrs. A. Vance 

197. Rodgers, Ida. Mrs. Jones 

198. Ward, Janie 

199. Siewers, Gertrude 

200. Erwin, Mattie . 

201. Pfohl, Constance 

202. Parker, lone. Mrs. O. Holt 

203. Troeger, Edith . 

204. Jones, Carrie R. 

205. Bernard, Mary . 

206. Lewis, Emma. Mrs. Hyde 

1 867-1 






























































Carmichael, Alma. Mrs. Boozer 

Heisler, Elizabeth 

Shore, Ellen. Mrs. Seaber 

Geitner, Mary .... 

Pfohl, Elizabeth 

Rondthaler, Alice J. Mrs. A. Chase 

Lineback, Elizabeth . 

Tate, Lula. Mrs. Jerome Stockard 

Clark, Eliza .... 

Winkler, Claudia 

Evans, Katharine. Mrs. von Klenner 

Cooper, Emma. Mrs. McCalli 

Baker, Helen .... 

Bynum, Pamela 

Laciar, Addie .... 

Jenkins, Gertrude. Mrs. A. Howell 

Winkler, Mrs. A. . . . 

Jones, Annie. Mrs. Sprinkle 

Chaffin, Lena. Mrs. Giles 

Du Four, Margueritte 

Meinung, Florence 

Tietze, Lucy 

Vest, Caroline . 

Smith, Mrs. A. L. 

Settle, Florence 

Fain, Lida 

Matthewson, Susanna 

Hege, Annie Louise. Mrs. R. Spaugh 

Mickey, Anna Caroline. Mrs. E. Crosland 

Bessent, Margaret 

Wolle, Grace 

Scriber, Adelaide 

Peterson, Henrietta 

Siddall, Ella . 

Barrow, Otelia . 

Brown, Ettie 

Tracy, Antoinette 

Gosling, Lillian. Mrs. W. G. Tyree 

McFadyen, Christiana 

Query, Clara 

Richardson, Jennie . 

Flake, .Margie. Mrs. George Miller 

Morrison, Luda 

1 884-1 890 
1 887- 1 888 
1 887-1890 
1 888-1 889 
1 888-1 890 
1 888-1 890 
1 888-1 892 
I 889-1 890 
1 889-1 890 
1 889-1 891 
1 890-1 890 
1 890- 1 89 1 
1 890-1 891 


1 890-1 894 
1890- I 898 
1 890-1 899 
1 89 1 -1 893 
2-1894, 1901-1902 
I 892-1 898 
1 892-1 897 
1 893-1 895 
I 893-1 894 
1894- 1 896 




Scales, Nell. Mrs. Scott Fillman 

1 894- 1 897 


Lewis, Mamie .... 



Siddall, Louisa 



Brooke, Elizabeth 

1896- I 899 


Harmon, Tilla . 

1 896- 1 897 


Strupe, Ella. Mrs. Harper 

1 896- 1 898 


Wellborn, Lena. Mrs. Reeves 



Shaffner, Etta . 

1 897- 1 898 


Porter, Hallie. Mrs. W. R. Crawford 

1 897- 1 898 


Richardson, Susie. Mrs. James Sloan 

I 898- I 900 


Lineback, Emma .... 

I 898- I 900 


Lineback, Cornelia . 


I 900- I 90 I 


La Porte, Mile. Zoe . 



Mann, Mrs. Charlotte 

1900- 1 90 1 


Barber, Charlotte. Mrs. / 

L Walrath 

1 900- 1 90 1 


Miller, Dora 



Lichtenthaeler, Annie 




Stockton, Tilla . 



Butner, Mabel . 




Wright, Mary . 



Tuttle, Janet . 




Kerner, Mrs. Jennie 



White, Blanche 


190 I -I 902 


Bonney, Emma 



Jeter, Ethel 




Greider, Mary . 


The following states and countries have sent pupils to Salem Academy 
and College : — 

North Carolina New York 

South Carolina Kentucky 

Virginia Pennsylvania 

Georgia Missouri 

Tennessee Indian Territory 

Alabama Massachusetts 

Texas Illinois 

Mississippi West Indies 

Florida California 

Louisiana Mexico 

Arkansas Maryland 

Note. — The total list of boarding pupils since the opening of the 
school is nearly or quite seven thousand. The day pupils will increase 
this number to ten thousand or more. 

District of Columbia 



New Mexico 

Rhode Island 







The following lists are not included in the index : — 

Bishops who have served in the Southern Province, 336. 

Boards and Officials, 344-345. 

Congregations, Pastors, and Membership, 342. 

First settlers and visitors to Wachovia, 1753-1762, 136 names, 56-58. 

Members of the Provincial Elders' Conference, 1772-1902, 336. 

Ministers of the Avalon Congregation, 341. 

Ministers of the Bethabara Congregation, 338. 

Ministers of the Bethania Congregation, 339. 

Ministers of the Clemmonsville Congregation, 341. 

Ministers of the Friedberg Congregation, 339. 

Ministers of the Friedland Congregation, 340. 

Ministers of the Hope Congregation, 340. 

Ministers of the Kernersville Congregation, 341. 

Ministers of the Mayodan Congregation, 341. 

Ministers of the New Philadelphia Congregation, 341. 

Ministers of the Oak Grove Congregation, 341. 

Ministers of the Providence Congregation, 341. 

Ministers of the Salem Congregation, 337. 

Principals, Professors, &c., of Salem Female Academy, 346. 

Soldiers in the Civil War from Salem, Winston, and neighbouring congregations 

alphabetically arranged, 246-249. 
States and countries represented on register of Salem Female Academy, 353. 
Sunday-schools, Superintendents, and Membership, 343. 
Teachers of Salem Female Academy, 347-353. 

Abbeville, 178. 

Academy S.S., 281. 

Academy, the, 290. 

Adams, 131. 

Advent, 281, 284. 

Agthe, 331. 

Alabama, 325. 

Alamance, 73, 97, 102, 104, 105, 108, no, 

114, 120, 125. 
Alaska, 316. 
Alberti, 204. 
Allen, 105. 
Alpha, 283. 

Alumnae Association, 224, 293, 329. 
America, i, 2, 4, 45, 73, 91, 120, 129, 134, 

136, 137, 138, 154, 161, 162, 163, 164, 

165, 169, 177, 204, 216, 217, 260, 304, 

315. 317. 318, 323. 326, 327, 

Am. S.S. Union, 199, 278, 279, 282. 

Ancient Church, 311. 

Angel, 61. 

Anglican Church, 301. 

Annex Hall, 335. 

Antes, 6, 9. 

Appomattox, 242. 

Armstrong, 106, 108, 123, 128, 134, 14 

149, 169. 
Atlanta, 242. 
Atlantic Ocean, 4. 
Atwood, B., 238. 
Augsburg Confession, 303. 
Augusta, C. H., 15. 
Aust, 92. 
Australia, 316. 
Austria, 9. 
Avalon, 17, 275, 285. 




Baclihof, 76. 

Bachman, 181. 

Bachman, Bishop, 333. 

Bagge, 88, 92, 115, 128, 135, 141, 142, 
143, 144, 146, 149, 151, 156, 176. 

Bagge, Mrs., 105. 

Bahnson, G. F., 87, 238, 239, 240, 280. 

Bahnson, G. F., Jr., 287. 

Bahnson, H. T., viii, 245. 

Banner, 38. 

Banner, H., 240. 

Banton, 99. 

Barrow, H. W., 238. 

Basle, 309. 

Battle, 144. 

Beck, 93. 

Beck, H., 201. 

Belo, A. H., 238. 

Belo, E., 218, 274. 

Belo, H., 241. 

Benade, Bishop, 326, 328. 

Benbury, 155. 

Benzien, 61, 62, 158, 170, 178, 182, 184, 
185, 188, 189, 190, 196. 

Beroth, J., 14, 67. 

Berthelsdorf, 313. 

Bessent, J. C, 245. 

Bessent, N., 287. 

Bethabara, N.C., 14, 24, 28, 32, 33, 34, 35, 
37. 38, 39. 40, 41. 42, 44. 45. 46. 47. 48, 
50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 
65, 66, 67, 68, 72, 74, 76, 78, 82, 85, 87, 
88, 91, 92, 93, 95, 97, 98, 100, 102, 103, 
105, 108, III, 114, 116, 118, 119, 120, 
125, 126, 127, 128, 13s, 142, 145, 151, 
162, 166, 173, 174, 180, 181, 194, 200, 
239. 283, 320. 

Bethania, 27, 46, 47, 52, 53, 60, 63, 65, 66, 
67, 68, 72, 91, 99, 100, 106, 112, 113, 
120, 127, 128, 135, 145, 151, 163, 165, 
198, 239, 250, 271, 283, 284, 322, 323, 


Bethesda, 285. 

Bethlehem Chapel (Europe), 310. 

Bethlehem, Pa., 2, 6, 28, 30, 36, 37, 40, 
S3. 91. 98. 100, 158, 178, 182, 186, 193, 
315. 318, 319. 322, 325, 327, 329, 333. 

Bethlehem Seminary, 318, 324, 330. 

Biefel, 67, 71. 

Bigler, Bishop, 327, 

Bird, 52, 55. 

Birkhead, 88. 

Bishop, 200. 

Bishops (list), 336, 

" Black Boys," 112. 

Black Walnut Bottom, 27, 64, 65. 

Blantyre Hospital, 254, 

Bleck, C. A., 324, 325. 

Bleck, Miss, 325, 

Bleck, Mrs., 325. 

Blickensderfer, 318. 

Blue Ridge, 205, 206, 285. 

Bluff, 282. 

Blum, 135, 141, 151. 

Boards and Officials (list), 344, 345. 

Boeckel, 77. 

Boehler, F., 279. 

Boehler, Peter, 28, 53, 55. 

Bohemia, 3, 135, 191, 192, 302, 308, 310, 

311. 313, 316. 
Bohemian-Moravian Branch, 311. 
Boner, J., 250, 251. 
Bonn, 48, 60, 83, 93, 99, 105, 106, III, 

112, 119, 131, 170, 179. 
Borg, 106, 107, 108. 
Boston Harbour, 125. 
Bowie, 178, 179. 
Brietz, C, 218. 
Brietz, E. A., 238. 
British, 115, 136, 139, 159, 163, 164, 165, 

166, 167, 169, 249. 
Broad Bay, 78. 
Broesing, 172, 173. 
Brooklyn, 333. 
Brooks, 143, 144, 148. 
Brooks, C. B., 245. 
Brunswick, 63, 98, 102, 103. 
Brushy Fork, 85, 278. 
Bryan, 144. 
Burk, 159. 
Burkhardt, 201. 
Burkall, 323. 
Burry, 62. 
Butner, A., 218. 
Butner, A. B., 238. 
Butner, A. I., 165. 
Butner, M., 330. 
Button Engine, 272. 
Byhan, 200. 

Caanan, 202. 
Calahan, 278. 
Calixtines, 308, 309. 
Calvary, 89, 90, 262, 284. 
Calvary S.S., 281. 
Cambridge, 178. 
Camden, 161, 162, 170. 
Camden Valley, N.Y., 324. 



Campbell, 169. 

Cape Fear, 102, 125. 

Carmel, 285. 

Carmichael, F., 238. 

Carr, 144, 147. 

Carrol's Manor, 80. 

Carter, 62. 

Carter, R., 195. 

Caruthers, 96, 97, 165. 

Caswell, 142, 158, 195. 

Catawba River, 5, 7. 

Catawbas, 32, 51. 

Catholic Church, 309, 313. 

Cavalry, loth Ohio, 251. 

Cedar Ave., 251. 

Centennial Mem. Building, 294, 335. 

Centennial Society, 292. 

Central America, 316. 

Ceylon, 192. 

Charleston, 81, 118, 178, 

Charlotte, 97, 274, 275. 

Cherokees, 32, 40, 45, 46, 50, 51, 52, 179, 

186, 200, 201, 202, 280, 320, 
Chitty, Mary, 80. 
Chitty, R. L., 238, 264. 
Christ Church, 281, 284. 
Christendom, 316. 
Christiansfeld, 323. 
Christmas, 30, 31, 64. 

Churton, 7, 157. 

Civil War, 176, 219, 235, 249, 255, 256, 
294, 326, 328. 

Clarendon, Earl, 4, 

Clauder, H. G., 200, 

Clauder, C. J., 240. 

Clemmons, E. T., 286, 287. 

Clemmons Hill, 288. 

Clemmonsville, 285, 286, 287, 288. 

Clewell. A. A., 238. 

Clewell, David, 239. 

Clewell, M., 254. 

Clewell, J. H., 287, 291, 332, 333, 334. 

Clewell, Mrs., 334. 

Clover Station, 243. 

Colonial Records, 5. 

Coloured S.S., 281. 

Comenius, 135, 192, 294, 312, 314. 

Committee of Safety, 123, 125, 126, 127, 

Conestoga, 73. 

Confederate Troops, 252. 

Confiscation, 133, 151, 156, 157. 

Congregations, members, and pastors 
(list), 342. 

Congregation House, 54. 

Cool Spring, 281. 

Cooper Run, 178. 

Copenhagen, 314. 

Corbin, F., 6. 

Cornwallis. 123, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 

169, 250. 
Cossart, 157. 

Cotton Mill S.S., 281, 284. 
Cowpens (battle), 164. 
Creeks, 32, 45, 201, 202, 320. 
Cresson, 117. 
Crist, J. R., 218. 
Crosland, E. S., 284, 285. 
Cross Creek, 142. 
Crouch, C. D., 283, 284, 285. 
Cunow, 158. 

Dalman, 322. 

Danish, 14. 

Dan River, 15, 17, 18. 

d'Anna, 331. 

Danville, 243. 

David, C, 313. 

Delaware, 130, 136. 

Denke, C. F., 320. 

Denmark, 78. 

de Rosette, 117. 

de Schweinitz, B., 329. 

de Schweinitz, Bernard, 326. 

de Schweinitz, E. A., 87, 260, 325. 

de Schweinitz, Edmund, 326, 327. 

de Schweinitz, F. C, 178, 179, 320. 

de Schweinitz, H. C, 178. 

de Schweinitz, L. D., 75, 87, 158, 326, 327. 

de Schweinitz, Robert, 226, 251, 253, 327, 

328, 329, 330. 
de Watteville, 75, 177, 181. 
Diaspora, i, 316. 
Dickens, 167. 
Dixon, 83. 
Dobbs, Fort, 46. 

Dobbs, Gov., 61, 63, 72, 83, 95, 98. 
Dobbs Parish, 63, 127, 
Dobson, 153, 154. 
Dorothea Creek, 68. 
Doub, 238. 

Douthet, T. B., 238, 245. 
Douthit, 79. 
Dunkard, 33. 

East Africa, 316. 

Easter, 30, 70, 71, 90, 182, 250. 

Easton, 130. 



East Salem S.S.. 281. 284. 

Eberhard, L. B., 238. 

Eden, 284. 

Edenton, 5, 6, 125. 

Eder, 2cxj. 

Edward, Earl of Clan, 4. 

Edwards, 114. 

Egypt. 333- 

Elbe, 87. 

Elm St. S.S., 281, 284. 

Elrod, 79, 80. 

Emma Moore Mem., 294. 

Emmaus, 130, 330. 

" Enge Conferenz," 55. 

English (England), 10, 32, 33, 80. 83, 

102, 122, 125, 137, 139, 160, 161, 167, 

172, 193, 218, 262, 315. 
Episcopal Church, 135, 137. 
Esquimaux in Greenland, 314, 315. 
Ettwein, 79, 186. 
Europe, i, 2, 3, 4, 91, 140, 172, 173, 177, 

181, 193, 204; 216, 321, 327, 333, 334. 
Euterpean Society, 335. 

Fairview S.S., 281, 284. 

Fanning, 96, 99, 104, 112. 

Farmville, 243. 

Fayetteville, 28, 60, 126, 161, 195. 

Federal, 249, 250, 256. 

Feldhausen, H., 14. 

Ferdinand of Tyrol, 310, 311. 

Fiedler, 79. 

Fish, 48, 49. 

Fisher, C, 320. 

Florida, 4, 83, 136, 204, 236. 

Fogle, A., 203, 250, 255. 

Fogle Bros., 276. 

Fogle, C. H., 265. 

Fogle, Chas., 265. 

Foltz's kitchen, 272. 

Forkland, 7. 

" Forsyth County," viii, 92, 151, 176, 209, 

211, 215, 241, 277. 
Fort, 32, 39, 40. 
France, 32, 33, 40, 44, 177. 
France, La, engine, 272. 
Freeholders, 62. 
Frederick of Palatinate, 310, 
Fredericksburg, 239, 240. 
Frey (list), 77. 
Freydeck, 7. 
Friebele, 205. 
Friedberg, 26, 28, 72, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80 

86, 198, 281, 282, 284. 

Friedrich, iii, 112. 

Friends, 74. 

Fries, Adelaide, viii, 92, 151, 209, 308. 

Fries engine, 271. 

Fries, F., 218, 226. 

Fries, F. H., 265, 275, 276, 281. 

Fries, H. E., viii, 275. 

Fries, H. W., 287. 

Fries, J. W., viii, 288. 

Fries mills, 254. 

Fries (minister), 28, 54. 

Fries (post-office), 275. 

Fries power plant, 276. 

Fries store, 89. 

Fritz, 80, 181. 

Frohok, 55, 99. 

Frommel, 86. 

Fulp, 282, 285. 

Gambold, 200. 

Game well, 272. 

Gammon, 83, 98. 

Gammon, Mrs., 83. 

Gates, 161. 

Gates Co., 195. 

Geneva, 302. 

George III, 112, 115, 122, 130, 131, 134, 

137. 138, 139- 
Georgia, 135, 136, 162, 167, 172, 190, 201, 

202, 250. 
German, 10, 14, 76, 78, 80, 218, 262. 
German Reformed, 78. 
Germanton, 211. 
Germany, i, 3, 53, 172, 193, 271, 313, 315, 

Gervais, J. L., 178. 
Gilbert, 148. 
Gnadenberg, 317. 
Gnadenfeld, 326. 
Gnadenhutten, Ohio, 325. 
Gnadenhutten, Pa., 36. 
Grabs, 66, 67, 68. 
Grabs, F. W., 284, 285. 
Graceham, Md., 328. 
Graeter, 77. 
Graff, 'jj, 82, 91, 92, 93, 99, 100, lis, "7. 

Granville, Lord, 2, 4, 6, 12, 13, 92, 153, 

Gray, R., 209. 
Gray, Wiley, 241. 
Grays, Forsyth, 238. 
Great Britain, 138, 145, 154, 170. 
Great Lakes, 32. 



Green Co., 202. 

Greene, 123, 159, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 

Greenland, missions, 98, 180, 192. 
Greensboro, 168, 243, 259. 
Gregor, 75, 91. 
Grube, 14, 73, 186. 
Grunert, M. E., 260, 329, 330. 
Guilford, 105, 141, 168, 170, 242, 285. 

Haberland, J., 14, 28. 

Hagan, 206. 

Hahn, 79. 

Halifax, 152, 153. 

Hall, 106. 

Hall, J. E., 285, 286, 287, 288, 291. 

Hall, S. G., 238. 

Hall, Wm., 180. 

" Hals Krankheit," 180. 

Haltem, 34, 62. 

Hamilton, 36, 73, 130. 

Hampton's store, 88, 89. 

Hancock, 131. 

Handely, 62. 

Harrison, M., 325. 

Hartman, 77. 

Harvard College, 312. 

Hauser, 41, 67. 

Hauser, A., 240. 

Hawkins, 143, 144, 148, 202. 

Haw River, 34. 

Heckewelder, 153, 319. 

Hege, 67. 

Hege, C. A., 276. 

Hehl, S3, 55. 

Heidelberg, 76. 

Heintzman, 166. 

Hennersdorf, 312, 313. 

Herbst, 93, 322. 

Herman, Bishop, 201, 202, 203, 326. 

Hermhut, 216, 312, 314, 327. 

Hessians, 130. 

Hickory, 5, 7. 

Hicks, 201. 

Hidden Seed, 311. 

Hillsboro, 98, 99, 100, 104, no, 112, 134, 

141, 168, 195. 
Hillsboro, Lord, 104. 
Himalaya Mountains, 316. 
Hine, 79. 

Hinshaw, G. W., 265, 266. 
Historical Society, 25, no, 181, 193, 271. 
" History of Wachovia," 293, 295. 
Holder, 67, 83, 88, 92, 93, 112, 119. 

Holder, R., 207. 

Holland, 12, 193. 

Holstein, 14. 

Holyoke, 332. 

Home Church, 284. 

Home Guard, 242. 

Hooper, 149. 

Hope, 72, 76, 79, 80. 

Hope, N. C, 317, 318, 320. 

Hope, N. J., 319. 

Horsefield, T., 6. 

Hortus medicus (list), 21. 

Hortus medicus (map), 22. 

Howard, 104. 

Hughes, 38, 46, 62, 63, 105. 

Hunter, 106, 107, 108. 

Hunter, J. W., 251. 

Hus, 308, 310. 

Husbands, H., 96, 97, 106, 108, 100, 

Hussite War, 309. 
Hutberg, 69. 
Hutton, 12, 156, 157, 158. 

Independence, War of, 72, 
Indian Territory, 202, 320. 
Indian War, 2, 40, 44, 53, 58, 69, 72, 76, 

Ingebretsen, E., 14, 69, 71. 
Irish, 10. 

Jackson, 182. 

Jacobson, J. C, 322, 323, 333. 

Jamaica, 331. 

James River, 15. 

James, S. C, 238. 

Jarvis, 105, 108, 

Jefferson, 194. 

Jerusalem, 316. 

Jesuits, 311. 

Johanna Creek, 82. 

John Samuel, 90. 

Jones, S., 113. 

Kalberlahn, 14, 28, 29, 60, 69, 71. 
Kapp, 67. 
Keehln, F. E., 238. 
Keehln, T. F., 218. 
Kernersville, 203, 285. 
King's highway, 60. 
King's Mountain, 163. 
Kinney-Bradshaw, 286. 
Kirkland, 195. 
Klan, J., 117. 



Klein, 83, 

Kliige, 158. 

Knoxboro, 172. 

Knoxville, 179. 

Koehler, 177, 178, 181, 182, 184, 321. 

Koenigsderfer, 14, 28. 

Koenigstein, 87. 

Kralitz Bible, 310. 

Kramsch, Samuel, 189, 193, 195, 317, 318, 

Kramsch, S. & E., 207. 
Krause, Anna J., 61. 
Krause, S., 324. 
Kramer, 67. 
Kremer, Mrs, E., 254. 
Kremser, 182. 
Kroehn, 79. 
Kuenzel, 79. 

Labrador, 192, 316. 

Lancaster, Pa., 74, 328. 

Land Office, 5, 24. 

Langgaard, 318. 

Lanier, 106, 108, 123, 129, 134, 149. 

Lanius. 79. 

Lash, A., 240. 

Lash, Anna, 71. 

Laugenour, 86. 

Laurens, 131, 178, 179. 

Leather Stocking Tales, 49. 

Lebanon, Pa., 324. 

Lech, 85, 86. 

Lee, General, 251, 252. 

Lehman, E., viii, 317. 

Leibert, E., 332. 

Leinbach, R. P., 260. 

Lentzner, 71. 

Leslie, 49. 

Levering, Bishop, 333. 

Lewis, 179. 

Lewis, N., 240. 

Lexington, 15. 

Lincoln, 256. 

Lindsay House, 4. 

Lindsey, 141. 

Lineback, B., 201. 

Lineback, J. A., 90. 

Lineback, J. T., viii, 281, 282. 

Lisher, J., 14, 28. 

Lissa Folios, 309. 

List, settlers and visitors 1753-62, 136 

names, 56. 
Lititz, in Europe, 308. 
Lititz, Pa., 2, 91, 181, 324. 

Little Carpenter, 51, 74, 

Loesch Creek, 7. 

Loesch (Lash), H., 6, 14, 15, 48, 61. 

Loesch (Lash), J., 14, 15, 28, 37, 38, 52, 

61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 83, 86, 99, 

102, 112. 
London, 4, 12, 156, 158. 
Long Cane Creek, 178. 
Lorez, 91. 
Lung, J., 14. 
Lusatia, Upper, 312. 
Luther, 302. 
Lutheran Church, i, 78, 301, 311, 313, 

314. 317. 

Macedonia, 199, 286. 

Mahoni, 36, 48. 

Main Hail, 226, 228, 231, 238, 250, 294, 
328, 330, 335- 

Maine, 78. 

Makefy, 50. 

Manassas, 239. 

Maps, II, 19, 22, 39, 94. 

Marshall, 75, 81, 85, 86, 87, 90, 92, 98, 
no. III, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 156, 
157, 158, 172, 178, 182, 183, 184, 186. 

Martin, 72, 120, 143, 144, 147, 155, 158, 
159, 183, 185. 

Maryland, 15, 80, 137, 140. 

Massachusetts, 312. 

Mayo River, 15. 

Mayodan, 15, 17, 275, 285. 

McBride, 211, 213. 

McCuiston, 207, 284, 286. 

McCullah's Farm, 202. 

McGruder, J. O., 266. 

McKellock, 99. 

Mecklenburg, 125, 167, 

Medical Garden, 22. 

Meinung, 272. 

Meinung, S., 195. 

Merk, J., 6, 7. 

Merkfield, 7. 

Merkley, C, 14. 

Merrill, in, 

Metcalf, 151. 

Meteor, 82. 

Methodist, 55, 238, 287. 

Meyer, 93, 108. 

Micklejohn, 99. 

Mickey, S., 218. 

Miksch, 93. 

Miller, 6, 7, 79, in, 112, 172, 173. 

Miller, Capt., 239. 




Ministers of the Congregation in 

Wachovia, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341. 
Missions in Greenland, 100. 
Mississippi River, 202. 
Missouri, 202, 203. 
Mizpah, 283. 
Mock, 200. 
Monk's Corner, 178. 
Montfort, 7. 
Moore, 97. 
Moore's Creek, 126. 
Mooresville, 275. 
Moravia, 3, 136, 191, 192, 302, 309, 310, 

311, 312, 313, 314, 316. 
Moravia (cong.), 2B5. 
Moravian, i, 2, 3, 4, 12, 17, 27, 29, 36, 

37. 55. 59. 64, 73. 74. 75. 76, n, 79. 87, 
100, 104, 105, 108, no, III, 121, 122, 
123, 125, 129, 130, 133, 134, 13s, 136, 
140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 14s, 146, 149, 
150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 159, 
160, 162, 167, 170, 172, 177, 178, 192, 
193, 200, 204, 207, 208, 209, 216, 217, 
235, 245, 246, 260, 261, 277, 281, 293, 
296, 297, 301, 302, 303, 304, 308, 313, 
314, 315, 316. 

Moravian Campe, 116. 

Moravian College, Beth., 334. 

Moravian Falls, 5. 

" Moravians in North Carolina," viii, 76. 

Morgan, 164. 

Morganton, 5, 7. 

Mt. Airy, 206. 

Mt. Bethel, 206, 207, 285. 

Muddy Creek, 6, 9, 25, 28, 80, 211. 

Mueller, 77. 

Mulberry Fields, 82, 

Murchison, D., 238. 

Muscongus River, 78. 

Mushback, 112. 

Muskingum, 319. 

Nagel, 71. 

Napoleonic power, 177. 

Nash, A., 144, 154. 

Nazareth Hall, 318, 323, 324, 326, 327, 

329. 331- 
Nazareth, Pa., 2, 319, 321, 330. 
Neissers, 313. 
Neuwied, 177. 

Newbern, 61, 62, 63, 81, 95, 98, 109, 154. 
New England, 3, 47, 332. 
New Hope, 7. 
New Jersey, 140. 

New Philadelphia, 285, 327. 

New River, 33. 

New World, 303. 

New Year's Day, 58. 

New York, 10, 14, 32, 74, 120, 137, 158, 

177. 324- 
Nicholas of Prague, 309. 
Nickolites, 143. 
Niesky, 323, 330. 
Ninety-six, 178. 
Nissan, 79. 
Nissen works, 276. 
Nitchmann, D., 314. 
Nitschman, 55. 
Norfieet, A., 195. 
North, 220, 235, 236, 241, 331. 
North America, 127, 134. 
North American Indians, 316. 
North Carolina, i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 

13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 23, 24, 26, 31, 32, 35, 

43. 45. 47. 52, S3. 54. 74. 75. 78. 95. 98. 
115, 119, 120, 121, 125, 132, 133, 135, 
136. 137, 138, 139, 140, 14s, 147, 151, 
152, 157, 161, 167, 168, 173, 178, 194, 
201, 205, 206, 211, 220, 236, 257, 304, 

317. 318. 
Northern Province, 203, 260. 
Norway, 14. 

N. W. N. C. Railway, 274. 
N. & W. Railway, 274, 275, 285. 

Oak Grove, 282, 285. 
Oak Ridge, 285. 
Ohio, 43, 55, 211, 318, 332. 
Old Town, 283. 
Old World, 303. 
Oli, 7. 
Olivet, 283. 

Oo-yu-ge-lo-gee, 200, 202. 
Opiz, A. M., 61, 67. 
Orange Co., 96, 108, 157. 
Organ, 58. 
Owens, 9, 34, 37. 

Pacific Ocean, 4. 
Padget, 80. 
Page, W. H., viii. 
Palatinate, 78. 
Palestine, 333. 
Palmer, Gen., 250, 251. 
Paper Mill, 85. 
Park Hall, 335. 
Paris, 170, 178. 



Parsons, 143, 144, 148. 

Parsons, M., 322. 

Patterson, 142. 

Paxton, 74. 

Peace Jubilee, 160, 170, 171. 

Penn, Gov., 73. 

Pennsylvania, i, 2, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14, 18, 28, 
32, 36, 43, 53, 73, 76, 83, 86, 91, 130, 
136, 137, 140, 193, 218, 268, 288. 

Perth Amboy, 74. 

Petersbach, 85. 

Petersburg, 240, 242, 244. 

Peters Creek, 85. 

Peterson, H., 14, 29, 40, 66, 68, 83. 

Peterson, 201. 

Peterson, S., 207. 

Pettycord, 80. 

Pfeil, J., 14. 

Pfohl, C. B., viii, 245, 

Pfohl, C. T., 288. 

Pfohl, J. K., 286, 287, 288. 

Pfohl, S. T., 281, 330. 

Pfohl, W. J.. 238, 241. 

Pfohl, W. S., viii, 267. 

Philadelphia, N.C., 199. 

Philadelphia, Pa., 6, 55, 74, 122, 125, 131, 
177, 218, 318, 333. 

Philips, M., 195. 

Pickens, 162, 163, 167. 

Pilgrim, 47. 

Pilot Mountain, 15. 

Pine Tree store, 103, 112. 

Pleasant Fork, 278. 

Poland, 192, 310, 311, 312. 

Potomac River, 15. 

Port Washington, O., 334. 

Postal Tel. Co., 276. 

Pough, III. 

Powell, J., 80. 

Praezel, 88, 153, 178. 

Praezel, J. E., 195. 

Prague, 308, 310. 

Prerau, 312. 

Presbyterian, 104. 

Priest, Wm., 51. 

Principals of S. F. A., 346. 

Professors of Music, etc., S. F. A., 346. 

Proprietors, 4. 

Proske, 200. 

Protestant, 78, 301, 313. 

Provincial Elders' Conference, 336. 

Providence, 282, 285. 

Province Island, 74. 

Prussia, 310,317. 

Quakers, 97, 121. 

Raleigh, 97. 
Ranke, 67. 
Rasp, 88. 

Ranch, 40, 61, 62, 63. 
Reading, 74. 
Reedy Branch, 178. 
Reedy Creek, 112. 
Reformation, German, 308. 
Reformed Church, 301, 303, 311. 
Regulators, 72, 81, 96, 97, 103, 104, 105, 
106, 107, 108, 109, no, 112, 113, 118, 

120, 125. 
Reich, F., 240. 
Reich, J. A., 238. 
Reich, J. H., 238. 

Reichel, viii, 76, 87, 95, 151, 179, 194, 195, 

196, 197, 200, 279, 319, 321. 
Reichel, G. B., 321, 322. 
Reichel, J. F., 174. 
Reichmont, 7. 
Renewed Church, 312, 314. 
Reuss, Countess, 313. 
Renter, 66, 88, 93. 
Revolution, 26, 60, 72, 73, 91, 93, 95, 120, 

121, 123, 161, 164, 165, 172, 176, 182, 
211, 236, 249, 256. 

Reynolds Spring, 264, 265, 

Rhein, 177. 

Rice, A., 51. 

Richenau, 301. 

Richmond, 239, 242. 

R. & S. Railway, 275. 

Ried, 79. 

Rifles, Forsyth, 238. 

Rights, A., 238. 

Rights, C. L., 203, 206, 260. 

Rights, Theo., 201. 

Roanoke River, 15, 16. 

Robinson, 49. 

Rogers, 63, 79. 

Rogers, Mrs., 68, 69, 70, 71. 

Rome, 308, 309. 

Rominger, 79. 

Romish Church, 301. 

Rondthaler, Bishop, viii, 87, 261, 284, 286, 

287, 288, 291, 301, 332, 333. 
Rondthaler, E., Sr., 333. 
Rondthaler, H. E., 284, 285, 291. 
Rondthaler, Mrs. E., 323, 333. 
Roth, 73. 
Rothe, 313. 
Rough and Ready, engine, 271. 



Rowan, 141, 157. 

Rudolf 11,310. 

Ruede, 206. 

Russian, 177. 

Rutherford, 119, 123, 144, 145, 146, 147. 

St. Thomas, 314. 

Salem, 13, 49, 72, 73, 76, 78, 84, 85, 86, 87, 
88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 100, 108, 112, 
113, 119, 120, 123, 127, 128, 129, 132, 
134. 135, 145, 151, 156, 158, 159, 163, 
166, 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 
^177, 180, 181, 182, 186, 187, 194, 195, 

198, 200, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 
209, 211, 217, 218, 219, 220, 222, 224, 
231, 23s, 237, 238, 239, 241, 242, 245, 
246, 249, 254, 255, 257, 259, 261, 262, 
264, 265, 266, 272, 275, 278, 279, 281, 
282, 284, 285, 286, 292, 295, 318, 319, 
321, 322, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 

330, 333- 
Salem Boys" School, 292, 333. 
Salem Female Academy, 186, 191, 194, 

199, 220, 231, 233, 238, 243, 250, 257, 
258, 278, 292, 293, 295, 317, 318, 319, 
320, 321, 322, 323, 325, 326, 327, 328, 

329. 330. 331. 332. 333. 334. 335- 
Salem Fire Department, 266, 267. 
Salem Home S.S., 251, 281. 
Salem Square, 90. 

Salem Water Supply Company, 264, 265. 
Salisbury, 38, 46, 61, 62, 102, 104, 108, 126, 

129, 156, 182. 
Santa Cruz, 142. 
Santee River, 179. 
Saratoga, N.Y., 332. 
Savannah, Ga., 179, 315. 
Saxony, 216, 312. 
Schaff, 279. 

Schleswig, Denmark, 323. 
Schmick, 73. 
Schmidt, 67, 88, 200. 
Schnall, L., 323. 
Schneider, 79, 179. 
Schnepf, 92. 
Schoeneck, Pa., 288. 
Schoenthal, 7. 
Schropp, 83. 
Scotland Neck, 195. 
Sehner, C, 320. 
Seidel, Mrs., 69, 71. 
Seidel, N., 14, 28, 65, 66, 68, 69, 71. 
Seiz, 79. 
Sennet, 6. 

Serepta, 177. 

Shaffner, H. F., 265. 

Shaffner, J. F., viii, 88, 211, 238, 245, 264, 

Shaffner, L. C, viii, 346. 
Shaffher's house, 272. 
Sharon, O., 325. 
Shaub, 71. 
Shaub, L., 254. 
Sheets, 286. 
Shenandoah, 15.' 
Shepherd, 147. 
Sheppard, J., 240. 
Shober, 182. 

Shober, P. & H., 195, 207, 279. 
Shore, 68. 
Shore, Henry, 239. 
Shultz, C. -A., 238. 
Shultz, H. A., 281, 327. 
Shultz, J. E., 238. 
Shultz, P. T., 238. 
Shuman, 202. 
Siewers, Charles S., 276. 
Siewers, J., 204, 205, 206. 
Siewers' shop, 272. 
Silesia, 317. 
Silkhope, 172. 
Skiem, Jutland, 323. 
Smith, A., 71. 
Smith College, 333. 
Smith, D. Z., 200. 
Smythe, M., 330. 
Society Hall, 335. 
Soelle, 75, 78, 80, 204. 
South, 220, 233, 235, 236, 241, 256, 260, 

317, 322, 331, 333, 334. 
South Africa, 192, 316. 
South America, 316. 
South Carolina, 10, 51, 60, 161, 162, 164, 

178, 179, 190, 220, 236. 
Southern Province, 175, 178, 260, 333. 
Southern Railway, 274, 275. 
Southern States, 183, 191. 
South Fork, 113. 

South Hall, 197, 258, 322,330, 332, 335. 
South Sea, 4. 
Southside factories, 276. 
South Side S.S., 281, 284. 
Spach, Adam, 28, 76, 77. 
Spach's works, 276. 
Spangenber^, 4, 6, 9, 12, 28, 53, 55, 65, 6rj^ 

68, 70, 87, 178, 304. 
Spangenberg papers, 5, lo. 
Spaniards, 136. , 



Spanish War, 236. 

Spaugh, W., 201. 

Spaugh, W. E., 284, 285. 

Spring Place, 202, 320. 

Spring Place, new, 202. 

Stach, 180. 

Stafford, 86. 

Staiert, A., 195. 

States represented in Academy, 353. 

Stauber, 61, 77. 

Staunton, 15. 

Steiner, 67, 88, 93. 179- 200. 319. 320. 

Steiner, M. & S., 195, 207. 

Steward, 159. 

Stewart, L., 254. 

Stockberger, 93. 

Stokes County, 209, 278, 281, 282. 

Stoneman, Gen., 328. 

Storehouse, 52. 

Strasburg, 302. 

Strickland, E. F., 288. 

Strudwick, 141, 146. 

Strudvvick, E., 195. 

Strupe, 68. 

Strupe, 286. 

Sunday-school statistics, etc., 343. 

Surry Co., 108, 128, 149, 150, 156. 157- 

Susquehanna, 15. 

Sussdorff, G., 238. 

Swiss, 82. 

Switzerland, 193. 

Taborites, 308, 309. 

Tarboro, 195. 

Tarleton, 164. 

Tayhill, chief, 179. 

Taylor, 159. 

Teachers, S. F. A., 347- 348, 349. 35°. SSL 

352, 353- 
Tellico Blockhouse, 179. 
Tennessee, 201, 202, 220, 250. 
Tennessee River, 179. 
Thaeler, A., 291. 
Theological Seminary, 326, 327, 328, 330, 

331. 333- 
Thomas, 49. 
Ticonderoga, N.Y., 332. 
Tiersch,9i, 92, 172, 319, 
Time of sorrow, 53. 
Tondern, 323. 
Tories, 125, 126, 129, 130, 162, 166, 167 

Town Fork, 49. 
Trombones, 82. 

Tryon, 72, 73, 75, 87, 95, 96, 97. 98, 102, 
103, 104, 105, 109, no. III, 112, 113, 
IIS, "6, iiB, 119, 120, 123, 142, 162. 

Tryon, Mrs., 99, 100, loi. 

Tschirschky, M. L., 327. 

Turner, 213. 

Tuscarawas River, 55. 

Twin City, 266, 274, 276, 281. 

Union Army, 250. 
Union Cross, 285. 

Union Theological Seminary, N.Y., 334. 

Unitas Fratrum, i, 139, 145. 152, 156- 3°!. 

302, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 314, 315, 


United Brethren, no, 116, 117, 144, 14S. 

184, 185, 194, 205, 313. 
United States, 138, 139, 147. 148. 160, 170, 

176, 183, 184, 191, 194. 214. 220. 
Unity, 5, 91, 136, 173. 198, 216, 217, 257, 

284, 309, 310. 3". 315. 316. 
University of N.C., 333. 
Urichsville, O., 334- 

Utley, 75, 77, 80, 91, 92, 93, 113, 115. "6, 
172, 204. 

Van, J. & M., 201. 

Van Laer, 12. 

Van Vleck, 87, 158. 206, 324. 

Van Vleck, H. J., 333- 

Vance, Gov., 253, 294. 

Vance, J. A., 276. 

Vierling, F. H., 322. 

Vigilant, engine, 271. 

Virginia, 13, 17. 33. 52. 132. iS9. 162. 169, 

205, 206, 207, 213, 220, 237, 239, 250, 

Vogler, C, 79. 
Vogler, J., 206, 281. 
Vogler, J. R., 238. 
Vogler, L., 254. 
Vogler, Miles, 200. 
Vogler, W. T., 288. 
VoUs, 77. 
Von der Merk, 119. 

Wach, 85, 86. 

Wachau, 7, 9. 

Wachovia, i, 2, 3, S, 7. 9. 10, n. 13. H, 
15, 18, 20, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 32, 34, 35. 
40, 42, 44. 45. 47. 52. 53. 54. 55. 61, 63, 
64, 6s, 72, 73, 76. 78, 79. 80, 83, 84, 85, 
87, 90, 91, 95. 97. 98, 100. 102, 103, 



104, loS, no, 112, 115, 116, 
121, 122, 126, 128, 129, 130, 

134. 135. 137. 138, 141. 143. 
152, 154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 
162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 
172, 173, 174, 176, 177, 178, 
186, 187, 189, 190, 198, 199, 
204, 209, 216, 218, 235, 236, 
257, 260, 277, 283, 288, 296, 

Wachovia Arbour, 282, 284. 
Wac/iovia Moravia?:, 90, 180, 

291, 292. 
Waddell, 97, 108, 112, 118, 123. 
Wagner, 172. 
Wagner, 26, 53, 60, 82. 
Waldensians, 309. 
Waldo, G., 78. 
Waldoboro, 78. 
Walk, 77. 
Walker, 119. 
Wallon, 128. 
Walnut Cove, 15, 49. 
Ward, 201, 202. 
Ward's Gap, 206. 
Warner, 200. 
Washington, 32, 123, 130, 131, 

183. 185. 
Washington City, 200. 
Washington, W., 164. 
Webster, 169. 
Weidell, 62. 
Welfare, 200. 
Wellesley, 332. 
Wesley, John, 55. 
West, 220, 241, 334. 
West Indies, 177, 314, 316. 
Wharton, 238. 
Whigs, 168. 
Whiteaker, 143, 144. 

117, 119, 
131. 133. 
14s. 151. 
160, 161, 
169, 170, 
182, 185, 
200, 203, 
249. 256, 
297. 304. 

181, 290, 

140, 182, 

White House, 222. 

White, W. H., 245. 

Whittington, B., 287. 

Wiley, 97. 

Wilkes, 167, 169. 

Wilkesboro, 5, 274, 275. 

Williams, 123, 148. 

Willow Hill, 207, 285. 

Wilmington, 28, 78, 82, 169. 

Wilson, T. J., 209. 

Winston, 84, 209, 211, 213, 214, 219, 237, 

245, 246, 259, 264, 266, 272, 275, 277, 

284, 318. 
Winston Fire Department, 272. 
Winston, Maj., 211. 
Winston-Salem, 207, 214, 245, 259, 275, 

276, 281, 293. 
Winston Water Supply Co., 265. 
Wohlfert, 200. 
Wolf, Great, 75. 
Wood, 287. 
Woodman, 50. 
Woodstock, 204. 
Wright, G., 108, 109, no. 
Wurreschke, Mrs., viii. 
Wiirtemberg, 78. 
W. U. Tel. Co., 276. 
Wutke, 63, 71. 

Yadkin River, 48, 112, 276, 286. 
Yadkin Valley, 9, 28, 34, 86, 113. 
York, 76. 

Zeisberger, 53, 55, 73, 303. 

Zeist, 177. 

Zevely, Van, 205, 206. 

Zigler, 88. 

Zinzendorf, 3, 9, 86, 87, loi, 302, 303, 312, 

313, 314. 315, 325, 326. 
Zom, J. T., 331, 332. 




/- :^ (^<C Santa Barbara 


Series 9482 


AA 000 877 036 4